The Bacchae … with critical and explanatory notes … by John Edwin Sandys … | LIMITED TIME OFFER !

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S. pi.

0

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BACCHANAL RELIEF ENCIRCTING A MARBLE VASE IN A BRITISH MUSEUM.

a

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THE

BACCHAE OF EURIPIDES
WITH
Explanatory and explanatory notes

AND WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS
OLD ART WORKS
BY
JOHN EDWIN SANDYS, M.A.
FELLOW AND ST JEAN COLLEGE TUTOR, AND PUBLIC SPONSOR
IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE.

I

THE SYNDIC OF THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

EDITED FOR

& # 39; Qambribge:
TO THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
lotbon: CAMBRIDGE WAREHOUSE, 17, PATERNOSTER Row.
EambriBge: DEIGHTON, BELL AND CO.
tlcip) it; F. A. BROCKHAUS.
I880
(All rights reserved.)

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cambrtgr:,
PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. TO THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

Page I
PREFACE.

For my first interest in the famous, although
often far from easy, a new edition is
here offered to the public, I am indebted to the fact
than fifteen years ago, like many
from other students of this university, I had the advantage
to attend a lecture course on him, by the
The Reverend W. H. Thompson, the current master of
Trinity College, which was at that time Professor Regius of Greek. Those who shared this benefit
-r- ~ will remember for a long time his happiness and his
short and pointed critiques, which had the rare merit, of being sufficient for their immediate purpose, while
at the same time they were calculated to stimulate
the student to continue the investigation on his own behalf.
The impulse thus given to the study of the game
leads to continuing to devote my attention to it after
take my degree, and include it from time to time
at the time, in and after 1869, among the subjects of my
Lectures. After a while, it came to me in the spirit
that the materials thus collected could serve as

Page II
PREFA CE.

foundation for an edition of the piece; and find
of the Master of the Trinity that there was no perspective
from his editing himself, I began under his kind encouragement to prepare to do so. My notes, however, had not gone beyond the first 433
lines of the room, when they were set aside for others
editorial work, shortly after the publication in 1871 of
The edition of Mr. Tyrrell, who, together with Mr. Paley
already existing comments on all the pieces, seemed to have to deal for some time with
wants english students. During the last year,
however, finding myself attracted once again by my
original purpose, I went back to work and devoted the
summer of this year to recast, or rather, entirely
rewriting, notes that I had already prepared,
and also to reduce in a sort of order the
materials collected for the rest. To do this,
and to get the explanatory notes in the type, was the
holiday-task that I set for the summer holidays of I879, the claims of the University and College
tasks during a mandate, making it almost impossible to prepare a work such as the present,
as limited as it may seem in compass, involved a
a significant amount of work, even outside
what appears on the surface. Indeed, it could hardly
have been undertaken at all but for the existence of
this excellent institution, the Long Vacation University, an institution against which some daring hands
have recently been lifted, but that nevertheless, in the

Page III
PREFA CE.

nii

form under which we know it in colleges
Cambridge, where the residence is subject to certain restrictions
is allowed but not applied, has value for teachers
and learners, that it would be difficult to overestimate.
My goal has always been to provide, in a
convenient and complete form, a kind of manual of criticism, interpretation and archeological illustration of the play, which should be interesting and informative for the pupil, whether at
School or college, and also to some extent useful for
the more advanced scientist. The short introduction
the essays with which the volume opens, include a sketch
last years of the poet and some stories
points of interest whether in mythology or
in the art, in dramatic or textual criticism, which are
connected with that, perhaps, his last job. in the
critical notes at the bottom of the page, which, for obvious
reasons of general convenience, are written in Latin,
handwritten readings are recorded, as well as
any hypothetical changes that have appeared for any
worth noting, as well as the main variations appearing in the text printed in the previous nine.
editions. In setting the text, I tried to
decide in each case to the best of my judgment
according to the evidence before me, with the result
to find myself more and more in agreement
with the second editions of Kirchhoff and Nauck that
with those of any other publisher. In the explanatory

Page IV
iv

PREFA4 CE.

note, at the end of the book, the recognition due is
do all my most important obligations to others,
and many even less important ones. Furthermore, I
have, as far as possible, adhered to the principle of
quote parallel passages in their entirety, instead of simply
myself with a bare reference, considering the old
Of course, not only more convenient for the reader, but also
more just in every respect, as any argument
that relies on a quote can immediately have its due
weight attributed to it, neither more nor less. Those
who have already had to spend a lot of time looking for
I think the references will agree with me that
Few things are more vexatious than finding a particular opinion on a dubious point supported by a chart
references that may or may not be relevant, but
which must all be tested in detail before any
an additional advance can be made. As a matter of fact,
few people take the trouble; and those who do, find
themselves often discouraged by their experience
to continue to make the attempt.-It can be
added that the short pieces of translation occasionally
data in the notes are, in the case of the dialogue of
the game, excerpt from a rendering of this part
in white verse, which I've prepared for my use in the
reading room.
In the explanatory notes, a number of opponents
by R. Shilleto (1809-1876), whose name is here
gratefully recorded by one of his many private students,
are now printed for the first time from its interlaced

1 –

Page v
PRE FA CE.

v

copy of Poetae Scenici at the University of Cambridge
Library, as well as some conjectures and other notes
by the same scholar, for whom I am indebted
A. J. Tuck, assistant professor at the Uppingham School, who attended his lectures at King & # 39; s
University. I also have the pleasure of thanking the
W. H. Thompson, D.D., Master of Trinity College, and J. S. Reid, Esq., Member of Gonville and
Caius, for kindly placing their own conjectures to my
disposition. Some suggestions from me, that I
risk of submitting to the judgment of scholars,
can be found in the notes on the following lines: I26,
135, 147, 209, 251, 278, 327, 550, 1002, I008, 1157,
I207, I365. In the case of one or two of them,
is a slight bonus to find them at a certain
measure confirmed by their own to others.
I have strived throughout to devote special attention to archaeological points of interest
and especially at the game's illustration with the
help from ancient art monuments. Under the new
regimen of the classic Tripos, one of the special instruments
topics in which students can now
get the distinction, after getting honors in pure purse, is classical archeology, including the old-fashioned
art and mythology, with certain prescribed portions
from the vast province of topography and antiquities;
and arrangements are already being made by Professorial
and other courses for the instruction of students

Page VI
vi

PREF vA CE.

in this department. So, any Cambridge student
who will undertake in the years to come a work similar to
will be happy to start with the benefit of a systematic study of ancient art that has
that to a limited extent fell to the lot of the present
editor. On the general subject, however, I've had
the pleasure of attending some of the lectures given
by Professor Colvin and Dr. Waldstein, and he will be
observe that one or two incidental points in the
Introduction are due to the old. But for my
special purpose, I've naturally found it necessary
s support mainly on the study of either reality
ancient art monuments or published representations
of them, in addition to constantly consult the little
scattered literature on the subject, a panorama of
which, to the extent that this came to my knowledge,
is given at the end of the introduction. From
archaeologists of the last generation, whose work I
so am subject to special obligations, are Otfried Miller
and Otto Jahn. In the case of the living authorities on
ancient art and archeology, my thanks go to
The distinguished nephew of Jahn, Professor Michaelis of
Strassburg, for having drawn my attention to one or two
recent contributions of Germany to the archaeological heritage
illustration of the points immediately connected with the
play, and in particular to allow me to provide a
more faithful copy of one of the carved representations of the death of Pentheus, than those until now
Published by T. T. Newton, Esq., BC, Honorary

Page VII
PREFA CE. vii
D.C.L. and LL.D. Oxford and Cambridge, for pointing out several of the appropriate topics
in my opinion, among the treasures of the art entrusted
in his custody at the British Museum: and at the
Rev. C. W. King, Senior Fellow of Trinity, for
allowing me to consult on the province
of the ancient art in which he is a recognized master.
I am also particularly indebted to MM. George
Bell and Sons, the editors of Mr King & # 39; s Antique
Gemns and RPilngs (1872), for allowing electrotypes of
be taken for this book of woodcuts used in this
admirable work; eleven illustrations (including
a jewel of the Fitzwilliam Museum, engraved at the origin
for the syndics of the university press) are, with the
the kind permission of the author, borrowed from the complete series published here. The other twenty have been prepared expressly for this volume
by Mr. F. Anderson, skilled artist and engraver
engaged in the creation of MM. R. Clay,
Son and Taylor. A full description has been given,
not just of all thirty two illustrations here
selected (with an indication in each instance of the
source from which it is derived); but also other works
of art related to the piece that, although not included in this selection, nevertheless deserve special attention.
attention for their archaeological interest. specialists
in this department can perhaps find little that is
entirely new to them in these illustrations but I
had in view the needs of the great body of those

Page VIII
viii PREL A CE.
who are generally interested in these issues, but
as copies of monuments of ancient art up to now
published are often somewhat inaccessible because of
in part to their confinement generally to works
which can hardly be consulted except in our largest
public library. Many of the illustrations, however,
have, I have reason to know, more precision than those
who appeared elsewhere; and I can add in
conclusion that a terracotta lamp from Cyprus (on
p. 238) and a recently discovered jewel north of
England (page Cxlviii) are here represented and described
for the first time. To put in my hands the
original of these two, I have the pleasure of
thanking the Rev. S. S. Lewis, F.S.A., Fellow
and librarian at Corpus Christi College.
J. E. SANDYS.
CAMBRIDGE,
ally 31, i88o.

Page (not numbered)
CONTENT.
INTRODUCTION PAGE
~ I. The legend of Dionysus. ix
~ 2. The legend in previous versions .. xix
Epic poetry … xix
Lyric poetry .. xi
Dramatic poetry .. xxii
Aeschylus.xxiv
Sophocles .. xxix
~ 3. Euripides in acedony .. xxxiii
~ 4. Overview of Bacchae, with a review of his
stage performance. xliii
~ 5. On the Dramatis Personae.Ix
the Odes chorales .. xvi
the speeches of the messengers … lxviii
~ 6. On the purpose of the piece … lxxiii
~ 7. After the celebrity of the play …. xxxii
~ 8. On the textual criticism of the piece … lxxxix

Page (not numbered)
CONTENT.
PAGE
~ 9. Eurzipids and the fine arts … xcv
T77e plays in his relationship with the ancient art. xcv
Description of woodcuts. cxiv
~ IO. Conspectus of the literature of the play. Clv
TEXTS AND CRITICAL NOTES .. 1-85
EXPLANATORY NOTES .. 87-238
CONSPECTUS OF THE CHURCH METERS 239
GREEK INDEX ……… 2
ENGLISH INDEX …. 26

Page (not numbered)
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

* Bacchanalian relief. British Museum ….
Head of Bacchante. English Museum …..
* Birth of Dionysus. Vatican Museum ……
* Group of Bacchantes. Najples Museum …
* Masks of Dionysos, Satyr and Silenus. Columbia
Mzuseun ………..
"Heaps of comedy and tragedy. Columbia
MAusum …………
Bust of Fauna. Formerly Z in the cabinet of Ir TinZ
"Scenes from the tragedy of Pentheus. Collegio
omano, ome ……………..
The death of Pentheus. Giustiniani Palace, Iozme
* Mask of Silenus and Dionysus. University of
Durham ………
Death of Semele. Berlin luzseum ………
Head of Maenad. Berlin Museum …
A "Maenad with a snake in his hair." Pinakothek,
unic ……………….
Mask for Bacchante. Teacher. Sto & # 39; y-Mlaskelyne
"Head of the young Dionysus Capitoline Iluseum
* Part of Archelaus I. British Museum …
* Bacchante asleep., Vatican; mlsezil ….
* Maaenad with the cub of the panther. & # 39; Alarllorouggh
firm & # 39; ………..

Description of the woodcut
Frontispiece p. cxiv
Avignette cxv
p. ix cxvi
xxxii cxvii
xlii cxx
lix cxx
lxxii cxxi

lxxxviii
xciii
cxlviii
p. I
34
41

cxx1
cxxii
CXXV
CXXV
CXXVil
cxxvi
cxxvii
cxxviii
cxxviii
Cxxx

42 cxxxi

* The 2 wood engravings thus marked have been specially prepared for this operation.
work b) y Mr. Anderson.

Page (not numbered)
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIOIS.

Dionysos with horns. Vatican Jluseum ……
Agave. "Lartens-Schaafhausen cabinet"
Dionysos Leontomorphos. & # 39; AMarquis de Salines & # 39; …………………
* Death of Pentheus. Karl Dilthey, Zurich …
* Dionysian bull. National Cabinet, Paris …
* Agave with Pentheus head. British Museum
* Bacchanalian procession. Illustrious British …
* BaKXrj? 7 Xiuapop6vos .. British i Iuseum ……
Bacchante and cista mystica. & # 39; The unexpectedness of Vidoni
Gemmarie.
Dance Faun. & # 39; Florentine Gem & # 39; ……
Cadmus at the fountain of Ares. Berlin
firm …………………
Telephus and the oracle of Dionysus. L & # 39; Hon. A.
S. 7ohnson, Utica …………
* Cyprus lamp. S. Lewis, Cambridge ……………………
* Bacchanal dancing. Fitzwilliam Muiseum,
Cambridge ……………

Woodcut
p. 55
58
6i
69
70
73
85
86

The description
p. cxxxii
CXXXIV
CXXXIV
cxxxvi
cxxxvii
cxxxviii
cxl
cxli

I09 cxlii
122 cxliii
138 cxliii

I45
238

cxliv
cxliv

25r cxliv

Page IX
INTRODUCTION.

I –

~ i. The legend of Dionysus.
The story of the birth of Dionysus, in its simplest form
form, is as follows: Semele, daughter of Cadmus
King of Thebes, being loved by Zeus, was seduced
by the jealous Hera asking him to visit him, as
he visited Hera herself, in the glory of her divinity. He appeared before her, in all
his majesty as god of thunder; Semele, overwhelmed by his presence, was struck dead by his
the wrath; but in her death she gave prematurely
birth to a child, which Zeus, his father, saved from

S. B.o

b

X
X

IATRV OD0 UCTIONV

lightning and hid in the hollow of his
thigh, until the time of birth. Sure
the second birth of the childish god, his father sent
him by the hands of Hermes to the nymphs of
Nysa, who raised her in a cave among the
the hills of this mountain and, as a reward for their
ministrations, were placed by Zeus among the stars,
under the name of Hyades.
The name Dionysus was supposed in the old
times to derive from that of Zeus his father,
and Nysa, the den of his early days. Nysa is
mentioned for the first time about the legend of Lycurgus, king of Thrace (Iliad VI, 133); but a lot of others
The ancient authorities refer to the places of this name, Phocis and Euboea, Egypt and Arabia,
in Ethiopia and India, all associated with
the cult of Dionysus (note on 1. 556). The name
can be linked to a rare word meaning "trees2"
and so it would be particularly appropriate
as designation of a well-wooded place: this view
is supported by the fact that in one of the miners
Homeric hymns, the childish god in the Nysa valleys
is described as making the forest his favorite
wandering place; and it can also be illustrated
by the word & ev8pL ~ rs ,, which was one of the many
epithets under which the god was venerated4.
1 Diodorus Siculus III 64, 7b 7ro0 7raTrpO Kal 7ro T67rov.
2 Pherecydes in Schol. Arist. Panath. J85, 3, p. 313 ed. D., vvras
(z-> L. vdo-oas) KaX OUV Ta. Sevpa.
(Homeric Hymn 25 (26), 8, QOLTiLeoCKe Ka0 & VX evTras vavXovs.
4 Plutarch, Moralia II p. 675 F (S (ymp. 11 ~ 4), about 6 5 ev & ptr7
Tvs WS T7ros ~ ~ Pv "EXX \ ves eoV6uLv.

Page XI
CIL OF DIONYSUS LEGION. xi
The popular legend of his second birth was long
there is a stumbling block to the skepticism of the
King theban who denied his divinity1; and if
remains unexplained, it may continue to be
cause of offense, especially to those who
acquiesce to the belief that the vulgar legends of
Greek mythology was the offspring of little better
that's an inventive and somewhat messy imagination. It has therefore been suggested2 that
very uncertainty about Nysa's position on the earth
indicates that, in its original form, it must be
drawn to those clouds of the sky which are the
ultimate source of no unimportant part of the
mythology of the Aryan nations; the trees of Nysa
should in fact be sought in the same region as the
large ash of Teutonic legend whose branches
embrace the whole world3. The history of birth
of Dionysus so resolves in nothing more
that a gross personification of the powers of nature;
the rain-cloud, great with the storm, is his mother, while
his father is the sky that wraps in his arms
the gathering storm. The short and sudden shower
Bacchae, 242-5.
2 ed. From Wecklein of Bacchae (1879), Einleitunzg p. I.
3 Yggdrasill: Cox, Aryan aerythology, 1 18. Wecklein
He himself refers to A. Kuhn, Die Ilerabkuzft des Feueris und Ides Gottcrtranks (Berlin, 1985), p. 24 et seq., P. 131 et seq. Kuhn, we'll remember,
is one of the main representatives of what has been called "meteorology", as
in contrast to the "solar" theory of comparative mythology. Max
Miuller, by maintaining the latter, allocates a relatively small space
to weather phenomena, such as clouds, thunder and lightning & # 39;
(see his Langruae Science Conferences, Series ii, 864, 517).
at the end of the lecture xi).
1 2

Page XII
xii

INATR OD UCTION.

who, after a flash and a snap of
thunder, is released by the dazzling cloud, and
falls to the ground before his time, is roughly described as
the premature birth of "Tr, / the rain, of" Tr, the
Cloud; the first is only another name for Dionysus, and the second for Semele, while his nurses are the
& # 39; Tda & S, the nymphs of the rain1. Again, the passage
the shower is raised once again in the mist and steam
the sky, and in due time falls back to the earth, in a
fertilizer and abundant rain2. So, Dionysos is
the offspring of the clouds descending into the storm;
is actually the mixture between water and the
ardent elements in nature. In this union of moisture
and the heat, which favors the fruits of the earth, manifests its strength especially in the fiery juice
of the vine, and shares his domain with the power
who chairs maturing corn we recognize the
special features of the sweet and awesome like
as well as the stimulating and inspiring influence of
Dionysus3.
1 Etymolog / AlagnuntZ column under "TGrs: errOeTrov Atovvov 6 5
(Wecklein, S., P. 2).
2 Wecklein, however, prefers to talk about the god's story
hidden in the thigh of Zeus, as the second mode of representation of the
origin of Rain, which was combined with the first. The legend of
Dionysus being hidden in the thigh of Zeus is compared by Kuhn, u. s.
p. 167, with the Indian story of sooma (see page XIII), entering the thigh
d & # 39; Indra. For Greek attempts to rationalize the legend, see Diodorus
Sic. III. 62 (also on A. 7rupLTyeg, Strabo xIII iv ~ Ii and v iv ~ 8).
3 Plutarch of Iside and Osiri.c ~ 35 (quoted by Wecklein), (illoralia
p. 365 A), OTL 6 OV / ivov TO7o OLvov AL6vvo OV, CaXXa Kl rcdirTs ypaJs
p6orews "EXX ^ yves r & # 39; kVpLOv kL dpX77oi bv, cppK: e? ITlvapos iLdpTrv ervat,
Xey (-ywv Avpeiwv oe voOUov AL6vuoo0s rorXu-aOars aiCidvot, a7vbv

Page XIII
THE LEGEND OF DIONYSUS.

xiii

We can find a partial parallel in the
ancient Indian mythology. According to the rig
Veda (ix), the exhilarating juice of the soma1 plant,
which all gods are willing to participate, play a
important part in preparing Indra for his conflict with
the hostile powers of the atmosphere. Soma is also
the god who animates this intoxicating juice
project which occupies a remarkable place among the
sacrifices of the Vedic age2. & # 39; Simple in spirit
The Arian people, "says Professor Whitney," whose ensemble
religion was a worship of wonderful powers and
phenomena of nature, had no sooner understood than
this liquid had the power to raise spirits and produce a temporary frenzy under the influence of which
the individual was instigated to and capable of acts
beyond his natural powers, that they found there
something divine: it was their apprehension a god
to endow those who entered with divine powers.
Soma "dispels the dark," & & # 39; illuminates the dark
the nights he is the priest of the gods, the head of
the poets, a rishi4 among the wise, a bull among the wild animals,
a hawk among the kites, an ax in the woods "; as
e yyos OTrwpas (fragment I25). To this can be added id. p. 675
Symp. III ~ 4, CafOT6repot yap ol Oeoi (Poseidon and Dionysus) rTs vypas
Kac yovitou KUpt1oi oKOVctv apXjs eL vat.
1 asclcpias acida or sarcostzmma viminale.
2 Sanskrit texts of Muir, vol. 5, sect. xvi, p. 258, Kuhn ui. s., pp.
56 sq., 118 sq. See line 284 of the game, ovo-ros oo0t oT7reveraLt Oe6s'.
3 Journal of the American Oriental Society II, 299 (quoted by Muir).
4 The title given to the seven sages of the ancient Hindu tradition. & # 39; In
its widest meaning, the word was taken to designate the priestly bards who
directed the worship of the gods "(Cox, Mythology of the Aryan Nations, I, 413).

Page XIV
xiv

INTRODUCTION.

object of worship, he is associated with Agni, the
deity of Fire1.
Even in his transformations into a snake, a bull, a bear,
lion or panther, by a coincidence that can
Of course, just being accidental, Dionysus finds his
counterpart in the monstrous forms assumed by the
changing clouds, whether as described in the Ntub & # 39; s
of Aristophanes (347), "Centaur or pard or wolf or
bull: or as in the familiar lines of Shakespeare:
"Sometimes we see a cloud that is dragonist;
A vapor sometimes like a bear or a lion,
A tower of the citadel, a rock during,
A forked mountain or a blue promontory
With trees, it's a wink to the world,
And you make fun of our eyes with air: you have seen these signs;
These are shows of the black vesper2.
By the way, however, from this cloudy land of uncertain
speculation, and returning to the traditional legend of
Dionysus, in the form in which he was familiar with the
Greeks themselves in historical times, we find that at
Delphi, the god we just described as the
offspring of the sky and rain cloud, was closely
associated with the sun god, Apollo. On the
two pediments of the temple of Delphi, the art of the
sculptor represented the sunset, and the
birth of Apollo, with the forms of Dionysus
and his attendant Thyiadcs; while the heights of
Parnassus were not sacred to the only sun-god, but
were also the privileged haunt of Dionysus. the
immediate vicinity of the central sanctuary of
Hellenic religion had the appearance of a vast natural heritage.
1 Muir, u. s., p. 267, 269. 2 Antony and Cleopatra, IV. 14

– ~ 4 – -. – a) 111 M .. (~ c, – -I

_, _._ ~ _ -, – _ CC –

Page XV
THE LEGEND OF DIONYSUS.

XV

theater1, closed by the semicircular beach of
Phèdriades and for most of the day
these resplendent rocks, almost facing south, reflected
the rays of the sun on the temple of Apollo2; but
at sunset, when the light had left their lower parts,
these brilliant cloud effects were seen, which poetic
fancy called the torches held high by Dionysus, as
he jumped along the crests of Parnassus; while the
the rays of the sun, passing through both summits, to the east
and to the west of the Castalian fountain,
Translucent, pure,
With an ethereal touch of the fiery penis of Heaven,
have been described as the shooting and branding of the
wand of Dionysus3.
Limiting ourselves mainly to the details of the
legend that is recognized by Euripides himself,
we find Phrygia mentioned as one of the oldest of God
houses. He grew up under the care of the goddess
Rhea, or Cybele, who taught her the mysteries of
Mount Tmolus in Lydia; of his sacred rites
Phrygian flute was borrowed, to be mixed in his
worship with the sound of tymnpanzum which is
described by our poet as the common invention of herself
and Dionysus (1. 59). He discovers the vineyard and
extends its cultivation on many lands, visiting Egypt,
Syria and Arabia and other parts of Asia: according to
to a form of legend, not recognized by Euripides,
which became popular after the eastern conquests of
OearpoeAs (Strabo IX p.418). 2 Tower of Mure in Greece. I p. 88.
3 See the notes at lines 306 to 308. The line quoted above from
I do not need to say that Samson Agonists does not refer to Castalia in his
background context.

Page XVI
xvi

INTRODUCTION.

Alexander, he advanced in the same remote triumph
Indial. Wherever he went, he was assisted by a
group of followers who, in the previous legend, were
either the nymphs who fed it, as narrated in
the Homeric Anthem, or Charities that Comparative Mythology identifies as the brilliant steeds of
Dawn, although the Hellenic legend never represents them
except as graceful beings of human form. Like time
continued, this simple society was expanded, by the
the imagination of poets and artists, in a multitude, including the Pan at the feet of goat, the wise
Silenus, the frisky satyrs and the frenetic maenads.
Wherever he went, his followers came together
in a fantastic garment; to wear the skin of the beast or
of the panther (note on 1. 24), crowning
with the leaves of the vine, ivy or smilax
(Io7), sometimes even entwine snakes
their hair or around their limbs (102). They took
their hands the stalk of nart / hx or giant fennel (I 13);
or the thyrse, the light-wand wrapped in ivy and
capped with a fir cone, which was the special insignia
of the Bacchic cult (25). In their night dances,
they waved the pine torch (146), while the
1 Nonnus Dionysiaca l. 36. Curtius, Alcx. VIII Io ~ II (ad Nysam
urbem pervenit). a libero patre conditos esse dicebant:. and vera haec origo
erat. sita is sub radicibus montis, quem lecron incolae calling. India
Graeci mentiendi traxere licentiamz, ovis feNzine Liberum patrem esse
celatzzm.
2 1. I44, eKei Xdptres. See Plutarch Qu. Gr. 36, avv Xapirea6av
(cited in the note on 1. Ioo), and Pausanias v I4 (end), (to Olympia) 7 rpbo
-r TreeVle TOgV IPXorTOS ACOVUCOV / doL Kal XaptTrcwv v KOLv, lJerat & # 39; 3 6
acTrWv Movo-w Kal ie6irs TroVrWY NvoUqpwv eartL Jw6uoS.
3 Max Miller, Lectures on Langzuage II, pages 369-376, 383.

Page XVII
THIE LEGEND OF DIO; NYSUS.

flute (128, 3So) and tymnpanum (59) were among
their characteristic musical instruments.
Releasing themselves from the ordinary tasks of everyday life (I 18), they enjoyed themselves on the hills, delighted
in a state of wild and ecstatic enthusiasm that,
with his outdoor frolics, in the midst of curiosities and
sounds of nature, recalled the carefree happiness of a
past, before the advance of civilization
stole the life of his romance1. They welcomed the
the pursuit of hunting, the hunting of the wild goat at the
death, tearing their prey as he shivered in
their catch, and feasting on the raw flesh of their
victim. In contact with their chopsticks, as the poet says
we, sources of water have arisen from the victim
rock, fountains of wine spring from the earth, and
de merveilleux ruisseaux de lait qui coulaient du sol, tandis que
le miel tomba de leurs baguettes fourrées (147, 700-71 I) '
Contrairement à de telles merveilles, a suggéré
par l'imagination du poète, nous constatons que les festivals réguliers
en l'honneur du dieu ont eu lieu une année sur deux,
sous le nom de tricterica, sur le Parnasse et ailleurs; en Attique, où ces trieterica n'ont jamais été
introduit, le culte de Dionysos était, dans l'histoire
fois, célébré dans de simples festivals de pays impolis
1 ad naturae integritatem castitatemque et aurei saeculi felicitatem
Redire vide qui illa celebrabant, et cum feris quandam communitatem inibant (Hartung, Euripides restitutls II. 55i). Pour une prose
poème sur le sujet, voir La Pacchante de Maurice de Guérin, p. 39 ssi.
2 Aux fêtes de Dionysos, ces merveilleux ruisseaux peuvent avoir
été produit par des moyens mécaniques, comme suggéré par Hero de autonmatis p. 247 ed. I693, eK (evt 70 pTO op ro atoov 'tov iov rot? YdXa' vowp
eKlrLTrvU7O (JeaTel K & 70o0 oKVU5OVS ovos ~ KXV0u3jerat rr À V; TrOKcefeVPOV
1ravOrpiO-KOV K. T ..

Page XVIII
xviii IVTR OD UCTION.
des réjouissances à propos du rassemblement du millésime; as well as
comme dans le festin du pressoir à vin appelé le Lenaea,
dans l'ancien festival du vin nouveau connu sous le nom de
Anthesteria, et principalement dans celui des grands Dionysia,
Avec sa joie bromienne, à l’arrivée du printemps;
Avec le conflit de ses choeurs, comme ils chantent gaiement;
Avec sa muse de la flûte murmure profondément. Ar. Nubes 31I.
Alors qu'en Attique, son culte se mêlait ainsi à
les influences raffinées de la poésie et de la musique, le sauvage
les extravagances de son rituel semblent avoir longtemps traîné
parmi les tribus barbares de la Thrace.
Enfin, la légende raconte la vengeance que
visité tous ceux qui s'opposaient au culte du dieu et de
cette vengeance les deux instances les plus marquantes étaient les
destin du roi thrace, Lycurgus et du Thèban
prince, Penthée. Dans le cas du premier, tous les
revel-band du dieu ont été capturés par le roi, mais
les femmes furent bientôt libérées: la terre cessa de
porter des fruits, le roi a été frappé de folie, tué
son propre fils par erreur, et lui-même a pris fin prématurément, déchiré en morceaux par des chevaux à la demande
de Dionysos. Après cela, Dionysos, en passant par
Thrace sans autre résistance, retourne à Thèbes,
la ville de sa naissance, conduit les femmes à sortir de leur
des maisons et les fait se délecter de Cithaeron, de
l'indignation de Penthée, leur jeune roi, qui
est déterminé à mettre un terme au scandale et à affirmer
son autorité; il est attiré vers les collines par Dionysos; where his mother, Agave, under the influence of
Bacchic transport, mistaking him for a wild animal of
the chase, tears him in pieces, and thus unwittingly
kills her unhappy son.

Page  XIX
THE LEGENVD IN EARLIER LITERA TURE. nineteenth

~ 2. The legend of Dionysus in Greek literature
downt to the tine of Euripides.
The earlier Epic poetry supplies us with a striking
passage on the story of Lycurgus, king of Thrace,
whose life, like that of Pentheus, is cut short by his
hostility to Dionysus. It occurs in the episode of
Glaucus and Diomede, where the former refers to the
legend in the following terms:
Against the gods of heaven I dare not fight,
No! for e'en Dryas' son, Lycurgus strong,
Lived not a long life, when he warred with heaven.
He, on a day, from Nysa's haunts divine
Drave forth the nurse-nymphs of mad Dionysus,
Who all to earth flung down their holy gear,
Struck by the ox-goad of the ruthless king.
The god, affrighted, plunged beneath the wave,
Where Thetis in her lap enfolded him
Dazed by the king's rebuke. With him the gods
Who lightly live were wroth, and Cronus' his
Smote him with blindness. Aye! he lived not long,
When once at war with all the immortal gods. II. VI 129-140.
Elsewhere in the Iliad, Dionysus 'son of Semele'
is described as a 'joy to mortals' (xIV 325, Xdptaa,3poTroltv); when Andromache rushes forth from
her loom to learn the fate of Hector, the poet compares her to a wild maenad (xxII 460, -aLva6t I'o-');
the flute, which was a special characteristic of the
worship of Dionysus, is only mentioned twice, once
in the description of the marriage-feast in the Shield
of Achilles (XVIII 495, avXol q'6ptbtyy7 re), and
again, of the music of Ilium heard in the Grecian
camp by the sleepless Agamemnon (x 13, avXwv

Page  XX
XX

IN7TROD UCTION.

ovpl,/oywv 7' EvoTrrv)-a passage which suggests the
obvious remark that Homer assigns that instrument,
not to the Greeks, but to the Trojans only1. in the
Odyssey we find a passing allusion to the death of
Ariadne (xI 325, ALOVVOOV /aprvplyaLv); and the
golden urn, mentioned in XXIV 74, is called the
gift of Dionysus and the handiwork of Hephaestus,
but the wine given to Odysseus in Od. Ix I97 is
mentioned as the gift, nzot of Dionysus, but of Maron
son of Euanthes, priest of Apollo. Hesiod supplies
us with only a general reference to the son of
Zeus and Semele, ALOvvoO TroXvyr7l0jr (T/ieog. 940);
and Herodotus, who refers to his worship in Arabia,
mentions him, with Hercules, and Pan, as the most
recent of all the gods (II 145).
From these meagre references we gladly turn
to a passage of special interest, in connexion with
his marvellous transformations. One of the Homeric
hymns (vII) tells us how, on a day long ago, Dionysus,
son of famous Semele, once appeared in the form of
a youth in the bloom of life, standing on a headland by the sea, with a purple robe around his
shoulders, and his dark hair flowing adown his neck,
when he was seized by some Tyrrhenian sailors who
took him for a king's son and carried him off in their
vessel, hoping for large ransom for him. They try
to bind him fast, but the chains fall away from his
hands and his feet, while he sits smiling at them
with his dark-blue eyes. The helmsman alone pro

1 Cf. the statement criticised by Eustathius on I/. xvIII 495, )5aalv
oi 7raXaLol &s o,5a/omo avoi 77rap' 'EXX7qoiv.

Page  XXI
THE LEGEND IN EARLIER LITERA TURE. xxi

testing against the wrong, they sail away under a fair
wind, with the captive youth, when suddenly throughout the dark ship a fragrant stream of wine gushes
forth, the sail is entwined with a vine and fringed
with clusters of grapes, the mast is hung with dark
ivy, and with blooming flowers and beautiful berries,
and the rowlocks are all wreathed with garlands.
The youth now changes himself into a roaring lion,
while, in the midst of the vessel, he conjures up a
shaggy bear; the lion seizes the captain, while all
the crew are driven into the sea and turned into
dolphins-all save the good helmsman, to whom the
youth in pity reveals himself as ZAovvoroO Ep/3po/LoS,
and to whom he gives his gracious benediction. Ce
adventure, one of the most poetical episodes in the
legend of Dionysus, was also a favourite subject in
ancient art, the best remaining example of which
is the frieze of the choragic monument of Lysicrates,
a cast of which may be seen in the British Museum'.
Dionysus was also a favourite theme of Lyric
Poetry. In contrast with the grave and sober music
of the Paczan of Apollo, we there have the wild and
tumultuous strains of the Ditjiyranzb of Dionysus,
which was specially devoted to celebrating the birth
of the god2.
One of the many victories of the Acamantid tribe
in a dithyrambic contest is the theme of an epinician
epigram by Simonides (I50 = 205); and among the
1 See also Gerhard's auscrlescne Vasenbilder I taf. 49, and Archziologische Zeitung I874 taf. 5; cf. Philostratus int. I r9.
2 Note on 1. 526.

Page  XXII
Xxii

xxii JA~LVTP,0D UCTIONA

fragrments of Archilochus is the following- couplet
referring to the dithyrambic song:
o,), ZAoWV1JO-t' a~vaicro, KaXoQv ~a'p~atL faeXo9~
ola&ztOt'paqlq4ov ol'vp cTvyKepavlvcoetS,bpbea9?.
Pindar refers to Anion's improvement of the dithyramb as one of the glories of Corinth.', he also
alludes to the god's ivy crown (fragm. 103*), and
to the worship of Ato'vvaoos~ &VP~ptLT97 (fragm. i25)2;
amongT the glories of his owvn Thebes, he mentions
TLV ZAkLVVO0'0U worXv-ya9tE~ -7t/V (fragm. 5), and XaXKOKpOTOV 7rcpE~pOV Aafia7-epoS' EupvXai'Tap At0'VVuoi'
(1st/Mi. VI. (VII) 5). He further tells of the large
recompense given to the daughters of Cadmus for
all their sorrow, N'IeC tv ~kv E'O Xv/kwiot9 a'wo~avoZo-a
/3pojvpr Kcepavvov cavve'OetpaZ ".elexa, 0tXEL &E -t
IHaXXa,~ alei, icat Z1X cvrp pA(IXa- OtCXEJ 87a
lcwoo~fpo,? (0/. IL. 28)'; and, in the only fragment
of his dithyrambs which has been preserved in any
considerable length, he describes himself as 'TropevO'P-'
aOLtt 8EVTCP0V EWL Kt0c70Q8E'Tav OEO1J, 707 Bp6,ctuo roy
'Ep0/6av TE KaX~o/Lev, closingT with the line dXet-rat
"E/J E`Xav EVXKacL/L7rv1,ca ~
The Greek Dramna, as is well knowvn, owed its
origfin to the dithyrambic choruses in the festivals
of Dionysus, who was in fact the patron-god of the
stagTe; the theatre at Athens was the ' theatre of
Dionysus,' his altar stood in the centre of the 'orrat' AtwP6couo w66cv fE-'avEv' cr'v f3o7Xa'Trq Xdpvres 3&6upa'43c;
e vom'v AL6vvaos 7roXv-yaOq uvs,~vv /yo
67rcwpas.
3See the exquisite Etruscan mirror in Mii~ller-Wieseler, i 1xi 308.

Page  XXIII
TILE LEGE:ND INV EARLIER LITERA TURE. xxiii

chestra,' the middle stall in the foremost row of
reserved seats was assigned to the priest of that
god, and is still to be seen carved with the inscription, IEPEQZ AIONYYOY EAEYOEPEQZ. Hard by
the theatre, was the most ancient sanctuary of Dionysus. When the traveller Pausanias visited Athens,
he saw, within the sacred enclosure, two temples and
two statues of Dionysus, one surnamed Eletthzereus,
which was made of wood and received its name
from the country deme of Eleutherae, the other made
of ivory and gold, the work of Alcamenes. 'Here
also,' he adds, 'are pictures representing Pentheus
and Lycurgus being punished for the wrongs they had
done to Dionysus'.'
Tragedy, in particular, in its earlier forms, was in
many ways connected with the god. His adventures
were often the subject of the set speeches that were
interspersed between the choral odes, and when the
Tragedy of Thespis had established itself, before
Comedy had come into existence, the populace, discontented with the serious style of the new dramatic
exhibitions, and resenting the introduction into the
performances, of other heroes than the familiar and
favourite Dionysus, are said to have expressed their
indignation at what they regarded as irrelevant matter
in the clamorous protest, which afterwards became
proverbial, Tr ravra prpo 'rTv AtO vvorov;2
To Thespis himself is attributed a play called
Pausanias I 20 ~ 3, and 38 ~ 8 (Leake's Athens I p. 137).
2 Plutarch Sympos. I I, Zenobius p. 40, and Suidas quoted in
Donaldson's Theatre of the Greeks, chap. v. p. 69.

Page  XXIV
xxiv

INTR OD UCTION.

the Pentheus, but the only line quoted as coming
from it (gepy(p vo/tLLe ve/3ppl' e'Xcv e7rev7eUrrv) is probably to be ascribed to a pupil of Plato1.
In Aesciyhls, the doom of Pentheus is the subject of a well-known passage in the prologue of the
Eumcnidecs, where the Pythian priestess refers to the
god, as having taken possession of the heights of
Parnassus as his favoured haunt, after compassing
the death of the Theban king:
The Nymphs I worship, near the vaulted cave
Corycian, home of birds and haunt of gods;
And Bromius, I remember, guards the spot,
Since erst that god, leading his Maenad host,
Dealt death to Pentheus, like a hunted hare2.
The same poet wrote a set of four plays on the
doom of Lycurgus, known as the tetralogy of the
AvKovpPyela, consisting of the 'HWovol, Baocapt$c?,
and Neavlt'Kot, followed by the satyric drama, AvKoVP7o3'. Among the fragments of the first play,
we find a description, by a Thracian chorus, of the
strange music of the god's retinue, the thrilling flute,
the clanging cymbals, the twanging lute, the drum
reverberating like subterranean thunder, and the
deep tones of some other instrument unseen, whose
sound resembles the bellowing of a bull (fragm. 55,
partly quoted in note on 1. 59). Just as in the BaccGae, so here, Dionysus is captured and brought before
1 Heraclides Ponticus (Diogenes Laertius v ~ 92, referred to by
Wecklein).
2 Eum. 22-27, quoted on 1. 559.
3 Scholiur on Ravenna MS of Aristophanes, Thesm. 135.

Page  XXV
THE LE GERND IN EARLIER LITERATURE. xxv

the king, who, like Pentheus, asks his girl-faced prisoner whence he came'. When the god reveals himself, the palace of Lycurgus, like that of the Theban
king, 'reels like a bacchanal inspired' before his
presence'. Lastly, the long-trailing robe, or bassara,
which gives the name to the Bacchanals who form
the chorus of the second piece in the trilogy, is referred to in the lines:
oa7JT XLTwvaL 18accapa? Te Av 8a,
eXeL 7tro8IpeLt (64 b).
Of the second play, we learn that it included an
account of the attack of the Bassarices on Orpheus,
who instead of honouring Dionysus adored the sungod Apollo, climbing the Pangaean mount betimes,
to do his reverence to the rising sun. They tore
him in pieces, and scattered his limbs abroad, every
one from its fellow (like those of Pentheus in our play);
but the Muses came and gathered them all together
and buried them. The few remaining lines are too
trivial to detain us; in one of them we have a reference to a 'bull goring' (22 b, cf. Bacchae, 743), in
another to a 'murky flame smouldering on an altar'
(22 a).
In the third play, in which the Thracian king
appears to have paid with his life the penalty of
opposing Dionysus, and yet to have been honoured
side by side with that god after his death, we find
little of special interest beyond the line describing
Fragm. 56, quoted in note on 1. 460.
2 Fragm. 64 a, quoted in note on 1. 726.
S. B. 1 –

Page  XXVI
XXvi

VITR OD UCTION.

the breezes that play in the cool and shady haunts
of the gods: av'pas (v.1. oaavpa9) vtyrooaciloLVosv v Jvucr,7 -plots.
The fragments of the satyric drama at the close
of the tetralogy contain nothing that is of any
importance for our purpose.
There was also a trilogy of Aeschylus, on the
doom of Pentheus, which probably consisted of the
following pieces: (I) Se/LEXq ' V3pofOpot, (2) Ba/Xat,
(3) IlvOevs. One of the fragments of the first apparently refers to the alleged death of the son of Semele
by the thunderbolts of Zeus2; another to the
'Thyiades that banquet on raw flesh3.' From (2),
which is sometimes identified with (3), not a single
fragment has been preserved; from the Preztheus,
we have only a solitary line (/u*8' at/Laroo 7'retjfltya,-rp& re, I3ayXts), alluding possibly to the bloodless
victory over the Bacchae which Dionysus bids the
king look forward to, as the result of his espial (cf.
804, and contrast 837). His death was referred to
in another play called the av'rptat the title of
which was formerly understood of the Bacchantes
tearing their victims in pieces,-a meaning suggested
by the use of the verb:alvetv in a passage of Philostratus describing the rending asunder of the limbs
1 They happen to include one of the earliest references to malt
liquor, or barley mead (123, KIK Vrcv' irive tp7rov iaXvaivPv Xp&vW
KcareFvosKO)LureI TOur7' V dCV3peIcf whTys).: Ze)3s o KariKTra rov-rov, cf. 1. 244.
3 OVtdtrv' cLUOPopotp, cf. 1. 139.

Page  XXVII
THE LEGEND IV EARLIER LITERATURE. xxvii

of Pentheus'. It appears simpler, however, to take
it in the more obvious sense of 'the wool-carding
women2.' In the Bacchae we read of all the women
being driven from the looms to the mountains by the
frenzy inspired by Dionysus (Ii8, 1236); and in
the earlier treatment of the same, or at any rate a
similar, subject by Aeschylus, the chorus may possibly have consisted of the sober and stay-at-home
women who went on working with their wool instead
of joining the revels on the hills. It has been ingeniously suggested that the play may have referred,
not to the story of Pentheus, but to another part of
the legend of Dionysus, the 'wool-carders' being
in this case the daughters of Minyas, who, when the
worship of Dionysus was established in Boeotia,
after the death of Pentheus, instead of taking part
in the orgies in Cithaeron, remained in their home
engaged in spinning and weaving wool, and were duly
punished by the god for their neglect of his rites.
1 Quoted on 1. 1136 (so Elmsley, p. I5).
2 mulieres lanizfcae; Od. xxII 423, etpita re ctavecY, Eur. Ou. 12,
Oar-gaara rvaoca (of one of the Parcae).
3 Ovid Met. Iv I-54; 329-415, esp. 32-35, so!ae Mlinyedes
intus, intempestiva turbantes festa Miinervz, aut duczInt lanas, aut
stamina pollice versant, ant haerent telae, fatmulasque laboribus urgentt.
This interpretation of the name ciarptat is supported by Wecklein, who
quotes Bockh, Graec. trag. princ. c. iii, and assigns the play to the
same trilogy as the (AtovUsovu) rpoqoi and the 'AOci/cas. according to
the legend as related in Apollodorus (III 4 ~ 3), Zeus, when Dionysus
had been born from his thigh, sent the infant by the hands of Hermes to
be brought up by Semele's sister Ino and that sister's husband Athamas.
Both of them were struck mad by Hera, Athamas mistook one of his
sons for a lion's cub (cf. fragm. 4 a, ppvacov7-s XeaiLvrs, and Ovid /. c.
513, cuzm,emina…prole leaena), while Ino slew the other.
C 2

Page  XXVIII
xxviii

INTR OD UCTION.

But however this may be, we may be sure that
the death of Pentheus was either incidentally or fully
referred to in the tragedy, and that it took place,
as in our own play, on mount Cithaeron'; et c'est
highly probable that the 'stakes of pine in flame
enfolded,' mentioned in one of the fragments2, were
the torches used by the Bacchae in their attack on
the intruder Pentheus, in exactly the same manner as
is represented on a work of ancient art figured on a
subsequent page (lxxxviii). Thus it would appear
that the manner of his death, as referred to by Aeschylus, was somewhat different to that which is related
by Euripides. In the same play Lyssa, the goddess
of Madness, appears in person, as in the Hercules
firens of our poet, and incites the Bacchae in a
stirring speech in which she apparently compares the
frenzy she inspires with the convulsions caused by
the scorpion's stings. Another fragment tells of a
place 'unlit by ray of sun or moon'; words which
possibly describe a gloomy dungeon like that in
1. 5 I (crK6otov cVKea9~).
As we leave these few fragments of Aeschylus on
the worship of Dionysus, we may well remark, with
1 Schol. on Aesch. Eumn. 24, vrOy q5rotv ev Ilapvaocp elvat rct Kar&a
llevOa' ev rats Zavrpicats ev KtOatpcvtr. The former part of this note
is clearly wrong, as Aeschylus in the Eumenides says nothing of the
place where Pentheus was slain, but only alludes to the god's making
the Corycian cave on Parnassus his haunt, after putting the Theban
king to death (doubtless, as in the Xantriae, on Cithaeron).
2 Pollux: r&as tEvrot Xatu7rdaaS Kai Kaci/aKas eip77Kev iv ZCavrplatF
Ai'6XUos ' Kac/aKeS rreKaJs0 ol 7rvpIXEc-rTot' (fragm. I67).
3 Fragn. i65, Eur., in 1. 977, speaks of the 'hounds of Lyssa.'

Page  XXIX
THE LEGEND IN EARLIER LITERAYlURE. xxix

Milman, that 'the loss of these Aeschylean tragedies
is to be deplored more than that of any of the poet's
works, except perhaps his Niobe. What must they
have been, with his lofty fearlessness of religious conception, his massy power and grandeur, and his lyric
language unrivalled in its rude picturesqueness?'
'We would willingly know, too,' he adds, 'how such
a subject could have been treated by the grave and
reverent Sophocles'.'
AmongT the lost plays of Sophocles is one called
the cTVpoq,6ppai which may possibly have been, like
the play of Aeschylus already mentioned, an alternative title for a YejLX~q; but hardly anything remains
to indicate its subject, except the bald statement that
the author there used BafcXa'v in the same sense as
BaKXEVT4av. His son, lophon, wrote a Penzt/ius and
a Baccitae (unless indeed these plays were identical),
and a play of the latter name was included in the
tetralogy with which Xenocles was victorious over
Euripides in the year 4I5 B.C.' Sophocles himself, in
his extant tragedies, has a few graceful passages
6A~amnemnon and Bacchanals, p. 96.
2 Aelian Var. Hist. 11 8, KaLa' 775' 7rpw'T??P Kal I6C'EKV27KOTT OXVj4-,rzci3a, KcaO' ~v EsL'Ka 'E-'ctLVET3O' 0 AKpyaycuT~Pos o —dA5op, aOJJ77,yWPLoaPTo
CIXX AOLS 4EVOKXjS Kcal EL'pL7r1-qS. Ka~i irpc37-6r -ye 'P E'EVOKXMjs, 6,YTLS 7roi-~
oJIr6T kTV7t, O015rolt Kad AVKa'OVL Kal BcLKXcLL2 KUI 'A64'AaWTL 2:aTVpLKqJ.
rou-oVuo ln6-epog EV'ptL'r3-qT 's 'AXec~UvOpqJ Kari HaXayz'53Et Ka~i Tpcogl Kai
2;toV'0p larrupzte-. 'ye~ovo U (oib yaip;) ~-EVOKX&c tk~v VLKcLP, Ei'puri6-qx
U?)rTacl-Oat, i~cal 7ran-a 7-otovToLs 5pdiLAact~. TW~P Uo -roiz'w' -ro grepow
77 a6-q-rot qcavv ol -r~ V /'950oV Ku'ptot KaL t~ic(i~aIEZ Ka 7r6ppw KpLO-EwS 5pO~S, 7,7
~e36Kc'(70ro-~av 6T7r0OV U fEKaTr6p0 Kal 'AOJvtlWoP 'iKlara st5Lop. On the
small number of victories won by the greatest dramatists, v. Meineke
Corn. Frag. ii 904.

Page  XXX
XXX

INVTR OD UCTION.

referring to the legend of Dionysus. In the Oedipus
Tyrannus, for example, the god is invoked as follows
by a Theban chorus:
"We call on the god of the golden crown (XpvaoL/irpav), whose
name is linked with the name of our land, the boisterous wine-flushed
Bacchus, the comrade of the Maenads; we call on him to come, and
flash his flaming brand, against the war-god whom the gods disown."
(2II —2I5.)
At a later point in the same play, the Chorus,
while musing on the birth of Oedipus, wonders
whether he is the offspring of one of the gods, of
Pan or Apollo or Hermes;
"or haply the Bacchic god, who dwells upon the mountain-peaks,
received him as a gift from one of the Nymphs of Helicon with whom
he loves to sport." (II05.)
Again, in the Oedipus Coloneus, the representation
of which by the poet's grandson, in B.C. 401, belongs
to a date later than the Bacchae, (though it was written
possibly many years before,) the choral ode, which the
familiar anecdote connects with the author's declining
years, describes, as a haunt of Dionysus,
"the gleaming Colonus; where down in the fresh green dells the
clear-voiced nightingale most loves to sing, true evermore to the
purpling ivy and to the god's own sacred leafage, with its unnumbered
fruit inviolate, that knows no heat of sun, no blast of storm; or
Dionysus, lord of revel, wanders, dancing around the nymphs divine
who nursed his youth." (670-680.)
In the earliest of his plays whose date is known,
the Antigone of 440 B.C., we have the following reference to the legend of Lycurgus:
"Fast bound, besides, was Dryas' son, the Edonian king of temper
keen, who, for his bitter taunts, was enchained in a dungeon of rock, by.IL.t –~1 -C-. —l ICy' — – —-~I – — — -— C. —

Page  XXXI
THE LEGEND IN EARLIER LITERATURE. xxxi

the will of Dionysus. So dread is the full bloom of wrath that issues
from madness like his; but at last he learnt that in all his frenzy,
'twas the god himself that he was taunting with bitter tongue;
for he fain would have quelled the dames inspired, and quenched
the Evian torch, and vexed the heart of the Muses to whom the flute
is dear." (955-965.)
The parallel story of Pentheus is, however, never
referred to by Sophocles; to have devoted a whole
tragedy to a theme into which the wild enthusiasm of
Bacchanalian revelry must necessarily have largely
entered, would perhaps have been hardly in keeping
with the calm and serene composure which is one of
the main characteristics of that poet's temper. Mais
we may well regret that the legend of Dionysus was
not more fully handled by one who could write the
brilliant ode in the Antigone, where the god is summoned to the relief of the plague-stricken place of his
birth. It is a perfect mosaic of happy allusion to his
varied attributes, to his favoured haunts and to his
wide-spread worship; and, as many of these points will
meet us again in the play which we are about to study,
we may close this brief review of the literary treatment of the legend before the time of Euripides with
an attempt to render the ode in question (I I I15-52).
Hail, thou god of many names,
Pride of Theban Semele,
Born to Zeus mid lightning flames,
Strength of glorious Italy!
O'er Deo's dells thy power presideth,
Where Eleusis welcomes all;
Where Ismenos softly glideth,
Bacchic god, on thee we call;
In Thebes, the Bacchant's home, to dwell thou deignest,
And o'er the brood of the fierce dragon reignest.

Page  XXXII
XXXll

INVTR OD UCTION.

O'er the double-crested height,
Where the nymphs Corycian roam,
Looks on thee the lurid light,
Where Castalia falls in foam.
Nysa's hillside ivy-clad,
And the bright Euboean shore,
Green with vines, with clusters glad,
Iaply soon shall send thee o'er.
Oh! haste to Thebes and all her calling streets;
A people's holy cry thy coming greets.
Far above all towns that be,
Thebes is honoured most by thee,
And Semele, the thunder-slain;
E'en now, when all our thronging town
With dire disease is stricken down,
Speed hither, speed! with healing in thy train,
O'er high Parnassus, or the moaning main.
Leader of the heavenly quire
Of dancing stars that throb with fire!
Shine, son of Zeus! upon our sight,
Thou ruler of the midnight voices,
Whose Naxian Thyiad-band rejoices
In madding dances all the live-long night,
lacchos praising, lord of their delight.

Page  XXXIII
E UZUR PID ES 1N A/JA CE DON2 IA. xx

Xxxiii

~3. Euiirpidcs iii Afacedonia.
While we are told of Sophocles that, so strong
was his love for Athens, that none of the kings, who
invited him to their courts., could induce him to leave
his country'; the closing, years of Euripides, like
those of Aeschylus at the court of Hecro, were spent
far away from the land of his birth. He was weary,
perhaps, of scenes of domestic discomfort; he had
been persecuted in the T/Icsmop/horiazwsae by the
taunts of that licensed libeller, Aristophanes; and the
shadows of unpopularity were possibly already gathering round his friend, Socrates', while Alcibiades, in
honour of whose Olympic victory hie had composed a
song of triumph', was now a condemned exile. Accordingly, the agted poet retired from Athens. Il
visited, in the first instance, Magnesia, where he was
received with special distinction', and where we may
fancy him looking from the shores of the Pagasaean
bay toward the pine-woods of mount Pelion, and recalling the prologue of his own Mledeaz:
Oh! that the Argo ne'er had winged her way
To Colchis, 'twixt the hiue Symplegades;
Nor the cleft pine e'er fall'n int Pelion's glens.
oUTw P/JXaO,7vat6-aT-os 'iv. Vit. anon.
2 Diogen. Laert. Socr-. it 1,iJ6KEL 66 OU/v7T0eL1 EU'ptr13fl. 6Oet'
MXeqGiXoXos O"C oih-c,., 4)p6Y6 ye-CITZ Katvbv bp&~uc roOT' Evipt~rIov,
O cir p6-yaa" l7rort'O-o-t ECOKp 6Tr-q. Aelian V' r. Hist. i 13, 6 6
~wKpd-T'qs arvot,rc',o ~se re'poircz rol', Occrpots, er 7rore 66 E&ptswL-q 6'-~
-rpa~yy3I'as 7rotyist '-,ywvi~e-rO KatLVOZS -rpaycw6o~s, T6Te -ye adbLKPero…. 9Xatpe,yap Trw, OY~pl&a rec -rqC TVaoq/~av an'TOO KULL TP' l'V TOZS f.LE'TPOIS dC-pT7'jl.
3 PlntarchAicib. xi.
4 vit. Euir. (in Nauck's ed. p. v, 1. 2t), lteTr&r, 66 6' Ma-yqrq4L KCdI
a-rpotepi~t &rLAL?'Of Kad aireXeL~s.

Page  XXXIV
xxxiv

xINTR OD UCTION.

From Magnesia he proceeded to the court of
Archelaus, king of Macedonia. Socrates himself was
also invited by that king; but, true to himself, he declined the compliment, on the ground that it was as
degrading to accept a favour when unable to return it,
as to receive an injury when incapable of requiting
it'. The philosopher may well have had other reasons
for refusing the invitation, as he was doubtless aware
of the career of crime by which the king had won
the throne. A graphic description of that career is,
at any rate, to be found in a dialogue between Socrates and Polus, in the following passage from the
Gorgias of Plato:'Polus. You see, I presume, that Archelaus the son of Perdiccas is
King of Macedonia. Socr. Well, if I don't, I hear of him, at any rate.
Polus. Is he happy, then, in your opinion, or wretched? Socr. I don't
know, Polus, for I have not the honour of his acquaintance. Polus.
What then? Do you mean to say you could find it out, by making his
acquaintance? Don't you know already, that he is happy? Socr. No,
indeed, I don't. Polus. Then it's clear, Socrates, that you will say
that you don't know that 'the Great King ' is happy either. Socr. And
if I do, I shall be speaking the truth; for I don't know what is his condition in regard to mental cultivation and moral character. Polus. How
then? Does happiness consist in this alone? Socr. Yes, according to
my view, Polus; the man or woman who is gentle and good, I say, is
happy, and one that is unjust and wicked is miserable. Polus. Ensuite,
according to your account, the said Archelaus is miserable. Socr. Yes,
my friend, if he is unjust he is. Polus. Why, of course, he is unjust;
he had no claim at all to the throne which he now holds, as he was the
son of a woman who was the slave of his father Perdiccas' brother,
Alcetas; and therefore in strict right, he was himself the slave of Alcetas; and, if he had wanted to do what was ' right,' he would have been
1 Ar. Rhet. II 23 ~ 8, SOKpdarTs OcK quE7 paiaELav Ws ApXeXaov ppivpw
yap ffqSp elvt rTva O b XO 6va-Oa d a6vvaOcr6a 6OtoiUs euJ raO6vra WfT7rep Kal
KaKcS. Stobaeus 97 p. 522. Diog. Laert. II 5 ~ 9.

 — L I I,. —L_.,,-._.. – -. —-L _ —-

Page  XXXV
EURIPIDE S IN MA CEJDONIA.

XXXV

the slave of Alcetas, and 'happy' according to your account; but, as it
is, he has become unspeakably miserable, for he has committed acts of
the gravest injustice. In the first place, he invited to court this very
same master and uncle of his, on the pretence of intending to restore
him to the throne which Perdiccas had usurped; and after entertaining
him and his son Alexander, his own cousin, about the same age as himself, and making them drunk, he stowed them away in a carriage,
drove them off by night, killed them both and made away with their
bodies. And, after all this wickedness, he never discovered that he
had made himself the most 'miserable' of men, he never repented of
what he had done; he did not choose to make himself 'happy' by bringing up, as he was bound to do, his brother, the true son of Perdiccas, a
boy of some seven years of age, to whom the throne rightly belonged, and
by restoring to him his kingdom. No! far from it; not long after, he threw
him into a well and drowned him, and then told his mother Cleopatra,
that he had tumbled in, just as he was chasing a goose, and had so
come by his death. Accordingly, as he is now the greatest criminal in
Macedonia, he is doubtless the most 'miserable' of all the Macedonians,
and not the happiest; and I dare say there are a good many people in
Athens, who, with you at their head, would rather change places with
any Macedonian you please to name, than with King Archelaus 1.'
Antecedents such as these may well have deterred
Socrates from presenting himself at the court of
the king; Euripides, however, poet and philosopher
in one2, accepted the invitation which the philosopher
declined. For, in justice to this most 'unjust' Archelaus, we are bound to admit that he appears to have
governed well the kingdom that he had won by crime,
thus proving an exception to the rule laid down by
Tacitus, nemo unquam imperium fagitio quaesitun
bonis artibus exercuit'. He built fortresses, cut straight
roads of communication between various portions of
1 Plato Gorgias 470 D-471 D (mainly from Cope's translation).
2 Vitruvius viii, praef., Euri2pides, auditor Anaxagorae, quem philosophum Athenienses scenicun aippellazverunt.
3 Hist. I 30.

Page  XXXVI
XXXVi

INTvR OD UCTION.

his territory, and equipped himself with an ample
supply of horses and arms, by which the military
resources of his dominion were improved to a greater
extent by himself alone than by all his eight predecessors put together1. He not only did all this, but
(like the Elder Dionysius not long after) he also
became a distinguished patron of art and literature.
His palace was lavishly embellished with paintings by
Zeuxis2, who presented his patron with a picture of
Pan for which he would accept no remuneration, on
the ground that the work was beyond all price3. As
a descendant of the Heracleid Temenidae of Argos,
the king may have feasted his eyes on pictures by that
artist representing the exploits of Hercules, his heroic
ancestor4; the patron of the poet of the Bacchae may
have had his walls adorned with those pendent grapes,
in painting which, according to the familiar story,
Zeuxis was unrivalled5. Either at Aegae, the ancient
capital, or at Dium on the sea-coast, the king established 'Olympian' festivals in honour of the Muses6.
At his court was the tragic poet Agathon, the first to
set the pernicious precedent of introducing into hisplays
choral odes which had no connexion with the plot7,Agathon, the genial host of Plato's Symposiumz,who was
1 Thuc. II ioo.
2 Aelian Var. Hist. XIv 17 (at the cost of 4oo0 minae).
3 Pliny Nat. Ilist. xxxv ~ 62.
4 Such as lercuzles infans dracones strazngiants, painted by Zeuxis,
apparently however for Agrigentum (Pliny u. s.).
5 Pliny u. s., ~ 66.
6 See note on 1. 409.
7 Aristot. Poet. 18,, t22 s6Xa j6ov0t, p srpWfrov idpacvros 'AydOw&voS
roLortov.

Page  XXXVII
EURIPIDES IN MACEDONIA. xxxvii

complimented by Euripides himself, while reclining at
the king's table with his brother poet, as 'handsome
not only in the spring-time, but also in the autumn of
life.' There too, was the famous musician and dithyrambic poet, Timotheus, who, when hissed off the
stage for his bold innovations, had been re-assured
by Euripides with the prediction that 'he would soon
have the theatres at his feet2.' And there, also, was
Choerilus, the writer of the great epic on the wars of
the Greeks with Xerxes and Dareius3.
In this goodly company, Euripides composed a
play to which, in compliment to his patron, he gave
the name of 'Archelaus'4; and it was almost certainly
at the court of that king, that he either wrote the play
which is now before us, or, at any rate, gave it the last
finishing touches. This conclusion is rendered highly
probable by its complimentary references to the haunt
of the Muses in Pieria, which was part of the king's
dominions; to the hallowed slope of Olympus, the
most prominent object in the Pierian landscape (11.
409-415); and to the 'swift stream' of Axius (568),
which after bursting its way through what is known
as the Iron Gate between the Scardus and Orbelus
1 Aelian Var. Hist. XIII 4, o0 yap ti6vov rb gap rTv KaXwv KaXv
Cfarv, Xaa Kal rb /uerb6rupov.
2 Plutarch, an seni sit gerenda respublica xxiii. ~ 4, p. 795 c-d.
Tttc6eov Ebpori,17, avptrr6/tevov 7r! rT Katvo7ro/Ti Kal WrapavoLe?'v ls
T'V LOVUtKGKV aKOUvTof, OcappL)e? eK^eevTev, US 6XTyOU p6vov rTVp Oec6rpWv
vr' aryo yev7a-oudvovwv. He composed a dithyramb on ' the travail of
Semele,' Boethius, de musica, I I. See also Plut. apophth. p. 177.
3 Athenaeus vIII p. 345 E.
4 vit. Eur., Nauck, p. vi, 1. 23, XapLr6b.evos avrTp 8pata oJicwv/uAWT
typaqe.

Page  XXXVIII
Xxxviii

INTROD UCTION.

ranges, and passing through the great upland plain of
Pelagonia, one of the primitive seats of the Macedonian
race, becomes the principal river of Macedonia itself,
finding its way at last into the Mediterranean at the
head of the gulf of Therma'. The poet also refers, in
terms of praise, to the less important stream of the
Loidias (571), one of whose tributaries rises near
Aegae, or Edessa, the ancient capital of the Macedonian kingdom. Aegae is the modern Vodhena,
a place remarkable for the strategic importance of its
position and the beauty of its surroundings, standing
as it does at a point commanding communication with
the upper country, and now traversed by a 'clear river
which descends from the upper part of the valley and
divides into a number of smaller streams which pass
through the town, and plunge at various points down
the steep rocks2.' The prospect from its terraces extends over the plain of lower Macedonia which is
celebrated by Euripides as 'the'land of noble horses,'
'fertilized by fairest waters' (57I-5). About halfway between Aegae and the sea were the low hills
and the widespread marshes, which marked the site
of Pella3, destined ere long to become the capital of
1 Tozer, Geography of Greece, pp. oo200-2.
2 id. p. 203. Curtius, Ht G. v 2I. Abel, fzak. vor Philipp, IIO-5.
3 It is often stated by modern writers that Euripides spent the last
years of his life at Pella, and not, as seems more natural, at Aegae, the
capital (apparently) of Archelaus. The evidence of late authorities,
writing at a time when the fame of the earlier capital had been eclipsed
by that of the later, appears to me almost worthless in such a matter.
Nothing more than a tomb in Macedonia need be meant in the anonymous epigram which closes with the couplet: daX' AoXe HleXX\aov
vTr' piov, s av O6 Xdrpls Htept&wv valms c'yx60t IIepwiSv (Anthol. Pal.

Page  XXXIX
EURIPIDES IN MA CEDONIA.

xxxix

one of the successors of Archelaus, Philip of Macedon,
and to be the birthplace of Alexander the Great;
while to the south, the landscape was closed by the
'mighty mass of the snowy Olympus.'
Whether the play, written in whole or in part
among the surroundings above described, was actually
represented at the court of Archelaus, is a question on
which we have no evidence. We may, however, observe that the theme selected would have probably
found an appreciative audience in Macedonia. the
subjects of Archelaus would be well acquainted with
the story of Lycurgus, king of the adjoining district
of Thrace; and the legend of Pentheus, the Theban
parallel to the Thracian story, would have the advantage of being less trite and familiar to the Macedonian
personnes. Further, the worship of Dionysus would seem
to have met with an enthusiastic reception among
the wild tribes of that region; this may be concluded from the terms in which Plutarch in his life of
Alexander introduces an anecdote of Olympias, belonging to a date about fifty years after that of this
VII 44). The only other writer, so far as I can find, who mentions Pella
in connexion with Eur., is Suidas s. v. EupL7rto67s: KaCL T0 od-a avro eiv
IIXXA /ueTaKo/JL(al TOV 3paatra. Pella, which, in the time of Philip's
father Amyntas (B.C. 392), is extolled as lecyilo- rC iV ev MaKe5ovi~
7r6Xeov (Xen. Hell. V 2 ~ I2), is depreciated by Demosthenes as being,
at the accession of Philip himself, a Xwpiov 6io0ov Kal /LKp6v,-in comparison, that is, with its later fame, and in contrast, as the context
shews, with the glory of Athens (de cor. p. 247). Abel u. s. p. I98,
says: unter A rchelaos trat diese Stadl, soweit es irgend mbnglichl war, an
die Stelle von Edessa: but I can find no clear authority for this statement.

Page  XL
xl

iINTR OD UCTION.

play. 'All the women of this region,' he remarks,
'being of old time under the influence of the Orphic
rites and the orgies of Dionysus, and bearing the name
of KXWco&ves and MqlaXXozve, have customs similar
in many respects to the Edonian and the Thracian
women near mount Haemus. But Olympias, who more
than the rest affected these wild raptures and carried
her enthusiasm to a still stranger pitch (/3apSaptKecorepov), was wont to carry about in the revel-bands huge
tame serpents, which often crept out of the ivy and the
mystic baskets, and entwined themselves round the
sacred wands and garlands of the women, to the
terror of the men' (II ~ 5). It was on such an occasion as this, that Olympias, the mother of Alexander,
first won the admiration of Philip of Macedon.
In Macedonia Euripides died, in B.C. 406, in the
seventy-fifth year of his age'. The strangest legends
were told of the manner of his death, possibly invented by the comic poets of his own time, or the scandalmongers of a later generation, who, wilfully confounding (it may be) the fate of the poet with that of
Pentheus in this, perhaps his latest, play, described
him as having met his end by being torn in pieces by
some infuriated women. According to another equally
improbable story, indignantly denied in a well-known
epigram, he was worried to death by the dogs of
Archelaus2.
He was buried near the town of Arethusa in the
pass of Aulon, at a spot where two streams met, one
1 Diodorus XIII 103 (Nauck Eur. p. x, note 3).
2 Anth. Pal. VII 51, o o- Kvvv 'VWy 7YO e', EpITlo7-I, K.T.X.

Page  XLI
E URPIDES IN MA CEDOVNIA.

x!i

of them famed for its healthful water, while it was
death to drink of the other1. His tomb was struck
by lightning, a distinction which it shared with that of
the Spartan lawgiver Lycurgus2. AtAthens,on hearing
of his death, Sophocles, we are told, put on mourning
himself, and at a public representation in the theatre
ordered his actors and chorus to lay aside their crowns;
and all the people wept. His countrymen, who in
vain pleaded for his remains, built a cenotaph in his
honour, which was seen in the second century of our
era by the traveller Pausanias as he made his way
from Peiraeus to Athens along the ruins of the longwalls of Conon3. It stood near the monument of one
whose style had many points in common with that of
Euripides, the comic poet Menander, and it bore the
following inscription, attributed to the historian Thucydides, but composed more probably by the poet
and musician Timotheus:,va^IAa Lev 'EXXad arao-' Eitptrl8ov' o7rvea 8' 'aX
ayi MaKce83v, P7rep*4 6S&a70 Trep/a /3tov*
7rarpr7 $' 'EXXdaSo 'EXXa9, 'AO'vac 7roXXd Be Moivaa5
r Kepya, we 7roXXwv ea; ratv eravtov eXeL.
(A nth. Pal. VII 45.)
Euripides, all Hellas is a monument to thee;
Thy bones hath Macedonia, that saw thy latter days,
And yet, thy home was Athens, the heart of Hellas she,
And thou, the Muse's darling, hast won the meed of praise.
Ammianus Marc. 27, 4, 8; Pliny Nat. listing. 3I, 19; Vitruvius 8,
3 (Nauck Eur. p. xxi).
2 Plut. Lycurg. 3I. 3 Pausanias I 2, 2.
4 ms. j 7yp, al. ri yap. 5 al. jov'acas (thou, whose Muses
charmed us).
S. B. d(

Page  XLII
XI I I

xlii ~IN1TR9OD UCTI0ON

Another epigram refers as follows to his burial in
Macedonia, and bids the poet rest assured that his
fame will rival that of Homer:
XaUPE /IeXa/1.7rEa'Xov91, Et'puor18,, E'v ryua'Xowct
fltepiaq TroP ac't PvK7-OS, XCIx~lJ Oa'Xa~Lovto-cU 0 t'V'7rQ' X~ovos'? 0w, O076, o-OL KXEO01 aplTo&7 eoTTatL
Laov Oyq~pdat'~ acva'ovt ata
(VII 43.)
Though, 'mid Pieria's dells of leafy gloom,
In endless night thou sleepest in the tomb,
Rest sure, though laid in dust, thy fame for aye
Shall rival Homer's charms that never die.
I Lobeck's emendation for gE~aA~re~rXots.

TERRACOTTA RELIEF INT THE BRITISH MUSEU-M.

Page  XLIII
OUTLINE OF THE PLA Y xliii
~ 4. The Bacchae of Euripides: an outline of the
play, with some account of its representation on the stage.
After the death of Euripides, his son or nephew,
who bore the same name, exhibited the Bacchae, together with the Alcmaeon in Corinth, and the Iphigeneia in Aulis'. No ingenuity, however, is ever likely
to find any point in common which would justify the
three plays being regarded as a trilogy in the ordinary
acceptation of the term'. It is probably this trilogy
to which the prize was awarded after the poet's death'.
It may be added that the date of its representation
was almost certainly after that of the Ranae of Aristophanes, which, as is well known, was brought out in
B. c. 405, shortly after the death of Euripides and
Sophocles. Had the Racchae been exhibited before
the Ranae, the latter would inevitably have contained
some reference to the former, especially as the character of Dionysus is common to both, and several points
in the play of Euripides would lend themselves readily
to the criticism of the comic poet.
The persons of the play are
DIONYSUS, a god in the likeness of man, son of
Zeus and Semele, daughter of Cadmus.
1 Schol. Ar. Ran. 67, at 8&SarcKaXiact povao reXevroav-ror Evpt7risov
rbv vlbova 8roi &&8aXtva& ocwvvlov iv doTret 'Icty6vetav r77v ev AAAi5l,
'AXKqaliwva, BdcKXas.
2 Suidas, vPKas &veLXero ro'acTpas 7repLiv, rTv z UtL av laerYt rv
reXeUVTrv, ir&tLEapLvou rT Spal/ 7to0 6eXc0ooL avrtoO EpbLri8ov.
d2

Page  XLIV
xliv

INTR OD UCTION.

TEIRESIAS, an aged prophet.
CADMUS, founder, and sometime king, of Thebes.
AGAVE, one of the daughters of Cadmus.
PENTHEUS, king of Thebes, son of Agave.
THE KING'S ATTENDANT.
FIRST MESSENGER, a herdsman.
SECOND MESSENGER, one of the King's attendants.
CHORUS of Asiatic women, worshippers of Dionysus.
As there are only three actors, the cast of the play
would probably be as follows:
First Actor (7rporaywvta-rjS), Dionysus and Teiresias.
Second Actor (8vrepaOVtL-rrTQV), Pentheus and
Agave.
Third Actor (rptvayrowviL'rr), Cadmus, Attendant,
First and Second Messengers.
This arrangement enables us to assign to the first
actor a leading part throughout the play, including
the delivery of the opening speech. The famous actor
Theodorus, as we learn from Arist. Pol. IV (VII) 17
~ I3, always made a- point of taking the opening part,
because it ensured his winning the attention of the
audience at the very outset. The role of Agave,
though comparatively short, would require good
acting, and it is possibly this that has led Wecklein
to assign Agave and Pentheus to the 7rpwora7wovtcar7.
There is no difficulty in giving the Second Messenger's
speech to the Second Actor; this would be quite

Page  XLV
OUTLINVE OF THE PLA Y

x!v

consistent with the suggestion referred to in the note
on 1. II53, where the parts of the Second Messenger
and Agave are assigned to the same player; this too
harmonizes with the combination of parts incidentally
implied in the anecdote of the recital of a scene from
this play in the Parthian camp on the death of
Crassus (note on II69). The arrangement proposed
in Donaldson's Theatre of the Greeks, p. 296, is somewhat different:
'Protagonist: Dionysus, Teiresias, and the second
messenger.
Deuteragonist: Cadmus, servant, first messenger.
Tritagonist: Pentheus, Agave1.'
Throughout the play, the Scene is laid before the
palace of Pentheus in the Cadmeia, the citadel of
Thebes in the northern part of the town, the direction
furthest removed from Cithaeron where the Bacchanals are holding revel. The towers of Thebes are
referred to in the course of the play (172), but we
need not suppose that the scenery included any representation of them. The mechanical contrivance known
as the periactos is visible at each of the two extremities of the stage; the periactos on the spectators' left
conventionally indicating the direction of the road
to foreign and distant parts, while that on the right
denotes the way to the town and to the neighbouring
range of Cithaeron, which would naturally be reached
by going through the town and leaving it by the

1 Compare the same scholar's edition of the Antigone, p. 20

Page  XLVI
xlvi

NlTR OD UCTION.

Electran gates'. The palace is a building in the
Doric style, with its columns supporting an entablature, in which the triglyphs, characteristic of that
order, may be seen (59I, I214). Near the palace is
the monument of Semele, marking the place where
she was struck dead by lightning,-a spot fenced off
from profanation and mantled over with a clustering
vine; over it a dull flame is flickering which will be
kindled into brightness as the action of the play
advances (594-9, 623), while around it are the still
smouldering ruins of the house in which she was
slain.
rpo6koyos (1-63). The prologue is spoken by the god
Dionysus, who enters from the left of the stage. Il
appears in the form of man, disguised as one of his own
votaries, as leader of a revel-band of women whom he
has escorted from Lydia, and who form the Chorus of
the play. In his hand he holds the tihyrsus (495), his
hair falls in long ringlets down his neck (493, a/3po
/oa-Tpvos, and 235, 455); he has a flushed cheek
1 The replaKToL (sc. 06pac) appear to have been 'revolving doors
in the form of a triangular prism, which stood before the side-doors on
the stage and by turning round on a pivot indicated the different
regions supposed to lie in the neighbourhood of the scene'; Theatre of
the Greeks, p. 239. Julius Pollux, IV ~ 126, rap' eidrepa e rwyv UO
OvpCv riv 7repi r7yv aifl at,,XXaa e Ka7rpwOev, 7rpos a as
7replaKL TOL vIU7rEryataat' X uev &et&d (on the right of the stage, i.e. the
left of the spectators,) Tr 9cw 7r6XeWs 877XoWaa, 4 X' apti~r-epa r& tK
7r6oXes~ AciXtaora r7 r K Xtuivos… el ' & riTrrpefpoev ot 7replaKTrotL
bet&a fiv 4e t3eeL r-6rov' aiyp6repaL 5e Xwpav v'ra\XirrovVt. -rCv lVrot
-rap68wv Xi Alv 3edfi (on the right of the spectators) a&yp60ev (al. dyopijOev), 77 iK XtLIvos, 77 iK 7roXecws ayeL, o l X-aXa6oev Ire'ol Q daptKvolFLevot,
Kara Tv 7 erdpav ei(TlaLa-i. On this difficult passage, see Wecklein's
Scenische Studien (Plilologus 31, p. 447), and A. Miiller ib. 35, p. 324 ff.

m

Page  XLVII
O UTLINE OF THE PLA Y.

xlv'ii

(438), languishing eyes (236), and a fair and delicate
form of almost feminine loveliness (353, OrffXvfopco~,
and 457). In other respects he is represented in the
dress and other accessories common to all the retinue
of the god,-the ivy-crown on his head, the fillet on
his brow, and the skin of the fawn or panther slung
across his chest (see notes on Io6, 833 and 24). As
any other actor in Greek tragedy, he wears the long
striped tunic reaching to the groundS; and, over this,
a loose upper robe. Towards the end of the play,
when he reveals himself as Dionysus, he will assume
the attire conventionally appropriated to that god,
when represented on the stage,-a long robe of saffron
colour, bound about the breast with a broad girdle of
varied hue2.
In the first part of the prologue (1-54) Dionysus
states his object in coming to Thebes in human disguise. He has triumphantly established his worship
in the lands of the East, and he now comes to the city
of his birth, resolved on manifesting his divinity in a
signal manner to the Thebans, and chiefly to his own
mother's sisters, Ino, Autonoe and Agave, and to
Agave's son, the young king, Pentheus. Il a
inspired all the women of Thebes with madness, and
driven them forth, with the daughters of Cadmus, to
hold their revels on Cithaeron. If Thebes does violence to his votaries, he will give them battle at the
head of his Maenads.
1 Pollux, iv ~ i I6, aOirres f8Lv rpaLytKaC, 7ro(KLXov (OV'rW yap eKctXE-ro
6 XtrT'v) K.T.X.
2 Pollux, IV ~ II7, 6 5 KpOKWTbo tid'ntOv' At6vvaosg ar' ar XpTro,
Kal uaoX-caXTcrr^pL av0iLvp, Kal 06poy.

Page  XLVIII
xviii

IIV NROD UCTIOV.

At this point the Choruls, a band of fifteen Asiatic
women, who have attended the speaker of the prologue in his wanderings, after passing along the pazascenia or side-buildings of the stage, and through the
entrancescalled the parodos, has just come in full view
on the side of the orchestra which lies to the left of
the spectators. They appear in the garb characteristic
of Bacchanals; crowned with wreaths of ivy and with
the gay mitra, the Bacchic head-dress; robed in the
long tunic which falls to their feet (XLTwYv TroSbp?/),
and is bound by a bright girdle; the dappled fawnskin is flung across the shoulder; all of them appear
to be barefooted (863); some of them are waving the
thyrsus, while others are beating the tymlpalzum.
After a slight pause, while the Chorus are coming
into sight, Dionysus, whom they regard as only their
escort in travel and not as their god, in the latter part
of the prologue (55-68) addresses them from the stage,
calling upon them to beat their drums before the
palace, that all Thebes may come and see, while he
himself goes to join the revels on Cithaeron. (Exit
Dionysus by the right-hand periactos.)
ardpoSos (64-169).1 The object of the first Choral ode
is to give a brilliant and life-like picture of the Dionysiac worship in its purer forms. In the first two
strophes (64-71), recited perhaps by the coryphaetus
alone2, solemn silence is called for, in language like
1 Defined by Aristotle, Poet. I2, as X7 irpowr, Xets Xov xopoo, and so
termed because it was recited by the chorus immediately on reaching
the orchestra from the side entrance.
2 As suggested by Wecklein on 1. 64.

Page  XLIX
0 UTLIIVE OF THE PLA Y.

xlix

that of the priests of Eleusis, as a prelude to the
praise of the mystic rites of Dionysus. They sing
the story of his wondrous birth; they summon Thebes,
his birthplace, to join his worship; they tell of the
origin of the Bacchanalian music. The Epode describes the joys of the chase and the dance, and the
frolics of the Bacchae on the hills.
elrELcroSLov1 wpurov (170-369). Scene I. Teiresias and
Cadmus. The action of the play now begins. Sure
the right of the stage, enters from the city of Thebes
the blind and aged prophet Teiresias. Contrairement à la
Teiresias of other plays, he has none to guide him,
being brought safely on his way by the invisible god,
Dionysus, whose worship he has accepted. It is
covered with 'the net-like woollen robe' generally worn
by soothsayers when they appear on the stage2. Plus de
this he has thrown the Bacchic fawn-skin; instead of
the prophet's chaplet3 he wears the ivy-crown; instead of
of the laurelled staff of Apollo's seer, he carries the
thyrsus swathed with ivy.
He has an appointment with Cadmus, who comes
out to meet him from the door of the Palace. the
two old men have both of them agreed to go out to
Cithaeron, dressed in the garb of Bacchanals, there to
honour Dionysus in the dance.
1 'All that part of a tragedy which is included between two entire
choral odes' (Arist. Poet. 2).
2 Pollux, IV ~ i6, r6 8' iv rXVyIa AL et ep,wv &KUrvTeS 7repi wrdv
rb o'uac, 6 TeLpe~ias e7re3dXXeTo jT nr aXXoos dcIrVTs.
3 /Aavrea oT-reP, Ag. 1265 (Wecklein, p. I5).

Page  L
A TR OD UCTION.

Scene II (215-369). Pentheus, whose approach is
noticed by Cadmus, suddenly comes back from abroad,
entering the, stage from the left. As king, he is
represented- with diadem and sceptre and with a
purple xystis over the bright chitonl. His youth is
ndicated by an appropriate mask which has additional dignity given to it by the elevated frontlet
called the 'ry/coq. He is much excited by having just
heard that a handsome stranger from Lydia has led
all the women of Thebes to leave their homes in wild
excitement, and hold revels and dances on Cithaeron.
He denounces the stranger as a gross impostor, and
the revels as a discreditable scandal. He has already
ordered the imprisonment of some of the women, and
he resolves on slaying this impostor, who is trying to
make out that the babe who died at its birth, when
its mother Semele was slain, was actually a god,
Dionysus.-Up to this point, his speech is a kind of
second prologue; he now (at line 248) catches sight
of the two old men in their fantastic garb; he
implores Cadmus to give up the new worship, and
taunts Teiresias with having joined it from interested
motives. The Chorus briefly protests; the prophet then
expounds at length the true meaning of the story of
the god's birth, claims for him a share in the prerogatives of the deities already accepted by Hellas, foretells the establishment of his worship at the shrine of
Apollo at Delphi, and closes his speech by hinting
darkly at an impending doom (327). The king is
1 Possibly the fact that he had just returned from a journey was
indicated by his appearing in the garb of travel, instead of the full
insignia of royalty (Pfander on Eur. p. 29).

Page  LI
OUTLINE OF THE PLAY i.

he

unmoved either by the predictions of Teiresias or the
entreaties of Cadmus. To annoy the prophet, he
orders some of his attendants to go and demolish his
place of augury, while he sends others to the hills to
capture the 'Lydian stranger.' (Exezuit Cadmus and
Teiresias, by the right of the stage, for Cithaeron.
The king apparently remains before his palace awaiting the return of his messengers, unmoved by the
presence of the Chorus.)
Co-TTo-LFov1 rrpT'-ov (370-431). The impious language of
Pentheus leads the Chorus to invoke the goddess of
Sanctity, wronged as she is by his insolence towards
the divinity who rules the banquet and the dance, is
merry with the flute and drives dull care away.
Blasphemy and folly such as his can only end in
disaster: there is a wisdom which is false wisdom,
and an overweening ambition cuts short the days of
man. Forbidden to hold their revels in Thebes, they
long to leave for Cyprus or Pieria, where a welcome
would await the worship of their god. Dear to him
is Peace, and he gives of his bounty to rich and poor
alike, hating none but him who cares not for the bliss
that he bestows. True wisdom, they declare in conclusion, is to refrain from the shallow conceit of those
who affect to be wiser than their neighbours, and to be
content, instead, with what is sanctioned by popular
use and by common sense.
4icwTroS8ov Sev8Epov (434-518). The king's messengers,
I. e. an ode sung, not while the chorus is stationary, but after it
has taken up its position before the altar of Dionysus, 6rav Xopbs ardrs
ru KarTdpXral Xdyei (Euklides), quoted in Wecklein's Scenische Studien
u. s. p. 462. The epithet does not exclude the movements of the dance.

Page  LII
lii

VINTR OD UCTIOV.

entering by the right of the stage, now return from
their quest. They bring with them the 'Lydian
stranger' with his hands tied behind his back; and
they tell the king that their prisoner had cheerfully
yielded himself to them without resistance. They
add that those of the Bacchae who have been already
imprisoned, have had their bonds broken asunder in
some strange and supernatural manner, and are now
off in full career to join their companions on the hills.
The Stranger now stands loosed before the king,
who scans his handsome form, questions him on his
antecedents, and on the mysteries of his ritual. At
every point he is met by a calm reply. He threatens
to cut off his dainty locks, to rob him of his thyrsus,
and to put him into prison; all his threats are received
with dignity by one who stands assured that his god
will release him at his will, and is actually present all
the while, though unseen by the impious Pentheus.
The king orders his attendants to seize him once more
and shut him up in the darkness of the stables; he
also threatens to sell as slaves the Asiatic women
who have accompanied him, or else 'to stop their
thumping and their drumming fingers, and keep them
as his handmaids at the loom.' The Stranger warns
the attendants not to touch him; and of his own
accord marches off to the proposed place of imprisonment, declaring that, in requital for this wrong,
the king will be pursued by the vengeance of that
god whose very existence he denied1.

1 The prison may have been represented towards the left of the
Palace (etpKrTl & 7i Xada, says Pollux, iv ~ 125); and Pentheus, finding

Page  LIII
OUTLJIN'E OF THE PLAY. liii
o-Tdo-Itov SEVTEpOV (519-575), The king's denial of the
divinity of Dionysus and his maltreatment of the
leader of his revel-band, lead the Chorus to invoke
Dirce, the nymph of the Theban fountain in whose
waters the new-born god had been dipped. They
predict that their god's worship, though now rejected,
will ere long find a place in her heart. Ils aussi
call upon Dionysus himself, in whatever favoured
haunt he may be wandering, to come and rescue their
companion and themselves from the godless monster
who is persecuting them.
errEiC0SoV TpCrov (576-861). Scene I (576-603) KO/L/LO
between the Chorus and Dionysus. The prayer of the
Chorus is heard; they are startled by a voice calling
from the prison, announcing itself as the voice of their
Dieu. While they once more invoke him, the solid
ground is shaken by an earthquake, the entablature
of the palace appears to part asunder, and the flame
that has been playing round the monument of Semele
flashes into new brightness. The Chorus fall awestruck on the ground.-Scene II (604-64I). To their
joy, their companion now comes forth from the palace
bidding them rise again in reassurance, while he tells
them his adventures in the prison. Pentheus, so far
from having succeeded in binding him, had seized a
bull, which, in his gathering infatuation, he had mistaken for his prisoner, and had been hard at work
his attendants awestruck at the Stranger's presence, appears himself
to have followed the prisoner with the intention of putting him in bonds
(616). Wecklein, however, Scenische Sfudien u. s., p. 444, understands
EipKTrj as an ergastulum.

Page  LIV
liv

lINTR OD UCTIONi

trying to tie his cords about the captured beast, when
the shaking of the palace and the flashing of the flame
on Semele's tomb made him think the place was on
fire: he had called aloud to his servants, but they
had striven in vain to quench the flames; he had
given chase to a phantom, and had been stabbing the
bright air with his sword, supposing all the while that
it was his prisoner whom he was killing. The latter,
meanwhile, had quietly stepped outside the palace to
reassure his friends and to meet all the king's bluster
and fury with a calm and sober self-control.-Scene III
(642-659). Pentheus bursts out of the palace and is
astonished to find his 'prisoner' outside. The latter,
after a short encounter with the king, draws his attention to a messenger coming with news from Cithaeron.
Scene IV (660-786). The Messenger enters on
the right. He is a herdsman, and is therefore, as it
seems, represented with wallet and staff, with a goatskin flung over him, and with an appropriate mask'.
He has seen the women of Thebes resting under the
trees of Cithaeron; the lowing of his oxen had awakened them and they had all started up, donned their
Bacchic garb, and refreshed themselves with marvellous streams of water and wine, milk and honey.
Disturbed in their sacred rites by the herdsmen who
had resolved on capturing the king's mother to win
favour with the king, they had put the intruders to
1 Pollux, Iv ~ 137, 7rrpa, iprrKTrpia, &i60fpa,?7rl rTvP aidpoiKwv…6
Aiyv tpSOeplav 63yKov o6K Xw, 6repiKpvov XELO, Ka rrpixas TKrevi'fa devas
XEuKaS, 7rp6cowrov irwcoXp6v re Kal vtr6XEUKOv Ka JUVrKTpjP TpaC rp, CrTt(TK6VtOV ULETrwpOV, op0eaX/LObS OTKUOpWTrOS.

Page  LV
0 UTLINE OF THE PA Y.

Iv

flight, had rent and mangled the herds of cattle, and
had scoured the plains below, harrying everything right
and left, and turning to flight with their weak weapons
the lances of armed men who opposed them. In
conclusion, he urges the king, after this display of
miraculous power, to receive into the state the new
divinity, the god of wine and love and every other
joy.-The king, indignant at the discredit which the
conduct of these women is bringing on his rule, orders
his troops to muster at the Electran gates on the way
to mount Cithaeron.-Scene v (787 —86I): Dionysus
and Pentheuts. The Lydian stranger warns the king
that ordering out his forces can only end in their
being put to rout; he even offers to bring the women
to the palace without resorting to force of arms, but
his offer is declined by Pentheus who suspects a plot.
Suddenly a bright thought strikes the Stranger (8io),
he resolves on tempting the king to go and see the
revels in person, and the latter, thinking he cannot do
better than view the scene of action before joining in
pitched battle, is impelled by his growing delusion
to give his consent and even to allow himself, with
some misgiving, to assume the disguise of a woman,
and go to Cithaeron to spy out the doings of the
Maenads. Pentheus enters the palace to robe himself (846), while the Stranger remains on the stage,
assuring the Chorus, that the prey is now in their toils,
and calling on Dionysus to implant in the king's
mind a strong delusion which should draw him onward to his doom. He then joins Pentheus within
the palace, to help in arraying him for his adventure.

Page  LVI
Ivi

IA7TR OD UCTIO N.

o-TdiLaLov TpcTov (8s2-911). The Chorus, with the hope
of deliverance now rising before it, wonders whether it
will ever join again in the night-long dance, bounding
like the hunted fawn that has escaped the chase, and
found refuge in the shadowy woods and river-lawns
in whose solitudes she delights to disport herself.
Then, in graver strain, they dwell upon the doom
which slowly but surely is hunting down the impious
one, the despiser of a worship upheld by use and
grounded in nature. After a refrain, on the joy of
vanquishing one's enemies, which is twice sung by
both divisions of the Chorus, they end by extolling the
happiness of rest after toil, and by vaguely alluding
to the varied issues of mortal hopes.
ELOrcroSLov T'rapTrov (912-976). (From the palace enters
Dionysus, shortly followed by Pentheus in woman's
garb.) The king, in his ever-increasing delusion,
fancies that he sees two suns and a double Thebes,
and that his escort resembles a horned bull. the
guide is allowed to put the last touches to the king's
toilet, and, after an interchange of conversation in
which the king's lightmindedness is still further shewn
and in which nearly every remark that he makes is
answered by the Stranger in terms of bitter irony,
they leave the stage together for Cithaeron. Both
alike are exulting in the prospect of an approaching
victory, while the Stranger calls on Agave, and her
sisters on the hills, to stretch forth their hands at the
coming of the king to a glorious contest. (Excunt by
the right periactos.)

Page  LVII
OUTLINE OF THIE PLAY. lvii
crraorLjov erapTov (977 —1023). The Chorus, taking up
the appeal to Agave with which the scene on the
stage has just closed, calls on the 'hounds of Frenzy'
to incite the daughters of Cadmus to take vengeance
on the spy, predicting that his own mother will be
the first to visit with punishment the godless, lawless,
reckless profaner of the god's mysteries. After moralising on the sober and reverent temper, as contrasted
with the false affectation of wisdom, they close by
imploring their god to appear in one of his many
forms, and fling his toils about their foe.
icELO~SLOV rEi.TTOV (1024 —1152). By the right of the
stage enters one of the king's attendants. He announces the catastrophe which has meanwhile taken
place on Cithaeron. In answer to the eager questionings of the Chorus, he tells how Pentheus and the
Stranger and himself had reached the rock-girt glen
where the Maenads were holding holiday; how Pentheus had mounted a fir-tree, to spy out their revels;
howr, when the Stranger had vanished, a voice was
heard from heaven, calling on them to avenge themselves on the intruder; how Agave in her madness,
mistaking Pentheus for a beast of the chase, had, with
the help of the rest, uprooted the tree, so that he was
thrown to the ground, where she attacked him, while
lie in vain implored her to spare her son; and lastly,
how the mother had, with her sisters, tcrn all his
limbs asunder. The attendant withdraws, announcing the speedy approach of Agave and concluding
by briefly moralising on the wisdom of a sober and
reverent piety.
5. 13.7

Page  LVIII
Iviii INTR ODUCTIOIV.
The Chorus breaks out into a short ode of exultation (1153-1164), at the close of which appears, from
the right of the stage, Agave, attended by some of
her companions (i 68,, Sco3/o, 13, rro't7rol). She is
dressed in Bacchic attire, her eyeballs are rolling
wildly, and on the point of her thyrsus she bears the
head of her son, which she displays to the Chorus as
the head of some wild beast which she has captured.
While Agave glories in her victory, the Chorus reply
in strains of exultation intermingled with words of
pity. She then calls on all Thebes to wish her joy of
her prowess; she asks for Cadmus and for Pentheus
whom she misses, and whom she wants to come and
nail up the spoils of her chase over the door of his
palace.-The roSos (1165-1392) has meanwhile begun.
Cadmus, who had heard of his daughter's deed
of horror, just as he was returning from the mount
with Teiresias, now enters from the right of the stage,
with his attendants bearing the mangled limbs of
Pentheus, which he has gathered together, with much
toil, among the rocks of Cithaeron. He sees Agave,
still exulting in her prey, and little by little recalls her
to her senses, till at last she knows that the head of
the 'lion' is in truth the head of her son (1284). Cadmus, after explaining how she had come to kill him,
makes a speech of lamentation over the fate of his
grandson, which was followed by a corresponding
speech on the part of the mother; nearly all of this
lament has unhappily been lost, but it may be recovered in some small measure by the help of the
cento from the plays of Euripides, known by the
name of the Christus Patiens (see note on 1. 1329).

Page  LIX
OUTLINE OF THE PLA Y.

lix

Dionysus appears once more, now no longer as
the Lydian stranger unrecognised by the rest, but in
all the glory of his godhead'. In a speech whose
earlier portion has not come down to us, he foretells
the destinies of Cadmus and his wife, both of whom
are to be changed into serpents in Illyria, and, after
various adventures, to enjoy happiness at last. Il
also announces that Agave and her sisters, having the
guilt of bloodshed upon them, must leave the land.
Then follows a pathetic parting between Cadmus and
his daughters; Agave and her sisters now leave the
stage in the direction opposite to Cithaeron; Cadmus
enters the palace by the middle door; and, while tile
audience are rising, the play closes with some conventional anapaests sung by the Chorus as they march off
from the orchestra, by the same side as they entered
it, namely by theparodos to the left of the stage.
1 It has been suggested that as an indication of his divine character,
he probably appeared 'surrounded by clouds on the balcony of the
scene,' Donaldson, Theatre of the Greeks, p. 296.

C 2

Page  LX
I'TR OD UCTION.

~ 5. On the dramatis personae, the Choral Odes and
the Messengers' speeches.
It will be seen from the preceding outline that
the development of the play falls into two distinct
portions; ascending by three successive stages in the
first three'episodes,' culminating at the point where
the turn in the fortunes of the two principal characters
begins (1. 8Io), and descending in three corresponding
stages to the close of the tragedy1. In the language
of the Poetics of Aristotle, 'all that is between the
beginning of the piece and the last part, where the
change of fortune commences,' is called the &eo-~;
'all between the beginning of that change (rt;-,tUea/3aeco-S) and the conclusion' is the Xvo-t (chap. xviii).
In the present. instance, the tragic emotions of terror
and pity, so often referred to in that treatise, are
alike brought into play, the former by the awful end
of Pentheus, the latter by the unhappy fate of Agave.
When a friend kills a friend, or when the mother slays
her son, it is in cases such as these that our pity is
excited, and 'such incidents,' says Aristotle, 'are the
proper subjects for the poet's choice.' To execute
such a deed through ignorance and afterwards to
make the discovery' is the kind of dvaryvopLto'L to
which the same critic assigns a special preference;
1 This symmetry of division is noted by Wecklein, Einleitung,
p. i I, whose six stages are, however, slightly different to mine, as he
begins the todos at 1. 1024. But, if we count II53-64 as a 'choral
ode,' the definition of to6os in Ar. Poet. I2, as 'that part which has
no choral ode after it,' compels us to begin the to5os at i I65 (or 1 68),
and to treat 1024-1152 as a fifth r7reoa65ov.

Page  LXI
ON THIE DRAX14A TIS PERSONAE.

lxi

'for thus,' as he remarks, 'the shocking atrociousness
(ro tLLapov) is avoided, and, at the same time, the
discovery has a striking effect' (xiv).
The play brings before us a conflict between
divine power claiming its due recognition, and human
arrogance that denies that claim. In this conflict,
but for the disguise assumed by Dionysus, the contest
would have been too unequal to admit of any tragic
interest. As it is, he is brought face to face with
Pentheus,-man matched against man, the apparently
helpless prisoner calmly confronting the passionate
and overbearing king. His character as a god incarnate is admirably sustained throughout; under the
veil of humanity, the suffering and patient deity
maintains a serene composure, strong in the consciousness of ultimate victory. The effect of his encounters
with the king seems to ourselves, perhaps, to be
marred by the clever word-fence, which was doubtless
dear to the Greek audience for which the play was
intended, and by a cruel irony which appears to
impair the dignity of his character. Irony, in itself,
is quite consistent with dignity, and one of the loftiest
types of humanity recognised by Aristotle, that of
the te~yaX6cvXo%, though frank and direct in his
general discourse, is apt, 'with the many,' to resort to
irony. But, however interesting the irony of Greek
tragedy may be to an audience that is in the secret
of an impending doom, it is nevertheless a heartless
mockery of the wretch whom it deludes to his destruction; and it is inexcusable except so far as it
supplies the means of inflicting a sharp lesson on

Page  LXII
l xii INTR OD UCTION.
arrogance, like that of Pentheus. With an audience
that is familiar with the plot, it has undoubtedly the
dramatic interest of setting up a clear contrast between
the present delusion in which self-conceit, like his, is
enfolding itself, and the rapidly approaching crisis in
which that delusion will be rudely stripped off'.
PentFcus is a less interesting character. the
poet does not intend us to regard him as a martyr
to the cause of abstinence; and any pity that we
feel for him is far less than is inspired by the fate
of a Hippolytus. With headstrong impulse, and
arrogant bluster, the youthful king declines to listen
to the warnings of older men like Cadmus, and the
still more antiquated Teiresias, who, old as they are,
shew themselves eager to welcome the new worship.
And so he goes onward to his doom, hopelessly
entangled in a fatal infatuation. It is a redeeming
point in his character that, on hearing that all the
women of Thebes are holding revel in Cithaeron,
groundless as his anxiety proves to be, he is jealous for
their honour, and sensitive of the scandal involved in
such a departure from the ordinary decorum of their
secluded lives. And it is just because he is a mixed
character, with good and bad points alike, that his
death is a fit subject for a tragedy. For, whether in
real life or on the stage, an utter villain may meet his
1 There are some good remarks on tragic irony in Mr Gilkes'
School Lectures on the Electra of Sophocles, 1879, p. 59, a book which
ought to be in the hands of all who desire to read that play with profit.
Thirlwall's essay on the 'irony' of Sophocles is well known to every
scholar; there are some strictures on it in Prof. Campbell's Sophocles,
pp. III-I18.

Page  LXIII
ON TIHE DRAA ATIS PERSONAE. lxiii

doom without arousing in us either of the tragic
emotions of terror or of pity. It is the misfortunes
of characters who have enough of good in them to
be interesting, that excite our feelings by arousing in
us commiseration for their sufferings, and inspiring us
with awe at the contemplation of their doonm.
The aged Cadmius is an adherent of the new
creed, whose motives, however, for acknowledging
the divinity of Dionysus, are not of the highest order.
Blended with other reasons, it is a kind of family
pride that makes him suggest, that even if his daughter's son were no god, it would be best to call him so,
for the credit of the house. Hence, near the end of
the play, where all the characters have their doom
dealt out to them, Cadmus, though assured of an
ultimate happiness which appears to cause him but
little elation, has in the meantime his due share of
troubles allotted him.
Teiresias has a dignified part assigned to him as
the exponent of the true meaning of the legend of
Dionysus, and as the foreteller of his future greatness.
There is further a special fitness in the prophet of
Apollo being foremost in welcoming a deity whose
worship was afterwards so closely associated with
that of the god of Delphi. The conservative tone in
which he refers to the time-honoured traditions of the
ancestral religion (in 1. 200 ff.), though dramatically
appropriate in the lips of the aged soothsayer, is not
exactly in keeping with the position he himself takes
up in accepting the new divinity. For, by an inversion
Ar. Poet. 3; Matthew Arnold's J/Irope, p. xxxiii.

Page  LXIV
Ixiv INATR OD UCTION.
of the common contrast, while the youthful Pentheus
plays the part of the conservative in his mistrust of
novelty, it is the aged Teiresias who proves himself
more tolerant in his religious comprehensiveness.
Agavc, who is the unconscious instrument of the
vengeance of Dionysus, is herself punished by the
god for her rejection of him, by being inspired with a
frenzy that leads her unwittingly to slay her son. In
the delineation of that frenzy, blended as it is witli
the partial sanity which is one of the most painful
characteristics of mental delusion, the poet justifies
the remark of the ancient critic who mentions the
passion of madness as one in the treatment of which
he specially excelled'. But it is a matter of some surprise that, while the laws of Greek Tragedy strictly
prevented all deeds of horror, such as the slaying of
Pentheus, from being represented on the stage, and
left them to be only recited in a messenger's narrative, an Athenian audience should nevertheless have
tolerated the exhibition of the head of a son by the
mother who had killed him. The horror is, however,
partly diminished by her own unconsciousness, while
the same cause heightens the pity inspired by her
fate.
At first sight, it would appear that the play might
well have ended with the speecl of Cadmus over the
I (Longinus) 7replt i;ovs XV ~ 3, 'rtTL Ecv oW qftXo7rovW'raTog 6 FILptTrtlbS V6o TravTL rrcidOr, /YiavLs re Kal. epoTaTce, eKTrpc'yCSBo'c3, K.av rTOVTOC, US
OvK oT6 ' ed t701 TE'poLS (e' TLS i'repos, Stanley), errTvXL7xe cTTos, oV f>rjv
dXXa Kal Tas aA XXuas e7rtri0OecO avc frcTaicats OVK aTroXuos. See n. sure
1. 1214.

Page  LXV
ONV THE DRAiATIS PERSOVNAE.

1xv

body of Pentheus, which closes with a couplet briefly
expressing the moral of his doom:
e o" crTV o7rtS atLoPiovw vTrepQpovse,
F To0'o drpo-as Oilvarzov 7ETeJ'OLo eotsv (1326).
But it is probably just because the feelings of horror
have been too strongly excited, that the god himself
appears, to allay these disquieting emotions as well as
to assert the divine power which has been partially
in abeyance, to mete out due recompense to all, and,
even in the punishment of Cadmus, to assure him of
compensating consolations. It is for this reason also
that, just as in a Greek speech the peroration is
usually calmer than the immediately preceding portion, so the final scene, that here closely follows a
passage of highly-wrought excitement, is one of
tender and somewhat common-place farewells.
Another reason, why the play cannot really close
at the point above-mentioned, is to be found in the
lawv of symmetry which is a leading principle in
Greek poetry as well as in Greek art. The balance
of the composition requires the speech of Cadmus to
be followed by a corresponding speech of Agave.
Nearly all of the latter, and a great part of the subsequent speech of Dionysus, have unfortunately been
lost. This loss may, of course, have been due to
accident alone; a single leaf in the manuscript from
which our only copy of the latter half of the play
was transcribed, may have been torn out, simply
because it was near the close of the volume; but this
may also be worth suggestingr that the end of the

Page  LXVI
lxvi AIN7TR OD UCTION.
play may have been mutilated in that earlier codex
by one who was unconscious of the dramatic purpose
of the speeches of Agave and Dionysus.
The Choral Odes, unlike those of many other
dramas of Euripides, are here, as in a piece of the
same date, the IpfziigezEia inz Azuis, closely connected
with the action of the play. This may be readily
seen by referring to the outline sketched in the
previous section. They also shew a certain interdependence on one another; thus, the allusions, in
the first Stasimon,, to the places where Dionysus is
worshipped, find their echo in the reference to the
god's own haunts in the second; the longing for
liberty expressed in the second is after an interval
caught up by a similar strain in the third; tandis que le
moral reflexions of the first are to some extent
repeated in the last. It is doubtless undramatic for
the king, after ordering his attendants to capture all
the Theban revellers they can find, as well as the
Lydian stranger, to allow a band of Asiatic women to
go on beating their drums, and dancing and singing
unmolested in front of his own palace'. But the poet
appears to have been conscious of this difficulty, as he
makes Pentheus thireaten to put a stop to it (1. 5 IO-I4,
cf. 545, 1036); and the king is only prevented from
actually doing so by his anxiety to capture the
Lydian stranger; but as soon as he has succeeded in
this object, he becomes hopelessly entangled in toils
that leave him no chance of carrying out his threat.
1 Mahaffy on Eur. p. 84.

Page  LXVII
ON THE CHORAL ODES.

lxvii

Had Pentheus put the Chorus into prison, the play
would have at once collapsed; and we may fairly
allow a position of privilege to so essential a portion
of the conventional surroundings of a Greek tragedy.
The only other course would have involved having a
chorus that was either coldly neutral, or actually
hostile to the worship of Dionysus, and therefore out
of harmony with the object of the play. A chorus of
aged Thebans, for instance, might have required no
departure from dramatic probability, but it would
have been a poor exchange for our revel-band of
Oriental women, gaily clad in bright attire and singing jubilant songs, as they lightly move to the sound
of Bacchanalian music.
The choral metres, a conspectus of which is given
at the close of the volume, are all of them admirably
adapted to give expression to the varied emotions of
the votaries of Dionysus. The Trochaic passage, in
11. 604-64I, is well suited as a transition from the
hurried excitement of the preceding scene, to the
quieter Iambic verses which immediately follow it.
The Iambic lines, in general, are remarkable for the
large number of resolved feet, which is one of the
marks of the poet's later manner'.
The composition of Messengers' Speeches is one of
the points in which Euripides excels; et dans le
1 This, as remarked by Hermann, is a characteristic of all his plays
that belong to a later date than 01. 89 or go (B.c. 424-417), e.g. le
Troades of 415, and the Orestes of 408. Of the versification of the
Bacchae, according to Ilartung's Eu:. rest. ii p. 512, observzatum est
a quibusdam senarios i ps minus 50 priminum pcdema anapaeslu hzabere,
et in 950 versibus solutiones 368 esse.

Page  LXVIII
Ixviii IA'TRP OD UCTIOV.
present play we have the advantage of two such
passages, in which the revels on Cithaeron and the
death of Pentheus are described in narratives which
are, perhaps, unsurpassed in Greek tragedy for radiant
brilliancy, energetic swiftness and the vivid representation of successive incidents, following fast on one
another. In listening to the first speech, we find
ourselves in a wonderland where all is marvellous,
and we feel that here, at any rate, we have one
who, like Aristophanes in his lighter moods, would
have been able to appreciate a creation of the fancy
like the MIidsummzer Nighzt's Dream of our own poet.
Of both the messengers' speeches we may almost
say, as has been lately said of the dramas of Calderon,
that 'the scenery is lighted up with unknown and
preternatural splendour.'
The account of the catastrophe in the second
speech is remarkably vigorous. The quiet passage in
its earlier portion, telling of the king and his attendant and their mysterious guide, stealing in silence
along the glades of Cithaeron, with the few following
touches of description pleasantly representing to us
the glen with its rocks and rivulets and overshadowing
pine-trees, has, it will be observed, the dramatic effect
of heightening by force of contrast the tumultuous
excitement attending the deed of horror which is the
subject of the latter part of the messenger's recital.
For the effect thus produced, we may compare the
scene near the end of the first part of Goethe's Faust,
1 E. J. Hasell, Calderon. Cf. Symonds' Studies of the Greek Poets,
1873, p. 211, 2.3.

Page  LXIX
ON TIHE JMESSE NGERS' SPEE CH0ES. lxix

where, shortly before the tumult of the wild revels
of the IValplorisnaci/t, we find Faust quietly talking to Mephistopheles about the charm of silently
threading the mazes of the valleys, and of climbing
the crags from which the ever-babbling fountain falls,
when the breath of spring has already wakened the
birch into life, and is just quickening the lingering
pine'. WVe have a similar instance of repose in
Shakespeare in the short dialogue between Duncan
and Banquo just as they approach the gates of
Macbeth's castle (lIacbeth I. vi. I-9); upon which it
was well observed by Sir Joshua Reynolds that 'their
conversation very naturally turns upon the beauty of
its situation, and the pleasantness of the air: and
Banquo observing the martlets' nests in every recess
of the cornice, remarks that where those birds most
breed and haunt, the air is delicate. The subject of
this quiet and easy conversation gives that repose so
necessary to the mind, after the tumultuous bustle of
the preceding scenes, and perfectly contrasts the scene
of horror that immediately succeeds'.' Another instance of the 'lull before the storm' is noticed by a recent writer on Calderon, in 'the pretty pastoral scene'
in the play called the Hair of Absalom where the
sheep-shearers are pleasantly conversing with Tamar
just before the arrival of Amnon and his brothers3.
1 Im Labyrinth der Thilecr hinzuschleichen, Dann diesen Felsen zu
r-steigenz, VTon den der Quell sich ewig sprudeInd stiirzt, Das ist die
Lust, die solche Pfade wiirzt! Der Frihliing iwebt schon in den Birken,
(Und selbst die Fichtefiihll ihn schon! Part I, Act IV, Scene 5, init.
' Discourse viii, in vol. I, p. 442, of his Works, ed. 1835.
a Calderon, by E. J. Hasell, p. 2o; id. by Trench, ed. 2, p. 55.

Page  LXX
Ixx

LVTR OD UCTION.

The Second Messenger's speech was referred to
by Humboldt as a 'description of scenery disclosing
a deep feeling for nature,' but, as remarked elsewhere
(p. 211), the line and a half on the
' rock-girt glen, with rivulets watered,
with stone-pines overshadowed,'
is nearly all that we there find to prove that the poet
was fully capable of appreciating and describing the
picturesque element in nature, had it suited his purpose to do so at greater length. As it is, a few
touches suffice to give a clear and vivid impression of
the kind of scene intended by him, and all more
elaborate details would have been obviously out of
place; for of this, as of all the master-pieces of Greek
literature, the remark of Lessing holds good, 'that it
is the privilege of the ancients never in any matter to
do too much or too little' (Laokoon, preface). the
elaborate word-painting of Shelley, in Beatrice's
description of the gloomy chasm appointed for her
father's murder (Cczci III I, 243-265), impressive as
it is to the reader who has time to linger over its
details in the solitude of his room, would have been
utterly out of place in any play intended for representation on the stage. For comparison with the
above passage, we can only quote the few following
lines:
'High above there grow,
With intersecting trunks, from crag to crag,
Cedars, and yews, and pines; whose tangled hair
Is matted in one solid roof of shade
By the dark ivy's twine.'

Page  LXXI
ONr THE MESSENGERS' SPEE CHES. lxxi
But, as a whole, it would certainly have been regarded
by any Greek tragedian as unsuitable for delivery
before an enormous audience, like that which assembled in the theatre of Dionysus; as 'it is impossible
for a thousand people at once to be sentimental and
tender on the beauties of nature'.' It may also be
noticed that Shelley's description, with which the
present passage has before now been unfavourably
contrasted2, is not true to the facts, as it does not
really correspond to the actual scenery on the way to
the castle of Petrella, which he had never visited;
whereas the few touches of topographical detail given
in the above passage are not only beautiful in themselves, but have also the advantage of being in strict
accordance with the natural scenery of Cithaeron.
In some respects, it is true, the taste for the picturesque among the Greeks was different from that of
modern times; but as regards Euripides in particular,
it would be easy to quote not a few passages which,
even in a modern poet, would be considered picturesque
in an eminent degree (e.g. the sunrise scene in the
Ion). It is, however, worth while to observe that the
most telling touches of description in the Hippolytus,
where Phaedra longs for 'the pure draught from the
dewy fountain,' for 'rest beneath the black poplar in
the leafy meadow,' for 'a ride among the woodland
pines or over the sands unwashed by the wave,' are
all of them put in the lips of a love-sick woman; et,
for all this, she is rudely rebuked by her common

1 W. G. Clark, Peloponnesus, p. 123.
2 By Cope in Cambridge Essays, I856, p. 137 –

Page  LXXII
lxxii

INTR OD UCTIOA.

place nurse, who, reflecting perhaps the ordinary
Athenian feeling in such matters, warns her mistress
that it would be unsafe to express such longings as
these in public, as they would at once be set down to
a disordered imagination. In the present play, the
occasional outbursts of admiration for the beauties of!| ~ nature are probably intended to be characteristic of
* the enthusiasm of the votaries of Dionysus, whose
favourite haunts are to be found in the woodland
solitudes and on the lonely hills (e.g. lines 38, I35,
874).
i ~ ~ 1 1On the general subject of the Greek view of the picturesque in
nature, see further, in Ruskin's Modern Painters, part IV, chap. xiii.;
Cope in Cambridge Essays for I856, 'Onz the taste for theic icttresqzcw
among the Greeks'; W. G. Clark's Peloponnesus, pp. 118-124; and
i Ti; Woermann, Uebcr deln landschaftlichen Aatursinn der Griechcen nmd
Riomer, Miinchen, 1871, pp. 130, esp. pp. 42-50.
A.~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~' )
o
i:
je'

Page  LXXIII
ONV TfHE PURPOSE OF THE PLA Y. Ixxiii

~ 6. On t/he purpose of the play.
On a superficial view, it might appear that the
object of the play is nothing more than the glorification of the god whose worship was intimately connected with the origin and development of the Greek
drama; but a more careful examination shews that
there are also indications of a less obvious kind,
pointing to an ulterior purpose. Among such indications it has been usual to quote one of the speeches
of Teiresias, with its protest against rationalising and
philosophising about the gods, and its declaration of
acquiescence in the traditions of the popular faith
(200 ff). But, as appears from passages in other
plays, the poet had no great love for prophets and
soothsayers; and, in the present instance, he allows
the taunt of interested motives which is flung at
Teiresias by Pentheus, to remain unanswered by the
former (n. on 257). Accordingly, we cannot unreservedly accept the prophet as the spokesman of
the poet's opinions; and we shall, here as elsewhere,
look more naturally for these in the choral odes.
The chorus in Greek tragedy is, again and again, the
interpreter to the audience of the inner meaning of
the action of the play; and the moral reflexions
which are to be found in the lyrical portions of the
Bacchae seem in several instances to be all the more
likely to be meant to express the poet's own opinions,
when we observe that they are not entirely in keeping
S. B1.

Page  LXXIV
Ixxiv

VITR OD UCTIO.

with the sentiments which might naturally have been
expected from a band of Asiatic women. We are
told, for example, that 'to be knowing is not to be
wise'; that, in other words, it is folly to be wise in
one's own conceit (395); that the true wisdom consists
in holding aloof from those who set themselves up to
be wiser than their fellows, and in acquiescing contentedly in the common sense of ordinary men (427).
The sober temper is commended (1002), the gentle
life extolled (388), and practical good sense preferred
to the pretence of superior intelligence. Dionysus
himself, at the end of one of his speeches, calls it a
mark of true wisdom to cultivate a sage and easy
good-temper (641). Lastly, at the close of the
Second Messenger's speech, in the few sententious
lines which, with their didactic moralising, appear to
fall rather flat after the swift and energetic account of
the catastrophe', we are told that, for mortal men,
the highest wisdom is to be found in 'sober sense and
awe of things divine.'
What are we to make of all this? In these denunciations of r') o'oro/v, are we really listening to the
pupil of Anaxagoras, to him whom his Athenian
admirers called the 'philosopher of the stage2,' to the
most book-learned of the great Tragic writers of
1 Bathos of this kind is unavoidable whenever the didactic style of
poetry follows closely on an instance of a higher type. This is well
shewn by the moralising refrain at the close of the successive stanzas
in one of Wordsworth's poems of the imagination, called' Devotional
incitements.' For this illustration I am indebted to Professor Colvin.
2 Athenaeus iv. p. 158 E, 6 KIvKh'bS oVTroS 0X6'o0-os, Vitruvius,
Book vIII, Preface.

Page  LXXV
ON THE PURPOSE OF THE PLA Y lxxv

antiquity, who, in the phrase of a hostile critic, is made
to describe himself as 'from the scrolls of lore distilling the essence of his wit"? Is the poet who here
upholds the honour of Dionysus, and maintains the
belief in his divinity, the same as he who, elsewhere,
allows his characters to rail unrebuked against the
legends of the popular mythology, and even to deny
the wisdom of Apollo, the justice of Athene, the
righteousness of Zeus2, and to speak in vague terms
of the very existence of the greatest of the gods'?
A partial solution of the difficulty is not far to
seek. Euripides, like others who have hesitated in
accepting unreservedly the tenets of a popular creed,
had in his earlier writings run the risk of being misunderstood by those who clung more tenaciously to
the traditional beliefs. His political enemy, the ultraconservative Aristophanes, had unscrupulously set
him down as an atheist4, though, all the while, it
would appear that he had only striven for the recognition of a higher type of the divine than that which
was represented in the current mythology of the day.
Hence our play, with its story of just doom falling on
the 'godless' Pentheus' (rov iOeov, 995), may be
regarded as in some sort an apologia and an eirenicon,
or as, at any rate, a confession on the part of the poet
that he was fully conscious that, in some of the simple
1 Ar. Ranae 943, 410: Athen. T. p. 3 A.
2 El. I246, Andr. II65, i.. 342-7, Ip.. 570, f-5am.
268, 1030 Nauck's Eur. p. xxx).
3 Tro. 884, fragm. 483 and 904 (ibid.).
4 Thesm. 450, vvv 6' ovros ev raaitv rpaCyqc'atus rotcWv robs dv'pas
cvanrTrELKeP ObK elvac Oeolvs.
f2

Page  LXXVI
lxxvi

IVTR OD UCTION0

legends of the popular faith, there was an element of
sound sense which thoughtful men must treat with
forbearance, resolved on using it, if possible, as an
instrument for inculcating a truer morality, instead of
assailing it with a presumptuous denial. Peut-être
also, 'among the half-educated Macedonian youth,
with whom literature was coming into fashion, the
poet,' as has been suggested by a recent critic, 'may
have met with a good deal of that insolent secondhand scepticism which is so offensive to a deep and
serious thinker, and he may have wished to shew
them that he was not, as they doubtless hailed him,
the apostle of this random speculative arrogance1.'
It was one of our own countrymen,the accomplished
Tyrwhitt, who was apparently the first to suggest that
the play was a kind of apologia, intended to meet the
charges of impiety which had been brought against
the poet and his friends; a view which is also taken
by Schoene in the introduction to his edition (p. 20).
Lobeck, in his Aglaophzamus, goes further than this,
in regarding it as possibly inspired by a polemical
purpose, and directed against the rationalists of the
time, in commendation of the worship of Dionysus,
and in recognition of the right of the people, as
opposed to the learned few, to have the chief voice in
matters of religion2. Similarly, K. O. Miiller3 observes
1 Professor Mahaffy's Euripides, p. 85.
1p. 623, fabida dithyrambi quaz tragoediae similior totaque ita
comzpairata, ut contra ill'us temjporis Rationalislas scripta videatui,
qua et Bacchicarum religionum sanctimonia commendatzur (72 sqq.),
et rerum dizinarzum disceptatio ab eruditorium judiciis ad popiuli
transfe-rtur suftragia (426-431), aliaque multa in eandemn sententiam,

Page  LXXVII
OAr THE PURPOSE OF THE PLAY. Ixxvii

that 'this tragedy furnishes us with remarkable conclusions in regard to the religious opinions of Euripides at the close of his life. In this play he appears,
as it were, converted into a positive believer, or, in
other words, convinced that religion should not be
exposed to the subtilties of reasoning; that the understanding of man cannot subvert ancestral traditions
which are as old as time, that the philosophy which
attacks religion is but a poor philosophy, and so forth
(200 ff.); doctrines which are sometimes set forth with
peculiar impressiveness in the speeches of the old
men Cadmus and Teiresias, or, on the other hand,
form the foundation of the whole piece: although it
must be owned that Euripides, with the vacillation
which he always displays in such matters, ventures,
on the other hand, to explain the offensive story
about the second birth of Bacchus from the thigh of
Zeus, by a very frigid pun on a word which he
assumes to have been misunderstood in the first
quae sive poeta tpro e se pse robavit sive alienis largitus est auriculis,
certe magnam vim, magnam auctoritatem apud homines illius aetatis
habuerunt, quae ab inpia sophiistarum levitate modo ad fanaticas defiuxerat superstitiones (Verizs tamen est, remarks Bernhardy, eadem
aetate plebi superstitiones peregrinas, doctis et elegantioribus viris scita
Soaphistareum placuisse. TheologumenaG Gracca II. p. x, and Hist.
of Greek Literature I. p. 400). Musgrave viewed it as an attack on
Critias and others on 1. 200, non dubito, quint poeta…Atheniensium
religiones respexerit quip/pe quas sollicitare turn maxime et illudere
coepeerunt Critias, Alcibiades aliique, ne Socratem etiam annumerem,
Athenis florentes…Quanquam neque specie caret Tyrwhitti sententia,
poetam ea mente hanc fabzuam edidisse, uit gravissimum illud impietatis
crimen, quod curm Socrate et allis eiusdem sodalitii hominibus commune
habuit, a se amoveret.
3 Hist. Gr. Lit. I. p. 499.

Page  LXXVIII
lxxviii

BINTR OD UCTION.

instance' (292). On this hypothesis it would appear
that his earlier sceptical temper with its 'obstinate
questionings' had, like a troubled stream, run itself
clearer with the lapse of time; and that toward the
close of life the 'years that bring the philosophic
mind' had led him at last to a calmer wisdom.
In contrast to such a view as that last quoted,
which sees in our play a recantation of rationalism
and a return to orthodox belief, we have the position
taken up, in the first instance, by Hartung1, who
points out that, so far from there being any such
alteration of opinion, the moral attitude of the poet
in the Bacchae is similar to that which he had assumed
in the Hippolytzs,-a work produced in 428 B.C., more
than thirty years before. The role of Pentheus who
denies the divinity of Dionysus resembles that of
Hippolytus, who disdains the worship of Aphrodite;
the vengeance taken by the god of wine in the former
finds its parallel in that exacted by the goddess of
love in the latter; in both alike, the wrath of an
offended deity falls on one who sets himself in selfconceited opposition to its power. According to this
view, which is further developed by Eduard Pfander'
and accepted by Mr Tyrrell, we have here, in the
language of those critics, no 'change in the point of
view from which Euripides regards the old gods of
the heathen mythology. As Aphrodite is no mere
personal goddess, but a great factor in the order of
the world, and a source of happiness and joy; so

1 Eurziidcs restitulus, 1844, II. p. 542.
2 U, ber Eur. Bakchcnz, p. 2

Page  LXXIX
ONV THE PURPOSE OF THE PLAY. lxxix

Dionysus is not only the god of wine, but a higher
personification of passion in religion, and joy in life;
and the Hipfpolytus as well as the Bacchae teaches that
we should not neglect these sources of joy, enthusiasm,
and passion'.' The Bacchae, continues Mr Tyrrell,
'reprobates rationalism' (7ro a-oo, 395); and as the
sentiment referred to comes from a chorus, we may
allow it as evidence respecting the poet's opinions at
the time. But we fail to see anything more than a
superficial likeness between the two plays, as regards
their general subject; and we doubt whether the
tracing of such likeness can, with advantage, be pursued into detail by the quotation of single lines front
the dialogue of the play; for this, in so far as it must
be kept, more or less, true to character, lends itself
less readily to the expression of the actual views
of the dramatist himself. Thus, even if we admit
that a 'recoil from public opinion' is condemned by
such a line as oiKei peO' tCjzwv, ir p Ov'pae -o3v vOzJLo
(331), we can hardly admit as proof of the poet's
opinions the line quoted from the Hippolytus, twltreiv
'T ae/jvov KcaL T7o (7t 77raaLv (LXov (92). The latter, as
the context shews, is only an incidental remark on
the part of the attendant, that it is the rule with all
men to dislike reserve as contrasted with an affable
complaisance, whence he infers that the same law
holds with regard to the gods, and that therefore the
dread goddess Aphrodite will necessarily hate Hippolytus for not deigning to address her. Similarly, we
hesitate to accept lines 467 and 487 of the same play,
1 Mr Tyrrell's Introd. p. xvii.

Page  LXXX
IxxX

IVINTR ODUCTIONRV.

as 'directed against overwiseness.' In the former the
nurse warns her mistress that 'mortals ought not to
make an over-serious business of life' (KTrroveiv /lov
Xlav); and in the latter, the mistress retorts, that wellordered states and households have ere now been
ruined by over-specious arguments like those she had
just heard (ol Xltav KaXot, X6yol). The second of these
lines, so far from confirming, is actually directed
against maxims like that of the first; and, even if it
were otherwise, we could scarcely regard Phaedra or
her nurse as intended by the poet to be the mouthpiece of his own opinions.
But though, for these reasons, we hesitate in
accepting all the three passages above quoted, as
proof that the poet's disagreement with the Sophistic
type of rationalism is not confined to the Bacc/ae, but
may also be detected in the Hippolytlus; we readily
concur with Mr Tyrrell in recognising in the poet's
later work 'an ethical contentment and speculative
calm' which to some extent distinguishes it from his
earlier plays, not excluding the Hzipolytts itself. In
the play last mentioned, we have a remarkable passage in which the chorus, while confessing they derive
consolation from a belief in the care of the gods, yet
declare that, on looking at the chances and changes
of human life, they fail to get a clear view of the
dealings of providence; and so they are content with
the prayer: 'may destiny send me these gifts from
the gods, good fortune attended with wealth, and a
mind untouched by sorrow; may the thoughts of my
heart be not over-precise, not yet marked with the

Page  LXXXI
OJ'V THE PURPOSE OF THE PLA Y. lxxxi

stamp of a sham' (od:a je pzrr' adrpe rK? /iTr'V av wrap'c-r77o eveit7, 02 —I I I9). In the present play, on
the other hand, we have a stronger declaration of a
contented acquiescence in an established order, a
recognition of the existence of a moral government of
the world (392-4, 882-90), and an assurance that
life becomes painless when it cherishes a temper which
befits mortal men, a temper that is prompt in its
obedience to the claims of heaven (I002).
On the whole, we are inclined to hold that, difficult as it is to reconstruct from the writings of a
dramatist, an account of the author's opinions, we
may fairly trace, here and there, in the choral odes of
our play, not so much a formal palinode of any of the
poet's earlier beliefs, but rather a series of incidental
indications of a desire to put himself right with the
public in matters on which he had been misunderstood. The growth of such a desire may well have
been fostered by the poet's declining years, and the
immature asperities of his earlier manner may have
been softened to some extent by the mellowing
influence of age; while his absence from Athens may
have still further intensified his natural longing after
a reconciliation with those who had failed to appreciate the full meaning of his former teaching.

Page  LXXXII
l'xxii

IVTR OD UCTIOzfN.

~ 7. The after fame of the pla'.
The play, on its exhibition at Athens after the
poet's death, appears to have rapidly acquired a considerable celebrity. It is not improbable that it was
on the occasion of its first representation that the
prize for tragedy, which had seldom fallen to Euripides
in his lifetime', was awarded to his posthumous work
with an appreciation that was perhaps all the more
keen now that the poet himself had passed away. Il
is referred to in general terms by Plutarch as one of
the plays repeatedly reproduced with lavish expenditure on the Athenian stage2. It would also appear to
have become a favourite play in Macedonia; and the
story already told of the mother of Alexander the
Great shews that so enthusiastic a votaress of Dionysus would have fully entered into its spirit, though,
so far as I am aware, there is no authority for the
statement that 'she openly played the part of the
mother of Pentheus.' It was quoted by Alexander
at his own table (see n. on 266); and it supplied Aristippus with an apt reply to Plato at the court of the
second Dionysius (see n. on 317), who had himself
attempted the composition of dramatic poetry, and
testified his admiration for Euripides by paying a
high price for his lyre, his tablets and his pen, and
1 Gellius NV. A. xvII. 4, Eurijpident quoque 11. Varro ait, cirn
quinque et septtaginta tragoedias scripserit, in quino'ue solis vicisse, ciutr
cum saepe vincerent aliquotpoetae 2ignavissimli.
2 de Gloria Afjz. c. 8

Page  LXXXIII
-THE, AFTER FAME OF THE PLAY 1xxxii

dedicating them in the temple of the Muses in his
own capital'. It was acted in the camp of the Parthians on the occasion when the actor, playing the
part of Agave with the head of Pentheus, held aloft
the head of Crassus which had been flungT into the
tent by the messenger of the Parthian general (n. on
11i69). The actor on that historic occasion was a
native of Tralles; and a player from another city of
Asia Minor, who excelled in the dramatic representation of scenes from our play, is commemorated in the
following anonymous epigram:
E'-.EVOI3W'VTO13 ~41vpvat'ov1)E1'Ko'va.
Av37o'p O'patv'1V IOaKcXov C'80'a/Lev,?7zIP11a Aqpa~t
o Wfpeo/3vN veapf', N'PXE xopotI~tavlqp,
Kat Kc~ao 1 wciayr3 icat roll aof) iX77
a~y~yeXol C~ctKil)v 1Xyz~'Oimv Otaoaw,
ua~ 7 evaovo-av Ci'P atL-a~t 77-a o3 'Ayth
Xvo-oTac8a. 'Pis'V Ot177, aii~po, v'volcpto-bt?~
(Aid/h. Gr. XVI. 289.)
A similar performance in Italy is mentioned with
praise in an epigram by Antipater of Sidon on the
actor Pylades who practised his art at Rome in the
time of Augustus (Suet. Aug.0 45):
Eb; o —r'X-qv llIvXa'8ov O'Xqc~Z
AiV70v I8aKxevT7-v '7v&3v Oeo'v, 97'vtca Ba6KXa9?
Etc 6Fbft(c4 'Ira-Xqv?'jyaye 7'poz-p OvttCXqV,

I VlaXr'ptov, iX-rop, ypaq5E~ov (Hermippus in vita Eur. cod. Vindob.
11. 77-8,2, Nauck).

Page  LXXXIV
1xxxiv

lvVTR OD UCTIO.

dvOpowVroi HvI d(Xal rep7rrvv l os', oca XopePovw
ai/eovoS dlScprjov TO7racav e`TrXroe 7roXlv.
e d3at tLyvwCo'KOVfL TOv E C TrvpoS' ovplOcvws 6
o o%5, o 7raXEcP voXt xepct koXevo/LeVOS.
(XVI. 290.)
The play is referred to by Plato and Aristotle.
It was rendered into Latin by Attius, and was especially familiar to Catullus and Horace, Virgil and
Ovid. Excerpts from its pages appear not only in
the florilegium of Stobaeus, but also in the geographical treatise of Strabo, whose subject is one of
those quae non possuzt dvOijpoypadel-Oat. It is often
mentioned in later literature by writers such as Plutarch, Polyaenus, Philostratus, Gellius, Athenaeus,
Aelian, and Sextus Empiricusl. Clement of Alexandria, besides expressly quoting it in several passages,
borrows from the fate of Pentheus a notable illustration, describing the various schools of Philosophy as
'rending in pieces the one truth, like the Bacchants
who rent the body of Pentheus and bore about the
fragments in triumph2.' Lucian, again, tells a story
of Demetrius the Cynic, who saw an illiterate person
reading a /3i/3Xlov Ka'\laTov, T 'a Bac'Xas oaL t rov
EVLpt7r8ov. He had reached the passage where the
Messenger is reciting the doom of Pentheus and the
awful deed of Agave, when the Cynic seized the book
1 For details, see notes referred to in the Index, under the head
of the names above mentioned.
2 Stromateus, I. chap. I3 init., p. 349 (in Milton's Areopagitica
a similar image is taken from the mangled limbs of the slaughtered
Osiris). See also note on 1. 47o.

Page  LXXXV
THE AFTER FAME OF THE PLA Y lxxxv

and tore it into pieces, exclaiming: 'it is better for
Pentheus to be rent asunder once by me, than murdered many a time by you'.' Not a few passages of
the play are paraphrased by Nonnus, the author of
the florid and monotonous epic called the Dionysiaca,
who travels over the same ground in books XLIV to
XLVI of his poem; and lastly, a large number of its
lines were appropriated by the compiler of the dreary
cento known as the Christus Patiens, once attributed
to Gregory of Nazianzus.
During the middle ages Euripides appears to have
attracted more attention than Aeschylus or Sophocles.
No mention of either of the latter is made by Dante,
though, in a somewhat arbitrary list, he places Euripides, Antiphon (or Anacreon?), Simonides, Agathon
and 'other Greeks who once adorned their brows
with laurel,' among the blameless souls, who, by
reason of being unbaptized, haunt the first circle of
his Inferno2. In the sixteenth century the Bacchae
was translated into Latin Prose and into Italian as well
as Latin Verse3. In the seventeenth we find Milton
reading Euripides (the 'sad Electra's poet' of one of
his best known sonnets) 'not only with the taste of a
poet, but with the minuteness of a Greek critick4.'
adv. indoctum ~ 19.
– Pzirgatorio xxI. Io6 (with Inf. IV. 58 ff.).
3 In L. V., by Coriolanus Martirianus (1556); in Latin by Dorotheus Camillus (Basil. 1550) and Stiblinus (I562) and Canter (I597); in
Italian by Chr. Guidiccioni (ob. 1582, publ. I747) and Padre Carmeli
('poor,' 1743-53).
4 Todd's Life of A., I. p. I58, who refers to Warton's second ed.
of the smaller poems, p. l68. The biographers of Milton have,

Page  LXXXVI
Ixxxvi

IV TROD UCTION.

We read of Goethe in his old age praising the manner
in which our play sets forth the conflict between the
might of Godhead and the infatuation of man, and
recognising in Dionysus, as here represented, 'the
pagan image of an outraged and patient' Deity. the
German scholar, who was the first to draw special
attention to the poet's criticism, reverently remarks
that the play further suggests 'the contrast between
the Pagan and the Christian ideal-between repressed
menace and gentle firmness-between defiance and
reliance.'
Even those who, like August W. Schlegel, have
no partiality for our poet, and indeed appear to be
inspired by an almost personal animosity against him,
have nevertheless admitted the excellence of this
particular play. Schlegel's critique is as follows:
The Bacchae represents the infectious and tumultuous enthusiasm
of the worship of Bacchus, with great sensuous power and vividness of
conception. The obstinate unbelief of Pentheus, his infatuation, and
terrible punishment by the hands of his own mother, form a bold
picture. The effect on the stage must have been extraordinary.
apparently, not observed that the CosNus, which contains several Euripidean passages, was written for the autumn of the very year in which
the poet bought his copy of the Geneva ed. of Eur. (n. on 1. r88).
1 The words quoted are borrowed from Mr Jebb's review of Mr
Tyrrell's ed. in the Dark Blue for July, I87I. Goethe's own words are
as follows: Kzann man die iliachit der Gottheit znd die Verblenudui g dcr
J1ensche. geistreicher darstellen als es hier geschehen ist? Das Stirck,gibe die fruchtbarste Vertgleichzu g eiZner moderen dramnatischen Darstcllbarkeit der leidenden Gottheit in Cihrstus nrit der antiken eines tihnlichcze
Leidens, uwn daraus desto m7dchtiger hervorzugehcn, ist Dionysos (W.
Miiller, Got/e's lectze literarische T/hdtifkeit, p. 9, quoted by G. IT.
Meyer, de Eur. Bacch. p. 22). Pfander on Eur. p. 37 n.

Page  LXXXVII
THE AFTER FAM E OF THE PLAY. lxxxvii

Imagine, only, a chorus with flying and dishevelled hair and dress,
tambourines, cymbals, &c, in their hands, like the Bacchants we
see on bas-reliefs, bursting impetuously into the orchestra, and executing their inspired dances amidst tumultuous music,-a circumstance,
altogether unusual, as the choral odes were generally sung and danced
at a solemn step, and with no other accompaniment than the flute.
Here the luxuriance of ornament, which Euripides everywhere affects,
was for once appropriate. When, therefore, several of the modern
critics assign to this piece a very low rank, they seem to me not
to know what they themselves would wish. In the composition of
this piece, I cannot help admiring a harmony and unity, which we
seldom meet with in Euripides, as well as abstinence from every
foreign matter, so that all the motives and effects flow from one
source, and concur towards a common end. After the Hif.polytits,
I should be inclined to assign to this play the first place among
all the extant works of Euripides1.
Dean Milman, a more friendly critic, while admitting that there are passages of more surpassing beauty
in the Mcdea and the Hippolytls, and of greater
tenderness in the Alcestis and Iphizencia, does ' not
scruple to rank the Bacchae, on the whole, in the
highest place among the tragedies of Euripides.' Il
also records the fact that his friend Lord Macaulay,
notwithstanding the contemptuous depreciation with
which he had referred to the poet in his juvenile essay
on Milton, nevertheless acknowledged in his maturer
years the 'transcendent excellence of the Bacczac2.'
In his own copy of our author we find him confessing
his change of mind as follows: 'I can hardly account
for the contempt which, at school and college, I felt
for Euripides. I own that I like him now better than
Sophocles'……' The Bacchae is a most glorious play.
1 Schlegel's Dramatic Lectures, p. 139.
2 Milman's Agamemnon and Bacchanals, p. 97.

Page  LXXXVIII
Ixxxviii

IINTR OD UCTION.

I doubt whether it be not superior to the lMedea. Il
is often very obscure; and I am not sure that I fully
understand its general scope. But, as a piece of
language, it is hardly equalled in the world. And,
whether it was intended to encourage or to discourage
fanaticism, the picture of fanatical excitement which
it exhibits has never been rivalled'.'
1 Trevelyan's Life of 1acazlday, end of Appendix to vol. I.

BRONZE MIRROR IN THE COLLEGIO ROMANO.

Page  LXXXIX
TEXTUAL CRITICISA1( OF THE PFLA '. lxxxi's

~ 8. The tlxtual criticism of thz pl7ay.
Of the surviving manuscripts of Euripides, none
belong to an earlier date than the twelfth century.
They are divided into two groups, the first of which
contains in all nine plays alone: namely, the AIcestf-,
Anlzdromache, Hczuba, Hippo5ytfs, iledelca, Orestes, jRhcszs, Troadcs and Phoenissae,' while the second, which
is inferior to the first, further includes the remaining
ten. The MSS of the second group are (I) the Harleian MS in the British Museum, of the sixteenth century, commonly designated by the symbol A; (2) the
Palatine Ais in the Vatican, a folio on parchment, of
the fourteenth century (B or P), no. 287; and (3) the
Laurentian Ms, written on paper, in the library
of San Lorenzo at Florence, also of the fourteenth
century (C). Three of these ten plays, namely the
Helen, Elcctra and Hercules fuirens, are preserved in
one MS alone (C). The Baccchae (with the Heraclcidac,
Szippliccs, the two Ipzigcnzias, Ion and Cyclops) is contained in two MISS only (P and C), of which the former
alone has the whole play; the latter, the first 754
lines only, closing with the words oi 8$er/cov ivro.
Thus, in lines 1-754 inclusive, we have to depend on
two codices, ' ncquc bvni neque vetusti' (as Elmsley calls
them); and from 755 to the end of the play on one
only. Both of these were examined by Elmsley, with
a view to his edition of this play published in I821,
and a careful collation of the Palatine MS was made
on his behalf by one Jerome Amati. But our information about the readings of the other manuscript, in

S. B.

(r
cb

Page  XC
XC

INTR OD UCTION.

the Laurentian library (C), with the exception of
some few readings noted in the I6th century by the
Italian scholar Victorius, mainly depended, until the
last few years, on a collation carelessly made for
Matthiae's edition by Francesco de Furia (editor of
Aesop). This collation proved so untrustworthy,
that in the edition of Euripides by Kirchhoff (I855),
who was the first to place the textual criticism of
our author on a satisfactory footing, an endeavour
was made to compensate for the want of a complete
account of the readings of this NMS, by restoring them
with the help of five manuscripts which, to all appearance, were copied from it, three of them in Paris, and
the other two in Venice and Florence'. Happily, however, both of the MsS with which we are concerned in
the Bacciae were minutely examined a few years ago
by Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, who gives the results of
his collation of lines I-754 in his Analecta Euripidea,
I875, pp. 46ff. He records the readings under the
three heads, (I) loci post novam conlationem congruentes
(29 instances); (2) binae lectiones in altero utro codicum
(I8 passages, with the result that udllo loco C P in
binis lectionibus conspirant); (3) C et P diversa tradunt (95 variations).
In recording the manuscript readings at the foot
of the page in this volume, I have relied in the main
on the apparatus criticus of Kirchhoff's edition, and
wherever the readings there given rest only on the
authority of a collator who says nothing to the contrary (' e silentio collatoris'), I have added the reading
l Further details may be found in Kirchhoff's Praefatio, p. x.

Page  XCI
TEXTUAL CRITICISM OF THE PLAY. xci

given by the author of the Analecta, whose collation
is always intended wherever the phrase denuo collatus,
or nuper collatus, is used. The two MSS were probably
derived from the same source; they have mistakes in
common which can hardly be explained on any other
hypothesis, though C may possibly have been a partially corrected copy of P. The mistakes in P are
more numerous than those in C, but on the other
hand they are mainly of a trivial character, and, on
the whole, we may agree in the opinion that P is the
better authority of the two..
As a partial compensation for the defectiveness of
the manuscript authority on which the text of our
play is founded, we have the cento from Euripides to
which reference has been made in a previous section,
the Christus Patiens (p. lxxxv). Though of little or no
value, as far as regards its adaptations of the Hecuba,
Hippolytus, Medea and Orestes, where our existing
MSS are larger in number and better in quality, it is
more important in the case of passages borrowed
from the Rhesus, Troades and Bacchae, where the
evidence for the text is comparatively weak. More
of the places where it materially helps us are pointed
out at the foot of the text in this edition, and references to them may be found in the index.
The only Greek scholia on the play are those in
1 Elmsley, p. 6, remarks magnopere dolendum est, integras Bacchas
in codice Laurentiano non exstare. Narn in priore fabulae parte longe
plures bonae lectiones in eo quam in Palatino reperiuntur. Nauck,
p. xl, on the other hand, says of B (=P) and C, ' B prae altero fide
dignus est.' Mr Tyrrell, who gives further details on this point, p. xi,
supports the latter view.
g2

Page  XCII
Xcii

INTROD UCTION.

the margin of C, most of them unimportant. They
may be found in the critical notes on 11. 97, 15I, 45I,
520, 525, 538 and 709. The only one not recorded
there, is that on 61 I, opKivas' /vXaKca' s oppcdtvj, Kvpliwo
7 datpevfrtC)7 Xivo? (Matthiae's correction for Xlvov).
The evidence of later Greek writers who quote
from the play, or who, like Nonnus and Philostratus,
paraphrase portions of it, is not without value in
determining the text. But when all the help that
can be got from these various sources is put together,
much remains to be restored by conjectural criticism
alone. In recording such conjectures as have already
been published elsewhere, I have derived some assistance from consulting the critical notes to Mr Tyrrell's
recension, and those in Dindorf's last edition of the
Poetae Scenici; while the labour of collecting others,
that are scattered about in foreign periodicals and
dissertations, has been lightened in no small measure
by the critical appendix to the recent edition of
Wecklein. A list of these dissertations and other
contributions to the literature of the subject, so far as
known to myself, is given at the end of the introduction. I have further compared the texts printed by the
nine following editors, and have recorded the principal variations between them: Elmsley, Hermann,
Sch6ne ed. 2, Kirchhoff ed. I and 2, Nauck ed. 2
Dindorf ed. 5, Paley ed. 2, Tyrrell and Wecklein.
Wherever any of these are mentioned as supporting
one of two readings or conjectures, it is generally to
be assumed that the remainder, though not actually
mentioned, are in favour of the other.
The first printed edition of the Bacchae was that

Page  XCIII
TEXTUAL CRITICISM OF THE PLA 1. xciii
included in the Aldine text of eighteen plays, printed
at Venice in 1503, when the Electra was not yet known.
It has been proved by Kirchhoff that the editor must
have been the learned Greek, Markos Musuros; and
that, for this text, he was mainly dependent on the
Palatine MS. The editor's tacit corrections of that
MS, which at one time were regarded as possibly
resting on independent evidence, are now generally
considered to be nothing more than his own conjectures. Among the others mentioned in the apparatus
criticzs who have in different degrees contributed towards the correction of the text, the following may be
named. (The list is in chronological order, according
to the dates of their deaths.) In the sixteenth century,
Brodaeus (lean Brodeaz), W. Canter, Victorius (Vettori), J. J. Scaliger, H. Stephanus (Henri Estienne);
in the sezenteenth, Milton and Joshua Barnes (ed.
1694); in the eighteenth, J. Pierson, B. Heath (of
Exeter), J. J. Reiske, J. Markland, Valckenaer, Sir
Samuel Musgrave, M.D., Thomas Tyrwhitt, Brunck,
and Porson; and in the nineteenth, Elmsley (1773 -1825), Dobree (1782-1825), Matthiae, Jacobs, Hermann, C. J. Blomfield, F. G. Schoene, J. A. Hartung
(ob. 1867), and R. Shilleto (I809-I876). Among
living scholars, besides those whose editions and
dissertations are recorded at the close of this introduction, I may mention the names of Dr Thompson,
Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Mr Reid,
Fellow of Gonville and Caius, both of whom have allowed their conjectural emendations to be published for
the first time in this edition. These, with a few of my
own, may be found by referring to the English index.

Page  XCIV
THE DEATH OF PENTHEUS.
FROM A RELIEF ON A SARCOPHAGUS IN THlE GIUSTINIANI PALACE$ ROME.

Page  XCV
EURIPIDES AND THE FINE ARTS. xcv

~ 9. Euripides and the fine arts. The play in its
relation to ancient art.
From the biographical notices that have come
down to us, we learn that Euripides, before devoting
himself to poetry and philosophy, cultivated in the first
instance the art of painting; and that pictures ascribed
to his pencil were to be seen at Megara'. This tradition, though in itself resting on slight authority, is
nevertheless in accordance with the evidence supplied
by his literary work, in which, veluti descripta tabella,
an artistic training is clearly disclosed. An artist's eye
is shewn in the brief touches with which he depicts the
beauties of nature2; and a keen sense of colour may
be discerned in his choice of descriptive epithets3.
We find him repeatedly referring to works of Architecture, Sculpture and Painting4. He alludes to
the ancient wooden temples5, to the 'Cyclopian' walls
of Argos and Mycenae6, and to the stone-built treasuries of the heroic age7. He dwells with familiarity
I Vita Eur. 1. 16 (ed. Nauck): waai &8 aVirbv Kali woypdo>ov yev-~Oatc
Kai SeKvvOat aorTOv 7rtvaKLa v Meiydpots (cf. ib. 1. II i). Suidas: ydyove
a Tr 7rpT7-a cywypa95os.
2 Supra p. lxx.
3 e.g. XeUKd6 in Bacch. 665, 863, Ion ssi; I. F. 573, AtipK/r re
vapua XevK6bv aiuaX8Oaeras. Heel. 215, Zes 'rpiwwv Lt' alOgpos XlovoXpws
KCKVOV trrepw. Iph. T. 399, 5oVcaK6XXo~ EbpWTav. Also epithets such as
roKLX6bvrWTOS, /botVLKO/aIs, Kvavbrorepos, Eov67rTepos.
4 Kinkel, Eurizrides und die bildende Knzst. To this nearly
exhaustive dissertation I am indebted for many of the above details.
5 Fragm. 475, 1. 4-8. 6 H. AF 15, 543; TSo. io87, I/h. T.
845, Iph. A. j 5, 34, oI. 7 lec. IO0o.

Page  XCVI
xcvi

IV7TR OD UCTIOX.

on the structural details of temples and other buildings1, and borrows appropriate similes from various
forms of handicraft2. He refers to the Erechtheum3,
to the shrine of Aphrodite 'by the rock of Palias,'
and to the temples of Poseidon on the Laconian promontories of Taenarus and Malea, on the Euboean
headland of Geraestus, and the holy place of Athene,
'the silver-veined crag' of Sunium5. In the domain of
the plastic art, he tells not only of the archaic works of
Daedalus6, of the Trojan odava of gilded wood7, and
the awe-inspiring Gorgon's head8, but also of the
sculptured reliefs on the temple at Delphi9, the graven
images in the pediment of the sanctuary at Nemea10,
and the colossal statue of Athene Promachos on the
Acropolis of Athens11. In his Andromeda, as soon as
Perseus sees the heroine of that play standing chained
to the rock, his first thought is that he must be gazing
on the life-like work of some cunning sculptor"'; and
ill the fine description of the death of Polyxena in
the Hccuba, the idealised beauty of the female form,
as represented by the plastic art, is the subject of a
necessarily brief, but none the less happy, allusion:
/aac7roOV T' eME1e oarepva 0', oe (/' CyX/Laros,
KaXXL-ara (Hcc. 560).
1 7rep1Kovas vaovs, j5ih. '. 405, cf. Phocn. 415, ZIo 185, fragrm.
370; Kpr77ris, Ioz 3, 50o; TpiyXvQos, Batch. 1214, Iph. 7. rI3, Or.
r366; 0prytc6s, Slo, 6,; fph.. 47, IeL. 70, 0r. 1569, Phoen. 1158
(Kinkel u. s., p. 37). See also Bacch. 59r.
2 See note on 1. o067. 3 P/zoen-. 1433 ff. 4 1ip. 30 f.
5 Cycl. 29o-6. 6 Hcc. 836 ff., (Eurysth.) fagtm. 373, H. F. 471.
Tro. Io74, Ion 1403. 8 AC. iii8, El. 855, F. 99, r. i 520.
l Ion 187-223. 10 (IIPsips)fi.rag1. 764, typCL7To T 7rOt.
11 Ion 9, rS Xpvo'oXSYXOv IIaXXc6Los. 12 Fragm. 124.

-Y.__ — — — Y —

Page  XCVII
E URIPIDES A)TD THE FIVE ARTS. xcvii

Among themes of Painting, he refers to ships at
sea in the Troad's (686) and love-scenes in the
HiSpol/ytus (Ioo5); and, as a mythological subject of
pictorial art, he expressly mentions 'Athene entrusting Erichthonius to the daughters of Cadmus' (Ion
271). Painting, like Sculpture, supplies him with
more than one expressive siZil/c, as when Helen, vexed
with her fatal gift of beauty, prays that her form
might, like a fair picture, be blotted out again, and
lose its loveliness;
etO'' C:aXeLcfOe~', oS c/yaXt', aviOts w7raXv
ai'-Xtov E68OS avTr TO0 KaXovd XacSoov (HcI. 262).
And again, when Hecuba implores the pity of Agamemnon, she asks him to stand back one moment,
like an artist viewing his unfinished painting, 'and
look and gaze at all that's ill in her':
olcrTEpov r/ja, wS ypa(fEVS T' adroo-raOelt,
16ov iLe KacdOpr7crov oI' XrO KacKa (Hec. 807).
We cannot wonder that a poet who so keenly appreciated the arts that flourished in the Periclean age,
should himself in his turn attract the attention of
the artists of a later time. Those who came especially
under this influence were the artists of the period immediately succeeding the conquests of Alexander.
Themes which had won an established reputation
through the dramas of Euripides and had been popularised by that poet's art, naturally commended themselves to the painter and sculptor as suitable subjects
for their own artistic treatment. Among the recorded
works in which the influence of Euripides has, with

Page  XCVIII
xcviii

INTR OD UCTION.1

more or less probability, been traced, are, in the case of
paintings, the Hippolytus of Antiphilus, the Canace(?)
of Aristeides, the Medea of Aristolaus and Timomachus, and the Andromeda of Euanthes and Nicias1.
The Telephus of Parrhasius, and the Orestes of Timomachus, were apparently independent of that influence; while it is only the almost certain spuriousness
of the epilogue to the Iphigeneia at Aulis that prevents our supposing that Timanthes, in his celebrated
picture of the sacrifice of Iphigeneia, in which the
head of Agamemnon was veiled because the artist's
pencil could not paint so deep a sorrow, was indebted
for the hint to Euripides himself:
aveorevade Kal7raaXv rTpefaq xcapa
tl/cpva 7rpoyKev o'/'aTi d TCr7rrXov TrpoOCEl
(Iph. A. I550).
Among works of sculpture, the famous group
of the punishment of Dirce, commonly known as the
'Farnese Bull,' by the Rhodian artists, Apollonius
and Tauriscus, may have owed some of its inspiration
to the account of the catastrophe which must have
been given in our poet's Antiope; and it seems not
improbable that, even at an earlier time, the 'Maenad
of Scopas' and the 'Dionysus of Praxiteles' may
have been in part suggested by the Bacchae.
It is not intended by this to imply that artists
who were great in their own domain sacrificed in any
way the principles of their art to a slavish following
of the treatment of the same theme that had been

1 Kinkel u. s., note 267.

Page  XCIX
EURIPIDES AND THE FINE ARTS. xci^ 4,
adopted by the poet. More than a hundred years
have now passed since Lessing's Laokoon was written,
and few things are more clearly recognised in aesthetic
criticism than the broad lines of demarcation that distinguish the imitative arts from one another, and in
particular the difference between the means whereby
the space-arts such as Painting and Sculpture attain
their object, and those that are employed by the timeart of Poetry. While Poetry, like Music, is a time-art,
an art of vocal utterance depending for its results on
the apt expression of certain successive effects in their
consecutive evolution in time, Sculpture and Painting
have to work under stationary conditions in space.
All the three have for their end an idealised imitation
of natural objects, but they approximate to nature in
different degrees. Thus Sculpture is nearest to nature; in the next degree of distance is Painting; and
in the third, Poetry. And the further each of these
arts is removed from reality, the wider is its scope'.
Thus Painting allows of much more combined narration than Sculpture, and the range of resources is still
more extensive in Poetry. This greater remoteness
from nature is, however, in the dramatic species of
poetry compensated for by the help of various subsidiary arts, the art of the Scene-painter, the art of
Music, which, like Poetry, is a Time-art, and the arts
of Dancing and still more that of Acting, the last
two being intermediate between time-arts and spacearts and working in time and space at once.
Itwas not until the time of Praxiteles, who flourished

1 This criticism is due to Professor Colvin.

Page  C
C

VINTRODUCTIOA.

some forty years after the date of our play, that, in
contrast to the older type of the bearded Dionysus,
which is still to be seen in numerous works of art and
is not unrepresented in the illustrations to this volume
(p. I45),-the youthful, or as he is sometimes called,
the 'Theban,' Dionysus became a favourite theme
of Greek sculpture. Of this later, half-effeminate
type, we have an instance in the bust figured on p. 26
Praxiteles himself selected his subjects mainly from
the cycles of Dionysus, Aphrodite and Eros. His
group of Maenads, Thyiads, Caryatides and Sileni, is
mentioned by Pliny (XXXVI 23) and praised in an epigram in the Greek Anthology (IX 756). His statue of
Hermes carrying the infant Dionysus, which was seen
by Pausanias at Olympia (v 17 ~ 3), has been discovered in the recent excavations, and casts of it are
now in our museums1. In the Elean temple of Dionysus, near the ancient theatre, the same traveller saw a
statue of the god which was also the work of Praxiteles (vI 26 ~ I); and it was possibly this statue that
Callistratus had in view when describing the Dionysus
of Praxiteles as a beautiful youth crowned with ivy
and girt with a fawnskin, his left hand resting on a
thyrsus, with a tender and dreamy expression of
countenance, blended with a fiery glance of the eye;
in which last respect it is distinguished from all the
statues of the god that are now known to us2. In
describing this statue, Callistratus remarks that it
resembled the form of the god which is set forth in the

1 See further in Newton's Essays on Art andz Archaeology, p. 350.
2 Overbeck's Geschichte der gr. Plastik/, II p. 22

Page  CI
PRAXITELES AND SCOPAS.

Bacc/zae of Euripides, olov avTov a (at avTro) E)vptTrbqr
Ev Ba/caLts? Elo3ro7trOL1a E-e(a,1rve1.
The 'Maenad' of Scopas, who flourished during
the half century after the death of Euripides, is the
subject of another description by the same writer2.
Scopas was one of the first to represent the enthusiasm
of the votaries of Dionysus in a perfectly free and
unfettered form; and we may well suppose that a
considerable impulse was given to the artistic embodiment of that enthusiasm by so celebrated a
masterpiece of literature as our poet's latest play.
It has even been conjectured that this work of
Scopas was suggested by the completion of the
Theatre of Dionysus under the auspices of the orator
Lycurgus in the year 342 13.C.3 This conjecture, interesting as it is, does not pretend to rest on any
foundation of fact; but even if we set it aside, there
are other definite points of contact between that
Theatre and various works of Greek sculpture, for
which we have clear and conclusive authority. the
neighbouring temple of Dionysus was adorned, as
already mentioned, with reliefs representing the fate of
Lycurgus and Pentheus (p. xxiii). Above the theatre
itself, on a platform of rock extending along part
of the south-east portion of the Acropolis, the munificence of King Attalus I of Pergamos placed at a
later time4 a noble design representing the battle of
the giants with Dionysus among the warriors; and
Statuae 8, partly quoted on p. I32.
2 Stat. 2 (infra, pp. cxli, i88). 3 Urlichs, Skopas p. (o.
4 B.C. 229; Pausan. I 25 ~ 2, Brunn Gr. ii'nstTlr I p. 442 ff.

Page  CII
Cii

INTR OD UCTION.

just before the Battle of Actium, the figure of Dionysus
in this famous group was blown down by a violent
gust of wind, and fell into his own theatre beneath'.
And, finally, when that memorable theatre was excavated within the last twenty years, a series of reliefs
was discovered extending along the front of the stage,
the subjects of which are taken from the legend of
Dionysus (infra, p. cxvi).
The wine-god and his worship long remained
a favourite theme in Greek art2. The god himself,
whose ritual began in a rude form of nature-worship,
was in early times represented only by a rustic
image of wood, and the practice of setting up heads
of Dionysus, or mere masks of his features, long continued to be customary; as for example, in the specimen of Roman terracotta on page xlii. Besides these
simpler forms, we have the more artistic types which
fall into two groups, (I) the bearded Dionysus with
majestic mien, luxuriant hair, flowing beard, and
an oriental richness of attire; and (2) the graceful
figure of the youthful Dionysus, with the forehead
bound by the mitra, with a crown of vine or ivyleaves, his hair falling in curls, the nebris over
his shoulder, and the thyrsus entwined with ivy in
his hand. He is often attended by his favourite
animal, the panther (infra, p. cxxiii); he sometimes
appears as a horned god (p. 55), or even in the
shape of a bull (p. 70). We may also trace on works
of art his marvellous life; his double birth (p. ix
1 Plutarch Anton. 6o.
3 For details, see Muller's Ancient art and ifs remains ~~ 383-390.

Page  CIII
DIONYSUS IN ANCIENT AR T

ciii. *
Clll

and infra, p. i), his tender affection for his mother
Semele, and his bride Ariadne; we see him surrounded by his thiasos of Maenads and Satyrs, together with Pan and Silenus; sometimes we view
those Maenads in their wild enthusiasm, with their
dishevelled hair enwreathed with serpents (p. 7),
their heads tossed back (p. 58), their hands beating
the tympanum, or grasping the thyrsus or sword (p.
238), or the dismembered limbs of the young roe
(p. 86), and with their garments fluttering loosely
in the breeze; or sometimes reclining in calm slumber, resting from their revels (p. 4I). From the time
of Scopas downward, ancient artists vied with one
another in representing an ecstatic elation of mind
by these frenzied Maenads with their light and graceful movements, the purer and severer types being
best exemplified by the designs that are to be
seen on sculptured reliefs, while the more voluptuous forms are mainly to be found among engraved
gems and in mural embellishments like those of
Pompeii. But in art, as well as in poetry, the representation of these wild states of enthusiasm was apparently due to the imagination alone, for in prose
literature we have very little evidence, in historic
times, of women actually holding revels in the open
air. Such a practice would have been alien to the spirit
of seclusion which pervaded the life of womankind in
Greece/ At Athens, at any rate, nocturnal festivals
by torch-light in which women took part were prohibited by one of the laws of Solon (Plutarch's
Lzfe, cap. 21); and even at Thebes we have indica

Page  CIV
civ

IN YTROD T UCTION.

tions of the existence of a similar rule of decorum
(Plutarch, de gclio Socr. 32). The festivals of the
Thyiads were mainly confined to Parnassus, where
they were held once in two years by the Dionysiac
priestesses of Delphi who were joined on this occasion by Thyiads from Attica'. The latter proceeded
in a kind of festal march, or Oeopia, from Athens
to Delphi, along the great highway across Cithaeron
and through the Boeotian plain by Thebes, Chaeronea, Panopeus and Daulia. It was at Panopeus,
an hour beyond Chaeronea, on a rocky hill which
ends the northern spurs of Helicon, that they would
for the first time enjoy an unbroken view of Parnassus; and it was there, at a place to which Homer
gives the epithet of /caXMXiopo%, that they apparently
held a sort of rehearsal of the dances and other
festivities that they were shortly to celebrate at
Delphi itself. The passage in Plutarch about Olympias, already quoted on p. xl, implies that the wild
orgies of the Thracian votaries of Dionysus were
regarded by him as an exceptional state of things,
and as a 'barbarous' departure from the simplicity
of Greek manners2.
Thus the conclusions we are able to draw from
historical and archaeological literature, with regard
to the actual rites of Dionysus as practised in
Greece, are in many respects inconsistent with what
might be deduced from the representations of the
Maenads which are to be found in Mythology and
1 Pausan. x 4 ~ 3
2 Rapp in Rheiniscahes JzisscZum 1872, pp. '2-T4.

Page  CV
TiHE MAEiVADS IN ANCIENT ART cv

Art. The latter is an imaginative picture which is
portrayed for us not in prose, but in poetry, and the
finest example of its poetic treatment is the play now
before us. It is this that warrants the attempt which
is made in this volume to set one form of the imaginative treatment of the legend of Dionysus by the
side of another, and, in this particular point, to illustrate the poetry of the Greek drama by means of the
sculpture and painting of Greek art.
For the treatment of the Maenads in ancient art
our principal authorities are the Greek vase-paintings1. The vases of the earliest style, with designs
in black, or more frequently brown, on a pale-yellow
ground, are usually decorated with paintings of
animals and various fantastic ornaments, and they
accordingly supply us with few illustrations of our
present subject2. On the vases of the next class, with
black figures on a red ground, we find the forms of
the Maenads drawn in a poor and monotonous manner, with violently distorted movements of the body,
but with nothing to indicate that those movements
are in any way connected with extreme excitement of
mind. On vases of this style where Dionysus himself
is represented, he appears as a bearded form, with a
long robe, with a drinking-horn, or cantharus, and
a vine-branch, either standing or sitting, or riding on
a mule, in the midst of Satyrs and Maenads, who
1 Rapp, ut. s. p. 562 ff.
2 The birth of Dionvsus is the subject on a vase of this style figured
in R. Rochette, peint. de Pomp. p. 73; and Satyrs and Maenads appear
on no. 1626 of the Leyden collection and no. 802 in that of Prince
Canino (quoted by Jahn).
S. B. /

Page  CVI
cvi

INTR OD UCTION

are making merry in music and dancing, or giving
chase to one another'. It is not until we reach the
class with red figures on a black ground, that the
coincidence between the artistic and the poetic representation is complete. On vases of this class,
both in the 'strong' and the 'fine' style, Bacchic
subjects assume an important place, and not only do
all the attributes which poets such as Euripides
assign to the Bacchae appear in the design, but the
movements of the body are more free and life-like,
and the expression of the face denotes more successfully than before the orgiastic excitement of the
mind2. On vases of the 'strong' style Dionysus
himself is still treated in a conventional manner;
with long hair, long beard, and long robe; his thiasos
meanwhile is represented under the influence of
ecstatic emotion, which no longer displays itself in
the more unruly forms of revel, but is, in every sense
of the term, less coarsely depicted than on the vases
of the immediately preceding style'. In the vasepaintings in which the 'strong' style of the transitional period has developed into the 'fine' style, in
which the same colours of red upon black are still
used, Dionysiac subjects are very frequent; but side
by side with the bearded Dionysus, we have also
scenes representing the infant-god being entrusted
1 p. clxiv of Otto Jahn's Introduction to his Bcschrdeibng der Vasensaiiimllunng in der Pinakothek zu AJlznchen.
2 The vase from which the illustration on p. 7 is taken, is an
example of red figures on black ground, designed in the ' strong' style,
before it passed into the 'fine' style.
a Jahn I. s. p. clxxxv.

Page  CVII
THE MA4ENADS IN ANCIENT ART. cvii
to the care of Silenus or the nymphs, and others
in which he appears as a lightly-clad youth in the
bloom of life'. On vases of this 'fine' style, the
development of which corresponds in date to the
flourishing period of the Greek drama, two types
of Maenad may be observed; the one representing
in expression and posture a mood of tender melancholy, the other with a more enthusiastic aspect,
with the head tossed back and with streaming hair,
swaying the thyrsus and beating the tympanum2.
In vases of the 'florid' style, the death of Pentheus is among the subjects represented, and the
influence of Greek Tragedy as contrasted with that
of Epic Poetry is now more strongly marked. In
the representations of Orestes we find reminiscences
of Aeschylus; the plays of Sophocles are recalled by
'Teiresias before Oedipus,' and by 'Antigone and
Ismene with Creon and Haemon'; while subjects
such as ' Hecuba and Polymestor,' 'Bellerophon and
Sthenoboea,' and 'Iphigeneia with the tablets in her
hand,' besides characters such as Medea and Hippolytus' are as obviously suggested by Euripides3.
In sculpture as well as in painting we find many
representations of the doom of Lycurgus, and also
(not less frequently) that of Pentheus. Three of the
artistic representations of the latter are given in the
illustrations to this volume (pp. xciv, 69, 73): in the
1 lb. p. ccv.
2 e. g. the four figures on p. xxxii. One of the figures on the other
side of the same vase is a good example of the other type.
3 lb. p. ccxxiv ff.

Page  CVIII
cviii

IIVTiR OD UCTIOi'.O

case of those which are here omitted, the following
short descriptions will perhaps suffice:
(I) The moment at which Pentheus is discovered in his
hiding-place and attacked by the Maenads is the subject of a
vase-painting in the Pinakothek at Munich, no. 1567 (807 in
Jahn's Besc/zreibuzgl), first published in Millingen's pcint. of
vases 5, and copied in Jahn's Pcntjtets unstd dcie ilanadlen taf.
II a. The young king is represented not on a tree, as in the
Baccheze, but in a thicket, which is rudely indicated by a branch
before and a branch behind him. On his head is a KvVij BoLoTra;
in his right hand he holds a sword behind him, while he stretches
forth his left, wrapped in the folds of his chlamys, which is thus
used as an extemporised shield. He is looking resolutely at the
Maenads in front of him; one of them, dressed in a Doric
chiton, has already caught sight of the intruder and is hastening
to the thicket, torch in hand; the next is gazing upward with a
fawnskin over her left arm and a short sword in her right; the
third, who is drawing near with a tyrsus in her right and a
tyinfzanum in her left, is looking back for a moment at a roughly
sketched pillar, possibly a conventional representation of the
buildings of the neighbouring town of Thebes. Corresponding
to the three Maenads in front of Pentheus, we have three others
behind, all of them in Doric chilonss; the first rushing forward
with her hair loose, holding in her hands part of a young roe
which she has torn asunder; the next waving the thyrsus in her
left as she raises the left foot in the dance (see 1. 943); the third
holding over her head the two ends of a light shawl which is
thrown into a graceful curve by the breeze as she hastens forward. All the three Maenads are tastefully drawn, and the flow
of the drapery as they move in the dance is well rendered.
(2) A cameo in the National Museum at Naples, some
account of which is given in the note on 1. 983, probably represents the espial of Pentheus at the moment when he has just
been detected in the disguise of a lion. This form of disguise
may either have been suggested to the artist by the passages in
our play in which the mother is described as mistaking her son

Page  CIX
PENTHE US IN ANCI ENTT ART.

cix

for a lion, or it may have been a conventional way of indicating
a spy, which had its origin in the Homeric story of Dolon clad
in his wolf-skin (II. Io, 334). There is some difficulty in explaining part of the design in which a satyr is to be seen holding
his hand to his mouth and apparently blowing into a large
leather skin, the inflated part of which is held before him by a
kneeling Maenad; this may either represent preparations for the
form of dancing called the da-KoXLaao-,S or else it may be meant
for a wine-skin from which the satyr is about to take a draught.
(3) On a vase found in Southern Italy, in the Jatta Collection at Ruvo, a later point in the story is represented. Pentheus,
with a chlamys flung over his shoulder, with hunting-boots on
his feet and two spears in his left and a sword in his right, is
here to be seen in actual conflict with the Maenads. One of
them, having grasped the right arm of Pentheus firmly by the
wrist, so that he is powerless to use his weapon, is on the point
of attacking him with her own sword. On the other side of the
young king, a second Maenad is rushing forward with thy-rus
in her right, and with her left extended to seize him by the
head. Behind her again is a third, wearing a nebris, who is
also hurrying forward, holding up part of the folds of her dress
to prevent her being impeded in running. These three are
probably meant for the daughters of Cadmus, the first with the
sword being Agave.
In contrast with the excitement depicted on this side of the
vase, we have a scene of repose on the other, where the god
himself is seated in calm rest with his head enwreathed in
floating ribbands, with a czhamys thrown over him, the thyrsus in
his left, and a cantha/rus, or carckesium, extended in his right.
A Bacchante is approaching him with her eyes fixed upon the
ground, holding a can in one hand and a small pitcher, or
KaI-cKoS, in the other. Behind her, a satyr, seated on a skin of
a panther or fawn, is playing the double flute. This group of
three is closed on each side by a Bacchante; the one to the
right, behind the resting god, standing calmly with the tymfanumz in her left, beckoning with her right; the one to the left,

Page  CX
CX

INTR OD UCTION.

behind the satyr, is in a more excited condition; the clasp over
her right shoulder has become loose, her head is thrown back,
and she waves her hand wildly. Behind her is a conventional
representation of a vine. All the Maenads are wearing bracelets of the serpent-pattern. This vase-painting was first published in Jahn's Pentheus, taf. I, whence it is copied on a
reduced scale in Miiller-Wieseler II xxxvii 436. Catal. of Jatta
Collection, no. 1617.
(4) On a vase from Ruvo in the National Museum at
Naples (Room vI, case iv, no. 2562 in Heydemann's Vasensammlung), designed with red (and white) figures on a black
ground,we see a youthful form bearing the inscription IIENOEY2,
with a shoulder-belt across his chest, a chlamys over his left
arm, a spear in his right, stumbling over a heap of stones, near
which stands a laurel. He is turning towards a Maenad, clad
in a chiton and with shoes on her feet, who is pursuing him
with a sword waving in her right. On the other side a second
Maenad, also in a chiton, who has already seized in her left the
spear of Pentheus, is joining in the struggle. Behind her is a
third Maenad in an excited state, hastening to the conflict,
brandishing aloft a sword and a scabbard. She is clad in a
chiton with the right breast bare, and a mantle falling over her
left arm. The design is published in the Museo Borbonico I6,
I I (cf. Jahn in Philologus 27 p. I I f.).
(5) Pentheus being torn in pieces by the Maenads, while
Dionysus looks on, is represented on a vase, with red figures,
formerly in the Campana Collection, Arch. Z/g. I859 p. 109*;
Catal. of Musee Campana Iv. 761.
(6) In the north cloister of the Caznpo Santo at Pisa there is
a sarcophagus with reliefs including a representation of the death
of Pentheus. He lies naked on the ground surrounded by the
wild Maenads, one of whom standing to the right has violently
thrust her foot upon his neck, and is striving with both hands to
sever his left arm from his body. To the left is another, resting
on her right knee, with her left foot on his left leg, with both
hands dragging at his right leg, which she has seized by the foot

Page  CXI
PENTHE US IN ANCIENT ART.

cxi

and also above the knee. Between her and Pentheus stands
another, holding in her two hands a knotted staff which she is
on the point of bringing down on the head of the unhappy
intruder. To the extreme right is another Bacchante who is
hastening to the melee, with her garments waving in the wind.
To the extreme left is a curved line, meant perhaps as a rude
representation of a tree. The scene above described forms the
right compartment of the upright portion of the lid of the sarcophagus; the left compartment apparently represents the bringing up of the infant Dionysus by the nymphs. In front of the
sarcophagus itself is Dionysus, with the cista mystica and
serpent at his feet. The reliefs, which run round the lid, though
much damaged, are full of life, and the movements of the
figures are well designed. Copied from Lasinio's Racoita t. 122,
in Jahn's Pentzeus t. III b, and fully described by Diitschke,
die Antiken Bildwerke des Campo Santo zu Pisa, 1874, no. 52.
(7) A fragment of a relief at Ariccia, is mentioned by
Michaelis in Bulletino d. Inst. I858 p. 17I; see below p. cxxiv,
where the relief in the Giustiniani palace, figured on p. xciv,
is also described.
(8) In the National Museum at Naples is a small fragment
of a relief, found in the theatre at Capua, and published by
Franc. Alvino, Afitheatro Camnpano tav. xi 2 b. It represents
two women in long chitons, one of them holding a tynmpanum in
her left, and a spear or thyrsus in her right. This is identified
as part of a 'death of Pentheus,' by K. Dilthey in his article on
the design figured on p. 69 (Archg. Ztg. 1874 p. 80).
(9) A relief similar in general design to (6), though with the
figures less cramped together. Maffei's Marinora Taurinensia
I p. 29, Museum Veronense p. 2I9.
(Io) and (I ) Reliefs in Cavaceppi's Raccolta III 38 (Stephani,
der ausruh. Herakles p. io6, 114), and I 50 (Gu6deonoff, sculzture
fourmi. de Z'Ermitage Imn5. no. 298).
(12) Relief on an altar in Florence. (13) A similar relief
mentioned by Zoega, Bassirilievi I p. 175. (I4) A gem in Cades,

Page  CXII
cxii Iv7TR OD UCTIOiN
Grosse Abdruccksanmmlunz IX 89. (15) A gem in the Vannutelli Collection (Welcker Denkin. II taf. 6, ii). (I6) and (17)
Two pastes in the Berlin Cabinet.
For some of these representations of the triumph of Agave,
(no. I2 to 17), see description on p. cxxxviii of the gem on p. 73.
Thus far we have been concerned with the artistic
treatment of the legend of Dionysus and Pentheus,
as represented by sculpture and painting, in accordance with their own laws of composition, and with
the help of such materials as are at their disposal.
The poetic treatment of the same subject necessarily
differs from the artistic, in so far as the former must
be in accordance with the laws of poetic composition
and the means whereby the effects of poetry are
produced. Thus, all that the Second Messenger's
Speech in our play brings before the eye of the
spectator by means of a rapid narrative, in which
the effect is unfolded by a series of successive movements told in due relation of time, is by the art of
the painter or the sculptor gathered into the limits
of a more confined form of composition in which
a single moment is seized and set forth with such
resources as those arts can command. As poetry
differs from those arts in its method, and its means,
and to some extent in its end besides, we must not
expect all the details of poetic narrative to be reproduced in the artistic embodiment of the same theme;
the points of difference, as well as the points of coincidence in treatment, are both alike instructive. the
illustrations in this volume are not intended, as a
rule, to help towards the realisation of the manner in

Page  CXIII
PES IHE US IN ANCIENT ART.

c.xii

which the play was put upon the stage; they are
rather meant to supply materials for a comparison
between the poetic and the artistic treatment of the
same subject. For, in the words of one who was
himself a masterly exponent of the principles of
Ancient Art,
If we desire to form a lively and true conception of the procedure of
an ancient Tragedy upon the stage, we must first divest ourselves
entirely of those ideas of the characters in Grecian Mythology, which
we derive from ancient works of art, and which from natural causes
continually haunt our imagination. There is not the least comparison
to be drawn between the scenic and the plastic costume of the ancient
Gods and Heroes; for, as the statements of the old Grammarians and
ancient works of art (especially the mosaics in the Vatican) sufficiently
prove, there was but one general -roX-j, or costume for Tragedy. Ce
was nothing more than an improvement on the gay and brilliant apparel worn in the processions at the Dionysian Festivals, and but
slight alterations were needed to adapt it to the different dramatic
characters1.
The only work of art at present known to us
which has for its subject the theatrical representation
of the legend of Pentheus, is a design on the back
of a bronze mirror in the Collegio Romano at Rome.
The scenes were perhaps taken from a lost Latin play
which agreed with the Xantriae of Aeschylus in representing the Maenads attacking Pentheus with
flaming torches, differing in this respect from the
treatment of the same subject in the Bacchae. Ce
interesting, though somewhat inartistic design, is
copied on p. lxxxviii, and described on p. cxxi.

1 K. 0. Miiller on the Eumenides p. 63.

Page  CXIV
cxiv

IXTR OD UCTON.

DESCRIPTION OF THE WOODCUTS.
Frontisp5iece.
A RELIEF encircling a marble vase, little more than three
feet high, of an elegant oval form, with upright massive handles,
found in the villa of Antoninus Pius at Lanuvium. The relief
represents a scene of Bacchic revelry, in sculptured forms of
exquisite workmanship. Beginning from the left, the first group
of two consists of a Maenad wearing a lunica talaris (XLir;
7rorqps), over which falls a 7x7UrL8rXoittov (Ar. Eccl. 318); she is
looking towards a Satyr who is approaching her with a thyrsus
in his right hand, and the skin of a panther, falling in ample
folds, knotted over his left shoulder. The second group is a
male Bacchanal, holding an inverted torch in his right hand,
and with his left resting on the shoulders of a Maenad looking
towards him, clad in loose flowing garments. Next follows a
group of three, a bearded Satyr with a panther crouching at his
feet, a panther's skin resting on his left arm, his right arm
raised, and his whole attitude suggestive of the description in
1. I48, 'challenging his errant comrades to running and to
dancing, and making them bound again with his revel-shouts.'
On either side of him is a Maenad, in a light semi-transparent
garment; they are looking towards one another as they dance,
the one on the right holding aloft a knife, the one on the left
grasping in her left hand part of a dismembered kid, as is
clearly seen in the original relief, just as in the cuts on pp. 86
and 238. The last group is composed of a youthful form clad
in a short chiton with a panther's skin fastened over his left
shoulder, and wearing hunting-boots (dp3vXI&es); cette figure
slightly resembles the second in the relief on p. xciii, and the
huntress Maenad or Fury on p. 69. He rests his right hand on
a bearded Satyr, slightly intoxicated, and holding a fiedzum in

Page  CXV
DESCRIPTION OF THE WIOODCUTS. cxv

his left hand. The last group closes with the goat-legged Pan,
with his right arm vehemently extended and with his left carrying an amplhora of wine, one of the handles of which appears
in the woodcut on the extreme left where the design round the
vase is continued.-Official Guide to the Graeco-Roman Sculptures in the B. AM. Part II no. (55).
The cut is reduced from an engraving in Combe's British
Museum Marbles, part I, plate vii. There is a somewhat roughly
executed copy on a smaller scale in Ellis' Townley Gallery II
p. 210.
Vignette.
HEAD OF BACCHANTE. A fillet may be seen passing across
the brow, a crown of ivy, or of some variety of smilax, resting
on the hair, and a fawnskin hanging just below the neck. the
woodcut is enlarged by one-third from a cast of a sard in the
gem-cabinet of the British Museum; but it appears impossible,
in any representation on a flat surface, however excellent, to do
perfect justice to the exquisitely rounded softness and delicacy
of the design. Another copy, by a remarkably skilful artist,
Utting, shewing perhaps in a still greater degree the extreme
difficulty of the task, may be seen in Munro and King's Horace
Od. III 25; where Mr King, who under the head of 'Bacchic
subjects' elsewhere describes the original as 'a gem regarded as
the first in this class' (Antique Gems and Rings II 56), remarks
that 'the face has not by any means the regular beauty of the
conventional Maenad-type, but has all the appearance of a
portrait from the life.' It is sometimes called an Ariadne, but
Mr King suggests that it may either represent some effeminate
youth disguised as a Maenad, or some dissolute prince like
Ptolemy Philopator (King of Egypt from B.C. 222 to 205), who
according to Plutarch, Cleomenes ~ 33, ovTro 3afdOapro TTv Avx7rv…(OreTE, Orror v0bot /aXLtara KaI o7rovaLroTaTro aVTro ye'VoLro,
7FXe7ras rXElv Kal TVf!ravoJ ExWov Eav Tos oaorLXeFoLt dayelpev (ib. ~ 36,
l7rTpayvpTov otaa;LXecr oxtXov avapevov, gTra 7TrpTov a'TroOrraT TO
TvlTYraoV KOa KaralraIv0 rov tNaa-ov). 'This gem, a noble specimen of Greek art in its full maturity, was found,' he adds, 'in

Page  CXVI
cxvi IYTR OD UCTION.
Sicily, and presented by the Municipality of Palermo to the
Austrian general, Count Salis. It was afterwards bought by
Count Wiczay for 300 gold ducats,' and passed through the
Pulsky cabinet (which was sold in I868) into Castellani's hands
and thence into the British Museum.
Introduction ~ i, p. ix.
THE BIRTH OF DIONYSUS; from a bas-relief in the Vatican.
To the left, seated on a rock, is Zeus, a bearded figure with the
head bent slightly forward, with a fillet resting on his hair, and
with the folds of his mantle passing over from his left shoulder
and completely covering his right leg. The left arm is resting
against a staff, and the right is pressed down on the rock.
From his left leg a vigorous babe, the infant Dionysus, with a
band encircling his hair, is leaping upward to the light, while
Hermes, who is ready to receive him 7rXEi' KoXnrCoeOvrt (Nonnus
9, 17), is leaning forward in a graceful attitude with a panther's
skin falling over his hands, a scarf or chlamys thrown over his
shoulder, a _etasus on his head, and sandals (faintly indicated)
on his feet. Hermes carrying the infant Dionysus is found on
reliefs (Muller-Wieseler II 395, 396), once supposed to be copied
fiom the masterpiece of Praxiteles which Pausanias saw at
Olympia (v 17 ~ I), but the discovery of this very work during
the excavations in I878 disproves this supposition. The figure
next to Hermes with the open palm, is almost certainly the
goddess of childbirth, Eileithyia (Pausanias VII 23 ~ 6, El'XiOvia ES a'KpovS EK Kef(aXjs0 TOVS vrodasg ZvaiOuaTL KEKaXV7rrat X7rrTc…
KCL rats Xepol'7 TL Eiv fEl EvOB EKrerrara, 7r fE davXeL ta.a). the
next is hard to identify, Persephone is suggested by Visconti,
but it is more probably either Themis or one of the nymphs
who nursed the infant god. The last, with the ears of corn in
her hand, is obviously the 'counterpart' of Dionysus, Demeter
(1. 275 ff.).
It may be interesting to add that among the reliefs, extending along the front of the stage in the theatre of Dionysus at
Athens, which were brought to light not many years ago, is one
representing the birth of the god; the attitude of Zeus is similar

Page  CXVII
DESCRIPTIO~N OF THE WOO 'OC,JTS. cxvii

to that in our relief, but it is reversed, being turned to the left
instead of to the right; his left hand is resting as here on a block
of stone, and his right is extended; Hermes is holding the babe
on his arm; and two of the three remaining figures are bearing
shields, the Corybantes or Curetes of 1. I20, 125 (Annali dell'
Instituto 1870, vol. 42, p. 97 —o6, Mlon. IX tav. 16). the
same subject was treated with far less dignity of style in a
painting by a pupil of Apelles, Ctesilochus, Jove Liberunm jarturiente depicto mitrato et nmuliebriter ingemnescente inter opstetricia dearun (Plin. N. H. xxxv ~ I40).
The woodcut is reduced from the copy in Visconti's JMusee
Pie C'Clmentin IV, t. 19
Page xxxii.
FROM A VASE-PAINTING IN THE MUSEO NAZIONALE AT
NAPLES (vase-room IV, no. 2419). On the side of the vase
which is here copied, we have four Bacchantes hastening to
join in the worship of Dionysus, who is represented, on the other
side, in the form described below. All of them are wreathed
with leaves of ivy or vine, and are wearing a light head-dress.
The first, who is playing the double flute, is robed in a long
chiton falling to her feet in varied folds and covered with a
woollen mantle which leaves the right shoulder and breast free.
The second carries in her right a thyrsus with a leafy top, and
a small branch still unstripped from its stem; in her left is a
flaming torch held downwards; she wears a girdled double
chiton; over her is the name OAAEIA. The third, whose head
is turned away from the two former, wears a nebris over her
chiton and is beating a tymitanum;, she is named XOPEIA (a
name mentioned, as it happens, by Pausanias, II 20 ~ 3, as that
of a Maenad who accompanied Dionysus in an expedition
against Perseus, and whose tomb the traveller saw near an
ancient temple of Tu'X1 at Argos, at the spot where she was
buried apart from the rest of the Maenads slain in battle). the
fourth figure, with her head tossed back, has a budding thyrsus
in her left, while her right is wrapped in the ample folds of the
mantle which partly covers her chiton.

Page  CXVIII
CXviii

INTR OD UCTION.

On the other side of the vase, which is not given here, but
may be seen in Miiller-Wieseler II xlvi 583 and elsewhere, there
is an idol of the bearded Dionysus, decked out with sprays of
ivy and laurel, like the figure of the god at Phigalia (Pausan.
VIII 39 ~ 4), or the boy Bacchus of the Homeric Hymn, KiaroKai abvy 7rerrvKaCEuvos. He has no arms; his chiton is bespangled with stars; and his head crowned by a zodius with
seven small pyramids; to the right and left of the head, resting
on the shoulders, are two oval objects possibly meant for
cymbals; on a light table in front are two large vessels (hydriae),
and between them a small cantharus, a loose ribband and some
small white fruits. Beneath the table, laurels are growing up
beside the stock of wood on which the idol is set. On each side
of the central stock are two female figures; all the four are
crowned with ivy or vine-leaves; the one to the extreme left,
who holds a thyrsus over her head and a reversed torch in her
right, wears a double chi/ton and a nebris with a girdle over the
latter. The next, whose nebris is hanging loosely over her long
chiton and whose hair is streaming down her back, is dipping a
ladle into one of the large vessels on the table, from which she
is about to pour into a small two-handled cup or scyphos in her
left: over her is the name Al2NH. The next is a female described by the word MAINA2, clad in chiton and nebris, beating
the tympanum, and looking away from the idol towards the
next figure in the design, who is tossing her head back, and
holding a partly inverted torch in the one hand and an upright
one in the other; this last figure wears a Doric double chilon.
The vase, which is a Stamnos with red figures on a black
ground, was found at Nocera de' Pagani. It is characterized by
Otto Jahn as one of the most beautiful vases now extant and as
an example of the finest and freest style of art (Vasensaimmlungz
in der Pinakothek ziu Miinchen, lii, cxciii); and by Heydemann,
as fine beyond all description, and as a design of surpassing
beauty that deserves the highest admiration (die Vasensammlungen des Museo Nazionale ziz Neapel).
The form of Bacchic worship which it represents has been
variously interpreted. An attempt was made, by Panofka, to

Page  CXIX
DESCRIPTION OF THE WTOODCUTS. cxix
prove that the women were the Thyiades of Delphi holding the
Herois-festival on Parnassus and worshipping Dionysus IreptKLOVLOr or o-rviXo; but his conclusions involve a series of fanciful
assumptions that do not carry conviction with them. C'était
also discussed by C. Botticher in his monograph on Greek treeworship (Baumkultus p. 103, 229), and is referred by him with
much probability to the ancient country-festivals of Dionysus
aevlplrr7s. Lastly, it was suggested by Jahn that it represents
the ceremony of the Anthesteria called the iepot yad4or, which
was celebrated by women, and he conjectures that the women
may have had a special custom of tasting the new wine corresponding to the men's festival of the X6oe on the second day of
the Anthesteria (Annali dell' Instituto I862, p. 7 ). He arrives at
this conclusion by comparing with this vase several of similar but
in some respects simpler and far less artistic design, two of which
may be seen in the British Museum (First Vase Room no. Io9 N
and IIo L). A comparison with those ruder examples would
seem to shew that, in this incomparable work, the artist has
intended to idealise one of the Dionysiac ceremonials of real
life by ascribing to the women of Attica the names and attributes and the ecstatic enthusiasm of the Maenads of Greek
mythology; and the contrast between the rude simplicity of the
central idol and the artistic beauty of the surrounding worshippers indicates that in the present instance he was consciously
blending a scene of actual life with an imaginative representation appropriate to the domain of mythology and art (Rapp, in
Rheinisches Museum 1872 p. 585).
The figures in the woodcut are taken from Panofka's
Dionysos und Thyaden, plate I, 2; the border below is added
from a copy in Gargiulo's Recueil 1875, pi. 163; in the lettering,
the two forms of epsilon, which are not distinguished in previous
copies, are here discriminated on the authority of a friend who,
on a recent visit to Naples, kindly examined the letters at my
request.

Page  CXX
CXX

INTRO 0D UCTION.7

Page xlii.
MASK OF DIONYSUS BETWEEN THOSE OF A SATYR AND
A SILENUS. The head of Dionysus is decked with ivy leaves
and ribbands; above the brow a fillet binds the hair, which falls
in spiral curls over the forehead and down the cheeks (ye;vv
rap' avrrlv KFXVIlVoS, 1. 456). Between this and the bald head of
Silenus on the right, which is crowned with vine-leaves, is a
tlzyrszzs bound with ribbands; on the other side, near the head of
the Satyr, which presents no peculiarity, is a Pan-pipe or syrinx
(1. 952), hanging from a peditm. The original is a small terracotta mural relief (of one foot seven inches, by six inches) in the
second Vase-room of the British Museum. The greater part of
the mural terra-cottas in this room are supposed to have been
'executed by Greek artists of the Augustan age, working under
Roman influence' (Official Gzide, p. 33).
Page lix.
THE MASKS OF COMEDY AND TRAGEDY CONTRASTED.
In both cases the mouth is wide open (the hiatus referred to in
Juvenal III 173 and Persius v 3); in the former, the face, especially the mouth, is grotesquely distorted; in the latter, the
lips are slightly parted, and the profile and general expression
is appropriate to a serene and dignified composure. The comic
mask bears a thick wreath, formed (it has been suggested) of
the flowers of the nzarfhex sacred to Dionysus, the god of the
drama; but this is hardly borne out by the passage quoted for
it: Virg. El. X 25, venit et aresli capi/is Silvanzus honore,
floreiles ferulas ct grandia lilia quassanzs. The original is a
bas-relief in the British Museum, 9 2 x 8.- inches; the woodcut is
reduced from the large engraving which forms the vignette of the
Museum Marbles, part II. Official Guide, part II no. (132).
Page lxxii.
BUST OF A YOUTHFUL FAUN. The nebris is slung over his
right shoulder, and ivy-leaves are gracefully intermingled with

Page  CXXI
DESCRIPTION OF THE I;OOD CUTS. cxxi

the curls of his hair. The features are those of 'a handsome
rustic boy.' The face, as well as the shoulder, is suggestive of
violent effort, blended however with the half-amused air of one
who is engaged in a Kaitarosr fKa/IaTor. It indicates that the
bust belongs to a figure of a Faun in the favourite attitude of
supporting a less steady companion. The original is a sard
formerly in the cabinet of Mr King, who characterizes it as a
'fine Greek work' (Antique Gems and Ringss, xxix. I, and
Horace, Od. III I8 B).
Page lxxxviii.
SCENES FROM THE TRAGEDY OF PENTHEUS ON A
BRONZE MIRROR IN THE COLLEGIO ROMANO. A bronze
plate five inches in diameter, bounded by a rim ornamented
with wavy lines, is filled with three rows of figures ranging
across the plate. The costume of all the figures, the long
chiton falling in ample folds to the feet, the girdle sitting
high on the breast, the upper garment either resting on the
shoulders or floating in the air, the "yKos on the head, and the
cothurnus on the feet wherever they are visible;-all this clearly
indicates a series of scenes from a tragedy. The upper row
contains four figures, Pentheus with his right arm thrust forward in act to strike, and with his left grasping the arm of one
whose hands are tied behind his back and who turns away from
the king. This figure, which has a somewhat girlish aspect,
must be identified as Dionysus in disguise, wearing a peculiar
headdress with loose folds (meant perhaps for curls) falling
down the cheeks. To the right of this pair is a figure of gloomy
aspect, with a thin staff, or sceptre, in his hand, probably
intended for Cadmus. To the left, another holding between
the two hands something like a roll or muff. The two extremities of this row of figures are closed by a curious instrument
resembling a square table, on which rests a round object with
five prominent knobs radiating from its upper part, while some
wavy lines are issuing from the foot of the table; these instruments are probably some kind of musical contrivance, possibly
water-organs.
S. B.

Page  CXXII
cxxii

XINTR OD UCTIOzV.

In the middle row, we have five figures, four of them armed
with torches, crowding round a form intended for Pentheus,
whose garb has nothing to distinguish it from that of the women
in the same scene. He is helplessly stretching out his arms
towards his tormentors.
The third and lowest row represents a figure kneeling on one
knee and holding a pair of torches: to the right is another with
its back to the former, and with the face hidden by the hand.
The kneeling figure is partly supported by another approaching
it from behind, and to the left of this is another figure which is
somewhat faintly indicated. The kneeling figure is probably
Agave, at the moment of her becoming conscious of her deed of
horror; the figure with the face hidden is probably Cadmus.
To the extreme right and left are two stands, and on each of
them two masks are set up side by side. The style of these
masks, as well as that of the water-organs, has suggested the
conclusion that the work belongs to late Roman times and that
the scenes represented belong to the Roman theatre (Wieseler's
Theaterjcb. p. 99, quoted by Wecklein). The plate is the
subject of an article by Otto Jahn in the Arc/zaelogische Zeittng
xxv I867 taf. ccxxv i no. 225, and a dissertation by B. Arnold,
Festg russ der Philologisczhen Gese//schafl zzi I(lirzbzurg an die
xxVI Versazmmniulg dezuschen Pzhiolo/ogeiz u. Schlulimdnner,
Wiirzburg.868, pp. 142-I57, where a careful lithograph of the
original is given. For the loan of a copy of this pamphletJahn's own copy as it happens-I am indebted to the kindness
of Prof. Michaelis. The woodcut here given is reduced by
one-third of the diameter of the original, and the ornamental
border of the rim has been omitted.
Page xciii.
THE DEATH OF PENTHEUS; a bas-relief on a sarcophagus
in the court of the Giustiniani Palace in Rome. At the extreme
left is a female form, fully draped, seated in a sorrowful posture,
leaning her head on one side and resting it on her right arm;
her left arm is bent over her head; from near her left hand a

Page  CXXIII
DESCRIPTION OF THE WOODCUTS. cxxiii

stream of water is issuing. This stream, as well as the serpent
coiled about her body, indicates a water-nymph (R. Rochette
Monz. Ihzed. p. 22) lamenting the death of Pentheus. A fountainnymph girt with a snake is found on coins of Larissa and also
on a fine vase referring to the legend of Cadmus (ib. 4). She
may be identified either as the nymph of the fountain in that
part of Cithaeron where both Actaeon and Pentheus were torn
asunder (1. 1285, Philostr. iml. I 14; so Wieseler), or more probably, the nymph Dirce (1. 519, Nonnus 44, Io; so Jahn). the
epithet 8paKovrdooros is given to Dirce by Nonnus, 4, 356 and
46, I42. The next figure has a short chiton reaching nearly to
the knee, and a nebris which is thrown across half of her chest
and bound by a girdle; her hair falls loosely over her shoulders;
a light scarf floats in the air, as it passes from one arm to the
other; the boots and the garb in general are suggestive of a
huntress which maybe identifiedas an Erinnys (B6ttigerFurientm.
p. 8I, and K. Dilthey quoted on p. cxxxvi). Similarly in a basrelief representing the death of Lycurgus (Miiller-Wieseler II
44I) we have the figure of a huntress (with apparently a scourge
in one hand and a torch in the other).-In the central group is
Pentheus, who is lightly clad in a cllamiys, and is sitting helplessly on the ground, clasping a tree with his right arm. His
left leg is seized by a panther, one of the animals sacred to
Dionysus, which is elsewhere to be seen attacking Lycurgus
(Miller-Wieseler II 44I, also on a mosaic from Herculaneum
in the Naples M1useum, and on a vase from Canosa, now in
Munich, no. 853 in Jahn's Vasensammznzlng). In Oppian, we
have a legend describing the god transforming his nurses into
panthers and Pentheus into a bull whom they rend in pieces
(Cyneg. III 78, IV 230); and his fondness for the animal is
referred to by Philostratus (izm. I 19, ltXla e A/LovcTC) Irpos ro,ov, e7el&Jv Oeplo6rarov rp Rev eO(Tr Kai 7rria Kovq a Kal Lora
eava6). One of the women, who may be identified as Ino (1. II25
-9), is endeavouring to wrench off his right leg, and another,
Agave, his left arm; the latter is somewhat awkwardly planting
her right foot upon his neck. A third, immediately behind
Pentheus, is falling on his head, while a fourth is hastening to
i2

Page  CXXIV
cxxiv

INVTR OD UCTIOIV

join in the fray (AViTovcr7 T' oXXO 7T ras;f'rEXE BaKXCv). To the
right of this group are a pair of Centaurs, beings which often
appear in the train of Dionysus (Miuller Ancient Art ~ 389,
Jahn's Pentheus note 48), one of whom is playing the double
flute, while the other, whose body is wreathed with leaves, is
striking the lyre. To the extreme right is a man with his right
arm bent over his head, who is by some identified as a satyr
(aroorreKorrccv), but in the absence of any distinctive satyric attributes it has been suggested that it is intended for Dionysus
himself, who is often represented with his arm over his head, as
here (so Michaelis, who however admits that as the marble is
much damaged, it is uncertain whether it may not, after all, be
one of his attendants. If so, it may be presumed that Dionysus,
if he appeared at all, was riding in a chariot drawn by the
Centaurs whose figures are still preserved in the relief.
The original was first published in the Galeria Giustiniana
T. i, plate 104, a tracing of which, from the copy in the Fitzwilliam Library, has been put at my service by the kindness of
Professor Colvin. The engraving is on a large scale, but is
wrongly reversed, and the same mistake runs through all the
smaller reproductions (e.g. the elegant copies in Millin's Gal.
My/li. LIII 235, in Jahn's Pent/leus iii a, in Wordsworth's
Greece p. 262, and Milman's Bacc/anals p. 162). It was first
given correctly, after an original drawing, in Miuller-Wieseler II
437. But even this is not perfectly accurate, as is shewn by
Michaelis, who wrote a short article on it in the Bulletino
dell' Instiztto I858 p. 170: he has in a most obliging manner
sent me several corrections from his own drawing, which have
happily enabled me to supply, to use his own language, 'a more
trustworthy reproduction than any hitherto published.' Thanks
to his corrections, we can now see (I) the nebris on the second
figure which had previously been disregarded; (2) the trunk of the
tree from which Pentheus has fallen, whereas the earlier copies
give us either unintelligible folds of drapery or altogether shirk
the details in this part of the design; and lastly, the position of
the right leg, thrust against the neck of Pentheus, though this
perhaps is still susceptible of a better rendering. Michaelis, in

Page  CXXV
DESCRIPTION OF THE WIOODCUTS. cxxv

the article above mentioned, compares our relief with a fragment of a similar design on a sarcophagus in the Chigi park at
Ariccia, where the Fury, as here, has a nzebris, but the tree is
larger and the figure corresponding to Ino is kneeling on both
knees, and not on one only.
When the original is represented unreversed, we see still
more clearly (what Jahn observed even in an incorrect copy)
the identity of the general design with the relief in the Campo
Santo already mentioned (p. cx) though the number of figures
included there is smaller. All these points of identity, combined
with slight diversity, point to an original which is now lost,
some famous masterpiece which appears to have been often
copied.
Page cxlviii.
MASK OF SILENUS AND DIONYSUS COMBINED. The original
is a red jasper found in May, 1879, by the Rev. Thomas Crowther-Tatham, at Binchester, the ancient Vinoviium, S. of the
Roman wall. With reference to the combinations of masks in
gems, it is remarked by Mr King, in his Handbook of Eng-raved
Gems, p. 86, that 'the special stone for all such subjects is the
red jasper; its colour caused it to be almost exclusively dedicated to the purpose, being that sacred to Bacchus, the "rosy
god," whose statues were regularly painted with vermilion, as
Pausanias informs us.' This gem, together with all the other
antiquities recently found at Binchester, is shortly to find a perinanent home in the University of Durham, owing to the liberality of John Proud, Esq., of Bishop Auckland. It is here figured
and described for the first time. For bringing it to my notice,
and thus enabling me to publish it in these pages, I am indebted
to the kindness of the Rev. S. S. Lewis, F.S.A. The woodcut is
enlarged to twice the scale of the original.
On Page I of text, ewXeX?7 XoXEvseTr' darpa7rr~>6pco rrvpt, line 3.
THE DEATH OF SEMELE: from an antique paste in the
Berlin Museum. Zeus is here seen 'descending in all his glory,
amidst a shower of thunderbolts, upon Semele, who falls life

Page  CXXVI
cxxvi

INVTR OD UCT 1ON

less before the insupportable brightness of his advent. the
god is represented with wings, that most natural expression
of the idea of omnipresence, with which all archaic art, whether
Greek or Etruscan, following its Assyrian models, Pliny's
"Asiatic School," loved to equip every divinity. Winckelmann
(Pierres Gravees de S/osc/i, p. 54) terms this design the perfection of Etruscan art; remarking that 'it would be difficult
in any work, of any period, to find the drapery so delicately
rendered' (from Mr King's description in King and Munro's
Horace, Od. IV xi A). The winged figure was once supposed to
represent OavaroS (Raoul Rochette, monunenns inzedits, p. 218);
it is also discussed by Panofka who fancifully calls it dya0Os
Oeos /3povrCv (Dionysos und die Thyaden, p. 377). A cast of this
gem, as well as of the Bacchante on p. 5, and Cadmus slayingthe serpent on p. 138, is included in the set of '50 GemnmenAbdrficke der Kbnigzlichen Sammilun zu Berlin,' which may be
purchased at the Berlin Museum (for 4 thalers). The woodcut
is borrowed, by permission, from King's A tlique Gems and
'Rings I p. 483. It is enlarged to twice the scale of the original.
Page 5.
HEAD OF A MAENAD; from a red jasper in the gem-cabinet
at the Berlin Museum. The band across the forehead and the
ivy-crown may be noticed here as in the vignette; nous poursuivons
see the bacchanal's wand or thyrsus, bearing on its top what
looks like a bunch of berries, but is possibly only intended for a
fir cone; part of the hair falls in loose and flowing tresses, here
and there in the form of curls resembling the serpents which
were fancifully represented as twining themselves about the
heads of the votaries of I)ionysus, as may be seen in a subsequent illustration (on p. 7). The rapt expression and the parted
lips finely indicate the wild inspiration of the Bacchante. MrKing characterizes it as 'the most beautiful embodiment of the
idea ever produced by the glyptic art' (Horace Carm. II xix A).
A smaller copy is reproduced in Miller's DenkmdlerII 560; but
a comparison with a cast from Berlin now before me shews it to
be less vigorous and even less accurate than the woodcut here

Page  CXXVII
DESCRIPTION OF THE WOODCUTS. cxxvii

given. The latter is borrowed from King's Antique Gems anda
Rings (Plate XXVIII 3).
Page 7, apaKOVrTov o-(rfavoLr, lines IOI-103.
MAENAD WITH A SERPENT TWINED ABOUT HER HAIR.
In her right, she carries a thyrsus partly swathed with ivy; in
her left, she holds up a live lynx, which she has caught by the
hind leg. She is clad in a long chiton falling in fine folds, over
this is a light mantle with a dark border, while the skin of
a panther is clasped across her chest. From a vase-painting,
reduced to the scale of two-thirds of the copy in MullerWieseler's Denknidler der Ait//l Kunst II XLV 573 (taken from
Ablhandlungen der philol.-pphilos. Ci. der K. Bayer. Akad. IV, I,
Miinchen 1844, taf. iv; cf. Thiersch, p. So). The original
design fills the centre of a shallow circular drinking-vessel, or
cylixt in the Pinakothek at Munich. It belongs to the 'strong
style' of vase-painting; on the outside are Dionysiac subjects in
red figures on black ground, while the internal design, here
copied, is an excellent example of monochrome, drawn with
much care and finish, and coloured with various shades of
brown on a white ground (no. 332 in Jahn's Beschreibungz).
The vague expression of the face, and the fixed and stony
smile, remind one of the archaic forms of the plastic art, and
these traits, combined with the slight sinking of the head, serve
to heighten the effect of the inspired enthusiasm here represented (Rapp, Rhein. Ailus. 1872, p. 565). Among the figures
outside the vase is a Maenad, round whose arm is coiled a
snake, with which she is scaring off a rude Satyr; and on eight
other vases in the same collection (two with black figures, and
the rest with red) Maenads appear with snakes, in their hands
or around their arms. Similarly on a relief figured in Welcker's
Alte Denkin. taf. v 9 (ib. p. 572).
Page 22, line 370.
MASK FOR A BACCHANTE, in front face, from a very beautifully executed gem (black agate) in Prof. Story-Maskelyne's

Page  CXXVIII
cxXV11i

IVTR OD UCTION.

collection; enlarged to twice the scale of the original. the
hair, which is bound with ivy, is tied up into a knot, and a
double band passes across it, above the forehead; from near
the ears, on both sides, hang two strings of large beads, 'which
appendage from its constant attachment to similar masks,
probably consisted of hollow spheres of metal, and formed the
creptundia that sounded like bells with every movement of the
head' (King on Horace Exist. I xx B). The open mouth and
the expression of horror in the features, may allow of its being
used to illustrate the awe-struck and indignant protest of the
chorus against the impious language of Pentheus. The engraving is borrowed from King's Antique Gems and Rings,
Plate xxxi 8.
Page 26, lines 453-9.
HEAD OF YOUTHFUL DIONYSUS; from a marble bust in the
Capitoline Museum in Rome. This beautiful head was formerly
identified as that of Leucothea, or Ariadne. The characteristic
fillet may be clearly seen; the ivy-wreath, which is much
damaged in the original, is more faintly indicated, as also the
very slightly protuberant horns which first led to its identification as a head of Dionysus, Meyer, Projyltdcn II i 63, and in
Winckelmann's WIerken IV 307, n. 367, Geschichle der Kdunst
I p. 301, II p. 243, n. 314 (from Miiller-Wieseler's Denkindler 11
xxxiii 375). The flowing carls exactly correspond to the poet's
description in 11. 453-9, esp. 1. 455, 7rXdKaf/or Tavaos…y/vov rapp'
c(VTlr K~EXV'JVOS, 7r60V 7rXicof, the cdpo S fO-TrpVXoS of 1. 493;
while the feminine expression of countenance recalls the Or7X1 -~op)osv $Evos of 1. 353. In the account of the transformations of
Dionysus in the Homeric Hymn vii 3, it is in this youthful
form that he first appears, (aV..dvr)…vEvI alvSpi eOIKcS, 7rpo0rV13r'
KaXal &e 7repLT'cELovTO etOELpaL KvdWeaL.
Page 34; evtWrOrov XGpav, 574.
COIN OF ARCHELAUS I., KING OF MACEDONIA, B.C. 4I3 -399. The metal is silver of the Persic standard. On the obverse, riding a horse, prancing towards the left, is a horseman,

Page  CXXIX
DESCRIPTION OF THIE WIOODCUTS. cxxix
wearing the kausia and chlamys, and carrying two spears, binaz
zmau lato crispails hastiliaferrot; the border is plain. On the
reverse is an incuse square, within which is a linear square
enclosing the inscription A PX EA AO, in the middle of which
is the fore part of a goat turned to the right, kneeling on one
knee and looking back. There are earlier Macedonian coins, of
the time of Alexander I and Perdiccas II, with a horseman advancing with two spears, or a horse alone, or the head and forelegs of a prancing horse, on the obverse; and on the reverse, the
head or forepart of a goat; the goat kneeling on one knee and
looking back may also be seen in a coin of Aegae struck by
Alexander I (Bc. circiter 500-480). The horse on the coin of
Archelaus now before us is, however, executed with greater spirit
than that on the earlier coinage, and the prancing attitude of the
fore-legs in this later design has led to the spear-heads being
slightly deflected upwards.
The horseman illustrates the complimentary reference to
the dominion of Archelaus as a 'land of noble steeds'; and the
goat with reverted head, in the act of lying down, refers to the
legend of Caranus, founder of the Argive dynasty in Macedonia,
who was led to the place where he fixed his government by
following a flock of goats, in accordance with an oracle commanding him 'to seek an empire by the guidance of goats'
Hyginus fab. 219; Dio Chrys. Ou. Iv p. 70 (I63), 1 OVK alnroXos
wv o 'ApX;Xaos Kuca' XOev els MaEKEaovaav a/yas eXavvcov; roTrepov otv
ev 7rop('pa qiaXXov r E'v 8&0OE'pa E~l roiro ro oiv; The place was,
according to the legend, named Aegae in commemoration of
the event; and the goat's head thus became 'the badge of the
royal house of Macedon, and the type fparlant of their citadel.'
The engraving is taken from a cast of a coin in the British
Museum; another engraving of the same coin is given in the
British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins, Macedonia &c.,
1879, p. 163 (cf. ib. p. xx, p. 37 and pp. I58ff.; also Leake's
NVzumisma/a Helleni/ca p. i). In the above catalogue it is stated
that 'none of the coins attributed to Aegae are probably much
earlier than the accession of Alexander I (B.C. 498),' while the
coins of Aegae itself wiil goat tjpes are 'all probably anterior

Page  CXXX
CXXX

INTR OD UCT~IO.7

to B.C. 480.' Its author, Mr Barclay V. Head, has been good
enough to inform me that he 'does not think there is any
numismatic evidence as to the date of the removal of the seat
of government from Aegae to Pella, unless the fact that the
goat appears as a coin-type for the last time under Archelaus I
may be considered as such.'
Page 41, lines 683-8.
SLEEPING BACCHANTE; in the Museum of the Vatican.
The serpent, here twined about the right arm, is a frequent
Dionysiac emblem, and it is this that enables us to identify the
nymph as a Bacchante (cf. note on 1. Ioo, p. IO8-9). The figure
is sometimes supposed to represent the nymph of a fountain;
it has even been fancifully identified as Olympias, mother of
Alexander the Great, in consequence of the story told by Plutarch (Alex. 2, quoted on p. Io8); but it is probably a sepulcral
monument, in which the person commemorated is represented
under the form of a sleeping Bacchante. The serpent may also
be seen in the bosom of a sleeping nymph with one arm resting
on an urn lying on its side, and with the other held above the
head, in the attitude of the so-called Cleopatra or A riadne of the
same collection; also on another nymph figured in the Statues de
Dresde no. I 6, which like the one here engraved has no urn. Il
is doubtless intended to guard the maiden's slumbers, just as
described in the Dionysiaca of Nonnus XIV 363-6:
Kat rTt oSLv TpLEXLKTov arTr7/lOVt 37ro-aro KoX7r0,
EVsJOLVXOv coT7rr7pa KEXrKf Ora yeiTOvt frp,)
peLXLXa ctvpi~ovra, fLhaKprjroto 8e KOGprS
v7rvaXerls a'ypvrTVov O0rtrLTvr7pa KopErEs.
The original is of marble, two feet long, and is placed near the
room of the Apollo Belvedere. The engraving here given is
reduced from the copy in E. Q. Visconti's description of the
Jllseo Pio-Clemenzino, Oeuvres, ed. 1819, III plate xliii (pp. 205 -2II and p. 279), whence it is also borrowed in Millin's Gallerie.Iythologique LVI no. 325.

Page  CXXXI
DESCRIPTION OF iHE WFOODCUTS. cxxxi

Page 42, lines 699-702.
MAENAD SUCKLING A PANTHER'S CUB; from a Cameo in the
'Marlborough Collection.' The Maenad is represented reclining
before the entrance of a rocky den, with her left arm inclined
above her head, with her right resting on a wicker-basket, the
cista mystica, and with a graceful bend of the back which is a
favoutrite attitude in ancient gems (see references in Muller's
Ancient Art~ 388. 4). To the left, a Satyr looks on, playing
with the tail of the cub, with his right hand leaning on a pednum,
and his right leg, which is partly covered by a panther's skin,
resting on a rock. To the right, is a second Maenad, with her
left hand holding a tympanumn on her knee, and with her right
grasping a veil that flutters in the air. On the ground lie
another tyrmanaunz, a pair of cymbals, and an over-turned cantharus. In the 'Marlborough Catalogue' no. 226, Professor
Maskelyne describes the gem as follows: 'A bacchanal subject.
A cameo antique in character, wrought in a beautiful porcelain
white upper stratum of a sardonyx, with a yellow layer. the
moulding of the limbs and form of the Maenad in the foreground,
is extraordinarily delicate, and the attitudes of the remaining
figures, viz. a Satyr teasing a panther, and a second Maenad,
who is at hand to beat the tambourine, are artistically drawn.
A reserved rim surrounds the design which is set in an enamelled border of tulips and other flowers' (not engraved). 'The
technique of this gem resembles the cinque-cento works, but the
details betray more of the errors in archaeology so characteristic
of a non-critical age; and the work is therefore probably by an
ancient artist of a noble school.' The engraving which is
enlarged to the scale of eight-sevenths of the original is copied
from Miiller-Wieseler's Denkmailer II xlvi 579, where it is reproduced from the rare work called Gemmarzum antiquarum
delectus,; ex praestantioribus descriptus, quae in Dactyliothecis
Ducis Marlburiensis conservantur, fol. London, I780 I pi. 50
(Cambridge Univ. Library Eb I8, I3). The Marlborough collection, which was mainly formed by the third Duke in the
latter part of last century, passed in 1875 into the hands of
Mr Bromilow of Battlesden Park, Bedfordshire.

Page  CXXXII
CXXxii

IVTR OD UCTION.

Page 55, lines 920-2.
MARBLE HERMES-BUST OF HORNED DIONYSUS; of
Vatican Museum (Descriiption of the Vatican p. 282, no. 65).
The head resembles that of a satyr; the hair, which is short
and curly, is bound by a band or ptlrpa with its loose ends, or
lemnnisci, falling in front of the shoulders. Above the brow,
just in front of this band, two small horns may be seen sprouting
from among the curls. It is these horns that enable us to
identify the head as that of AtLovV-o Keparo(v rs. Compare the
epithet ravpofuTroTroS, in Orphic hymn 45 (44); Athenaeus xi
p. 476, and Tibullus II i 3, Bacche veni dulcisque tuis e cornibus
uva ientdeat, also Valerius Flaccus Arg. II 272, nivea tumzeant
ut cornua mitra; for other passages see note on 1. ioo.
On the horned Dionysus there is an interesting passage in
Lessing's Laokoon, chap. viii. He is criticising Joseph Spence
(Professor of Poetry at-Oxford 1728-38), the author of the
Polymetis, 'An Enquiry concerning the Agreement between the
Works of the Roman Poets and the Remains of the Ancient
Artists,' (ed. I, 1747); Spence, he remarks, has the most
curious conceptions about the relations between poetry and
painting, holding as he does that, among the ancients, the poet
never lost sight of the painter or the painter of the poet; and
never thinking that 'poetry is the more comprehensive art, that
beauties wait on its bidding, which painting would in vain attempt to attain'; and 'that it often has good reasons for preferring inartistic beauties to artistic.' Hence, 'the most trifling
differences that he may observe between the ancient poets and
artists involve him in an embarrassment, by which he is compelled to resort to the strangest expedients.'
For example, 'the ancient poets, for the most part, attributed horns to Bacchus. "Therefore it is surprising," says
Spence, "that these horns are not more commonly seen upon
his statues" (Polymetis, Dial. ix p. 129). He first lights on one
reason, then on another, now the ignorance of antiquarians,
now the smallness of the horns themselves, which he thinks
might have been hidden under the grape-clusters and ivy-leaves

Page  CXXXIII
DESCRIPTIOAT OF THE lWOODCUTS. cxxxiii

which were the constant head-dress of the god. He hovers
around the true cause, without for a moment suspecting it.
The horns of Bacchus were not natural horns, as were those
of fauns and satyrs. They were an ornament of the brow,
which he could put on, or lay aside, at his pleasure.
Tibi cur sine cornibus adstas
Virgizlenn caplt est,
is Ovid's festive invocation of Bacchus (eltamor. lib. iv 19),
so that he could shew himself without horns, and did so whenever he wished to appear in his girlish beauty, in which the
artist would naturally represent him, and would therefore be
compelled to avoid every addition which might produce a
bad effect. Such an addition would these horns have been,
which were fastened on the chaplet just as they are seen to be
on a head in the Royal Cabinet of Berlin (Begeri Thes. Brandenb. vol. iii p. 242). Such an addition was the chaplet itself,
which concealed his beautiful forehead, and therefore occurs in
the statues of Bacchus as rarely as the horns themselves; while
the poets are as continually attributing it to him as its inventor.
The horns and the chaplet furnished the poet with neat allusions
to the actions and character of the god. To the artist, on the
contrary, they were impediments, preventing the display of
higher beauties; and if Bacchus, as I believe, obtained the
name of biformis, Aiopqfor, for this very reason, viz. qu'il
could manifest himself in beauty as well as in frightfulness, it is
perfectly natural that the artists, from his two forms, should
have selected that which best corresponded with the purpose of
their art' (mainly from Beasley's trans., ed. 1879). See also
chap. ix (with Bliimner's notes, esp. p. 122).
Works of art representing the horned Dionysus, though far
from common, are, however, less rare than was supposed to be
the case when Lessing wrote his masterly essay (1766). Besides
the small head of basalt to which he refers (copied in Montfaucon's Ant. I ii p. I57, and Hirt's Bilderb. 76, 2), now in the
'Old Museum' at Berlin, there is a small bust from Herculaneum in the Museum at Naples (Bronz. I, plate v), and a mosaic

Page  CXXXIV
CXxxiv

IiVTR OD UICTIO N.

published by la Causse, antiche pittlure, plate xx. These examples are quoted by Visconti, Mulsee Pie-Cl'menltin, VI p. 59,
where he also refers to a slightly mutilated bust, then at the
Villa Albani, inaccurately restored as a 'youthful Hercules.'
Further, on a bronze coin of Nicaea, a horned Dionysus (?), and
a goddess, with modius on her head and a cornucopia in
her hand, are represented driving in a chariot drawn by centaurs
(Creuzer's Dionysus, plate III 2, Miller-Wieseler II 377); aussi un
bearded head of Dionysus, with ivy-crown and horns, on a silver
coin of Boeotia, ib. 378.
The woodcut is copied from Muiller-Wieseler II xxxiii 376,
reduced from Visconti uz. s., VI 6, I.
Page 58.
AGAVE IN BACCHIC FRENZY. She is represented dancing;
the eyes are gazing upwards, the head is thrown violently back,
with the hair wildly streaming from it. The feet and the left
arm, which is strongly developed, are displayed to view; the
drapery, flung about the rest of the figure and filling nearly
the whole field of the design, is tossed about in complex folds
which are rendered with a marvellous skill. In this respect it
may be compared with the Atalanita in the gem-cabinet of the
Berlin Museum (catalogue no. 170, figured in King's Antique
Gems and Rings XLI A 3, and included in the collection of fifty
casts already mentioned on p. cxxvi).
The original is a cameo in plasma, formerly in the cabinet
of Paulus Praun, patrician of Nuremberg, who died in I616;
and whose collection was ultimately inherited by Madame
Martens-Schaafhausen of Bonn and sold by her heirs at Cologne
in I859. The woodcut, which is the actual size of the original,
is borrowed from King's Antique Gems and RzinXs XXIX 3.
Page 6I, line o108.
DIONYSOS LEONTOMORPHOS. A lion couchant, in the place
of whose head and neck we have the head and the upper part
of the body of a bearded man, with winged arms, one of which

Page  CXXXV
DESCRIPTION OF THE W(OODCUTS. cxxxv

grasps a myrtle-branch, while the other holds out at full length
a Bacchic crater. A cast of this gem, taken from a fine sard in
the Marquis De Salines' collection, appeared in the series
known as Cades' inpzzrone/ gezmmarie, ceni/iria III 52, published
in I829 and the following years, by the German Archeological
Institute at Rome; in the descriptive letter-press to that series
it is mentioned by Gerhard among the examples of Bacchic
subjects and is identified, though with some reserve, as a representation of one of the transformations of Dionysus, (credulo
Bacco Leoztontzofo ed alato, tiene nolle mani zin ramoscello ed
utz zVaso bacchizco; /a stn testa e calva e di caratt/ere silenico.
Corniola znolto bru2gitaZa int anel/lo d' oro antzco. 'Lavoro dei pil'
fini tnc/la collezione dcl minarchese di Salines': BZulZetio dell'
Instituto di Corristjonden2za A rcheolog-ica, I834, p. II9). the
face of a man-lion is to be seen on a terra-cotta from the Berlin
Museum (figured in Mtiller-Wieseler, II xxxiii 334), and a gem
representing a lion with the face of a youth is copied from the
imipronte gemizmarie II I5, by Miiller-Wieseler z. s. 3S5, where
the identification of both as forms of Dionysus is submitted as
a question for further investigation, references on the subject
being also given to Gerhard's Anhtike Bildwerke p. 104 n. I54,
and p. 405; and Eltrsk. Spfiegel i p. 40. Miiller-Wieseler 599.
The woodcut is borrowed from King's Antique Gems and
Rings (xxx I2), where the author, in describing it as 'an exquisite
Greek work of the best period,' gives it the alternative title of
'an Andro-Sphinx.' The Male sphinx, half man and half lion,
is common in Assyrian and not unfrequent in early Greek art,
though the female type afterwards became the exclusive model
(King and Munro's Horace, p. 411). Even if we prefer identifying it as a Sphinx, instead of as 'Dionysus transformed into a
lion,' the illustration may perhaps be regarded as not entirely
inappropriate in a drama whose scene is laid at Thebes, and on
a page where it faces what has long been considered the most
enigmatical passage in the play.

Page  CXXXVI
CXXXvi

INTR OD UCTION.

Page 69.
THE DEATH OF PENTHEUS, stamped on a piece of Calenian
pottery. The king is here represented as a beardless youth,
with a Kvvj Botwria on his head, a sword in his right hand, a
shield on his left. He has fallen on one knee, on some stony
ground (cf. 11. II96, 1138), and is striving in vain to defend
himself against the combined attack of a panther who is about
to rend him in pieces, and a wild woman who is charging at
him with her thyrsus, the point of which is capped with an
unusually large pine-cone, or bunch of foliage, with ribbands
fluttering near it. She wears a short chiton, waving in the wind,
and over this the skin of a lion or panther. On her feet she has
the high hunting-boots known as ev3pol3es, the sole of which
may be seen under the left foot and part of the lacing on the
autre. In the death of Lycurgus on a vase from Canosa in the
Munich Museum (no. 853, Jahn), an Erinnys appears in a short
c/ziton, with a panther at her side and a goad in her hand,
striding towards Lycurgus; and a panther and an Erinnys,
represented as a huntress with EvapoLeaS,E are to be seen on a
sarcophagus at the Villa Taverna, and in the relief already
described on p. cxxiii, though the attire of the latter is somewhat
different. And in all these cases it may fairly be called not a
Maenad but a Dionysiac Erinnys, with the long stride that
reminds us of the a-Efas 'Epwvvs ravvnrroa of Ajax 837; a
huntress with the panther for her hound and Pentheus for her
quarry (cf. SOp, lypa, X)tov in our play). In Lucan, a Eumenis
incites Agave to the destruction of Pentheus (I 568), and Nonnus
mentions an 'EpZivs as assisting at his death. The figure in
question may in short be regarded as a combination of a Maenad
and of the Erinnys-like nature exemplified in Lyssa and may
briefly be described as a Avc'oa pwavs.
The woodcut is copied from a lithograph in the Archdaologische Zeitung I874, taf. 7, where it is the subject of a long
article by K. Dilthey, the owner of the fragment (vol. VI, pp.
78-94), part of the substance of which is incorporated in the
above description.

Page  CXXXVII
DESCRIPTION OF THE WOODCUTS. cxxxvii

Page 70, line II59.
DIONYSIAC BULL, girt about with a garland of ivy, and
standing on a thyrsus decked with ribbands. These accessories
sufficiently indicate the Dionysiac character of the design, which
represents, not merely an animal sacred to Dionysus, but the
god himself in one of his various transformations. In the field
of the design we have the word VAAOV, the name of the gemengraver Hyllus, which also appears on a sardonyx representing
Hercules and a cameo of a laughing satyr (both in Berlin), on
a sard bearing a female head with a diadem (in St Petersburg),
and on a head resembling Sabina and a bust of Zeus, elsewhere.
The name, in the opinion of Mr King, 'has been interpolated
by a modern hand to enhance the selling-price of this magnificent gem' The original is a chalcedony belonging to the
National Cabinet in Paris (Lippert, Dactyliothek I no. 231, and
Mariette, Pierres gravees, I no. 42). The woodcut here given
is reduced to the size of the original, from the copy drawn to
double that size in King and Munro's Horace (Odes II 5), where
Mr King remarks that 'Dionysos-Sabazios being always represented with the horns of a bull, it may be inferred that the
animal itself was the primitive type of the god.' After referring
to Gan, the sacred bull of Siva in the Indian mythology, he
adds that 'the explanation that Dionysos is figured with horns,
from having first taught the use of oxen in tillage, may be set
down without further enquiry to the account of the rationalists
of the latest ages of Greece.' The bull is a natural symbol of
vigorous vitality.
In another gem (in the St Petersburg Cabinet, Miller-Wieseler, no. 383), the Dionysiac bull, standing on a plain staff, perhaps a narthex, carries the three Graces between his horns, while
in the upper part of the field are the seven stars identified as
the Pleiades, which form a cluster like a bunch of grapes, in
the constellation of Taurus (/p3rpvs, Eustathius on Homer
p. 1155). The same animal appears (though in a less aggressive attitude than in the gem here engraved) in the bas-relief
figured in the 3lfon. ined. de 'llnst. arch. t. vi, pi. vi, no. 3
S. B. k

Page  CXXXVIII
cxxxviii iVTR OD UCTION.
(quoted in Lenormant's article on Bacchus, note 998). For
references to the Dionysiac bull in literature, see note on line Ioo,
to which may be added Propertius IV 17, 19, per te et tua cornua
vivam virtutisque tzuae, Bacche joeta ferar; see also the commentators on Horace Od. III 21, 182.
Page 73.
AGAVE WITH THE HEAD OF PENTHEUS. In her right she
grasps by the hair the head of her son, in her left a thyrsus
capped with leaves and trimmed with floating ribbands. Her
head is violently thrown back, and the lower part of the drapery
is tossed about as she dances for joy. The woodcut is enlarged,
by one-third, from a 'paste' in the gem-cabinet of the British
Museum.
In Cades' imironte gemmarie VI 7 there is a small gem
from the Vannutelli collection, figured in Muller-Wieseler no.
438, in which Agave is holding in her left the head of Pentheus,
and in her right a short sword pointed downwards; the lowest
folds of the dress and the attitude of her head are remarkably
like those in the above design, to which, however, it is in
other respects far inferior. In the Uffizi at Florence (Diitschke,
die Antiken Mrarmorbildwerken den Uffizien in Florenz, 1878,
no. 503), there stands in the middle of the 'hall of inscriptions'
a Roman cizp2us of white marble, on each of the four sides of
which is a Bacchante in wild transport, one of whom has the
thyrsus while two others are clashing cymbals. The one in
front is draped in a long semi-transparent chiton, her arms are
stretched out wide, with a light shawl passing from one to the
other and falling loosely between them; her face looks upwards
with an earnest gaze, and the hair is thrown back like that of
the Agave on p. 58, in her right she holds a short sword with
the point upwards, in her left a youthful head of finely chiselled
profile, cut off just below the neck. These figures could hardly
have been originally designed for this monument, and are probably, as has been suggested, copied from a lost original representing in a larger design Agave and her Maenads after they

Page  CXXXIX
DESCRIPTIOV OF THEI WTOODCUTS. cxxxix

had compassed the death of Pentheus. This is rendered probable by the fact that elsewhere we find an altar, (referred to
in Zoega's Bassirilievi It p. 175,) which represents the three
daughters of Cadmus, including Agave with the head of Pentheus; and also a fragment in the Museo Chiaromonti (viI
riquadro n. 150) on the same theme (Jahn's Penth/eus und die
lainadenz p. 22). The authority last quoted further suggests
that the figure of Agave in particular may have been taken from
some famous piece of sculpture, which is here combined for the
nonce with other Bacchic forms of a conventional type. Ile
cites Welcker (on Zoega's Basrel. p. 163) as referring to a marble
slab, in the possession of W. von Humboldt, with a head of
Ammon on one side, and Agave with the head of Pentheus on
the other; he also mentions one or two gems on the same subject in the Berlin collection, and gives a reference to Vivenzio,
gemme antiche ined. tav. I9, adding however that Gerhard and
himself had sought in vain for a copy of that work in Berlin
and Kiel respectively. As the work is obviously rare, I may
add that Mr King has been good enough to shew me the engraving referred to: it is called Agave.- Calcedonia; Penteo
lacerato dalle Baccante; Pentheus is seen defending himself
against three Maenads, the one to the left holding a thyrsus;
the one in the middle two serpents, while the one on the right
has her thzysus thrust forward like a spear. In Mr King's
opinion the design is not even renaissance work, and he would
ascribe it to the last century.
Lastly, on one of the three sides of the pedestal of a candelabrum in the British Museum, we have a relief representing
Agave in a wild attitude with head thrown slightly back, and
hair dishevelled, holding a human head in one hand, and a
sword, with the point upwards, in the other. The treatment of
the feet and the lower folds of the drapery is identical with that
in the gem here engraved (Combe's British Museum Marbles
part I plate v, Ellis, Townley Galle;y II p. 79, and Part II no 6
in the Official Guide to the Graeco-Roman Sculptures in the
B. M., where it is suggested that this type may have been 'derived from some composition by Scopas.')
/2

Page  CXL
cxl

INTR OD UCTION.

Page 85.
BACCHANALIAN PROCESSION. Foremost of the three figures,
here represented as moving onwards in the dance, is a Maenad
with her head thrown back and her hair streaming loosely from
behind her head, partly clad in a talaric chiton, and beating
with her right hand the tympfanum which she holds in her left.
Next follows a young Satyr with a panther's skin flung over his
left shoulder, playing the double flute, the bass notes being
sounded by the tibia dextra or atvXo aip8piios, and the treble by
the tibia sinistra or avXos yvvatrjios (Herod. I 17, Theophr. Hist.
Plant. IV 12 and Pliny xvI 66). The straps which bind his
head are probably part of the Oop3Lad, the leathern band or
cheek-piece, worn by pipers round the head and face to compress the lips and cheeks, and so give 'a fuller, firmer, and
more even tone' to the instrument, as more completely represented in the illustration in Rich's Diet. s. v. cafistrum. the
third figure is a youthful Satyr, with the panther's skin held
like a buckler on his left arm, and the bent wand of the thyrsus,
with its pine-cone and ribbands, in his right hand. Beside him
walks the panther of Dionysus.
The woodcut is from a bas-relief, rather more than four feet
by three, of exquisite workmanship, found on the site of Gabii
in 1776, and now in the British Museum (B.M. Marbles, II
plate xiii; Ellis, Townley Gallery i p. o09; photographed.
Caldesi no. 30, Harrison no. 86I; Official Guide (179)). It will
be observed that the moulding is deeper at the top and bottom
than at the sides; and we may therefore conjecture that it was
part of a series of tablets meant to stand side by side, whether
actually touching one another or not; a deeper moulding would
in this case be avoided, as it would not only appear too heavy,
but would also unduly separate it from the corresponding designs in the other compartments. The three figures occur again
and again, sometimes in a different order, in other works of
sculpture, copied ultimately, no doubt, from some lost masterpiece of ancient art; for example, in the Naples Museum (Ground
floor. Hall vIl), where the only difference is that the thyrsus is

Page  CXLI
DESCRIPTION OF THE WOODCUTS. cxli

held more upright, and the last figure and the panther are not
so close to the two others. In the same Museum (Hall vI no
531), there is a large marble crater, much damaged by the boatmen of the bay of Gaeta who used to moor their boats to it, till
it was taken to the Cathedral and converted into a font; operation
round this may be seen a row of eight figures including our
three, and also Hermes handing over the infant Dionysus to be
nursed by a nymph; it is inscribed with the name of the artist,
who is otherwise unknown,-SAAH/IQN AOHNAO1 EFOIHSEN (copied from Aluseo Borbonico I, 49, in Miller-Wieseler
lI xxxiv 396).
Page 86.
BAKXH XIMlAPO(tONOC, FROM A BAS-RELIEF IN THE BRITISH
MUSEUM (I40 A). In her left hand she is holding part of a kid
that she has slain, in her right she is brandishing a knife over
her head. The hair is gathered up into a coif; a chiton falls in
ample folds down to her feet, which are bare; and an upper
garment is thrown over her shoulders, leaving the breasts
and both arms uncovered. Behind her, a mantle flutters in the
air, with its upper end caught by the hand that holds the knife.
The drapery with its sweeping folds is admirably suggestive of
swift and energetic movement.
The most memorable instance of the same subject is the
masterpiece of Scopas which is the theme of several epigrams of
the Greek Anthology (Alnth. Plan. IV 60, ib. 57, 58; and Anth.
Pal. IX 774, 775), some of which are quoted in the note on 1. 739.
It is also described by Callistratus, statuae 2, from whose account we gather that the Maenad of Scopas was represented with
loosely streaming hair; with a slain kid, instead of a thyrsus,
in her hand; and with the highest enthusiasm expressed in her
general appearance. A similar design occurs again and again
in ancient reliefs (e.g. in a pseudo-archaic design on a marble
vase in the Louvre, inscribed 2QSIBIO2 AOHNAIO2 EIIOI
(Miiller-Wieseler II 6021); and in Zoega's Bassirilievi II plates
1 The lettering there engraved has O and E instead of 0 and H; but
the inscription as here given, rests on the authority of a facsimile in
Frihner's Sculpture Antique du Louvre ed. 1878, p. 50.

Page  CXLII
cxlii

IcxlTR OD UCTIOIN.

83 and 84, where there is a slight difference in the head-dress
and in the angle at which the leg of the animal free from her
grasp is extended); but, as already observed by Urlichs, in his
monograph on Skojhas p. 62, none of them exactly corresponds
to the above description. Thus, the subject of our woodcut,
though resembling the work of Scopas, so far as regards the
dismembered kid held in the Maenad's hand, and also in its
lively attitude of dancing, nevertheless differs from it in respect
to the position of the head and the treatment of the hair. Sure
the other hand, in a relief formerly in the Borghese collection
(Winckelmann, no. 81), the head and hair correspond to the
description given by Callistratus, but the t/zyrsus appears
instead of the slain animal.
The chief point, then, in which our woodcut is different from
what we know of the lost work of Scopas is the tossing back of
the head and hair, which was characteristic of the latter and is
not unrepresented in several of our other illustrations (pp. 58,
238). It is conjectured by Urlichs (p. 60) that the Maenad of
Scopas may have suggested itself to the artist as a theme appropriate to the completion of the Theatre of Dionysus at Athens in
B. C. 342. He elsewhere recognises a fresh development of Greek
art under the influence of Tragedy, a development which shewed
itself not only in the groups of that sculptor but also in single
figures like that of his Maenad (p. 216).
The height of the original is I foot, 5 inches; the woodcut is
copied from the engraving in the British iMuseum Marbles x
plate 35. In the Official Gzuide it is suggested that the relief
was probably inserted as a panel in the base of a candelabrum.
Page Io9.
BACCHANTE PRYING INTO A CISTA MYSTICA. She is seated
under a tree and has just opened the sacred basket, out of which
a snake is seen emerging. A young Faun, who holds a crook
in his right hand, is holding up the left in astonishment. the
original is a sard published in Vidoni's Imipf. Gem. Iv 47. The
woodcut is borrowed from King's Antique Gems and Rings 11
xxx I2 (also in King and Munro's Horace Odes II xix B).

Page  CXLIII
DESCRIPTION OF THE IWOODCUTS. cxliii
Page 122.
DANCING FAUN, with head tossed back and hair floating in
the breeze, bunches of grapes in his right hand, and a panther's
skin over his right arm. In his left he holds aloft a thyrsus
capped with a pine cone, and a little below this a stick cloven
at its upper end is tied to the wand by a single ribband. the
original is a 'Florentine gem' first published in Agostini's
Gemmie Antiche Figzrate (I pl. 135), and thence copied by Scott
for a small illustrated edition of Horace published by Bell and
Daldy, 1855; the same woodcut has been used in King's
Anitique Gems anzd Rings II xxix 9 and in Westropp's Handbook
of Archaeologyy, ed. 2, p. 343.
In the cabinet of the British Museum, I have observed a
Sardonyx very similar in general design to the above gem, and
indeed hardly differing at all, except as regards the position of
the overturned wine-vessel. In this gem, which is well accredited, by having been formerly in the Blacas and Strozzi collections, the thyrsus is bound by ribbands near the top, and it
therefore occurs to me to suggest that the stick given by Agostini is only an inaccurate rendering of one of the two ribbands
in the original, which I have at present been unable to trace.
Mr King informs me that he doubts the antiquity of the ' Florentine gem,' and he suggests that it may be only a fancy sketch.
Page 138.
CADMUS ATTACKING THE SERPENT OF THE FOUNTAIN OF
ARES. The fate of his Phoenician comrades is ingeniously
indicated by the overturned pitcher. The gem is characterized
by Mr King as 'Etruscan work of the most finished kind'
(King and Munro's Horace, Epod. ix B, from which the woodcut
is borrowed). The original is in the Berlin cabinet, and a cast
of it is included in the collection mentioned on p. cxxvi. the
woodcut is enlarged to double the scale of the gem.

Page  CXLIV
cxliv

INTR 015 UCTIO i.

Page 145.
TELEPHUS CONSULTING THE ORACLE OF DIONYSUS. the
wounded king of Mysia, with his helmet on his head and with
shield and sword beside him, is here bending as a suppliant at
an altar on which stands the oracular head of the bearded
Dionysus. Telephus, according to the legend, had at first
repelled the Greeks; but Dionysus came to their help, and
caused him to be tripped up by a vine, and thereupon wounded
by the spear of Achilles. His wound is here indicated by a
bandage round his ankle and by the 'writhing anguish' expressed in his general attitude. The oracle of the god, who had
caused his fall, replied that only he that had dealt the wound
could cure the same, and the king was healed by Achilles with
the rust of his spear. The weapon is to be seen resting against
the altar.
The original is a golden sard belonging to the Hon. A. S.
Johnson, Utica, U.S.; the woodcut is borrowed from the
vignette of King's Antique Gems and RiZngs, where the copy is
drawn to twice the actual size of the gem.
Page 238.
TERRACOTTA LAMP FROM CYPRUS. A Maenad with head
tossed back and streaming hair, and with arms violently extended, holding a short sword in her right and part of a slain
animal in her left; she wears the long chiton, and over it the
nebris. The lamp was found at Dali, the ancient Idalium, in
1871, and was sent by Mr Consul Sandwith to the Rev. S. S.
Lewis, F.S.A., who has kindly permitted its publication, for the
first time, in this volume. The original is slightly larger than
the copy.
Page 251.
DANCING BACCHANAL, poised on tiptoe, with the left foot
thrown back, and balancing on his left shoulder a thyr sus bound
with ribbands. The original is a sard in the Leake Collection
of Gems in the Fitzwilliam Museum (Case II, no. 38), enlarged
to twice the actual size. Mr King's catalogue describes it as
'designed with much spirit in the later Greek style.'

Page  CXLV
LITERATURE OF THE PLA Y.

cxiv

Io. Literature of the pJlay.
EDITIONS OF EURIPIDES. (i) The Aldine ed. (by Musuros),
Venice, 1503; (2) ed. with Latin translation by Aemilius Portus,
Heidelberg, I597; (3) Paul Stephens, Geneva, 1602 (the ed.
used by Milton); (4) Joszhua Barnes, Cambridge, 1694; (5)
Miusgrave, Oxford, 1778; (6) Beck, Leipsig, 1778-88; (7)
Variorum ed., Glasgow, 1821 (vol. vi includes the Bacchae with
the notes of Barnes, Reiske, Musgrave, Heath, Beck, Brunck,
Porson and others); (8) l1altthiae, Leipsig, 18I3-29 (notae in
Bacchas in vol. viii, 1824); (9) Th. Fix, (Didot) Paris, I843;
iIo) A. Kirchhof; (Reimer) Berlin, ed. I855 (2 vols., with full
ayparatus criticus at the end of each volume); (II) A. Kirchhoff, (Weidmann) Berlin, ed. I867 (3 vols., with a few of the
more important various readings and emendations at the foot of
the page); (12) Nauck ed. 2, (Teubner) Leipsig, 1857, (plain
text, 2 vols. with introduction 'de Euripidis vita' &c., and
'annotatio critica'); (I3) 1W. Dindoif in the ' Poetae Scenici,'
ed. 5 (Teubner) Leipsig, 1869; (14) F. A. Paley (Bell) London,
3 vols. 8vo. (ed. 2 of vol. ii, 1874).
The above list does not profess to be complete with respect
to the earlier editions. Of the editions prior to that of Kirchhoff,
(5) and (7) have been consulted more often than the rest. Fuller
use has been made of the later editions: (Io) to (14).
SEPARATE EDITIONS OF THE BACCHAE. (I) Brunck (with
Hec. Phoen. HzfiP.), Strasburg, 1780; (2) Elmsley, Oxford, 182I;
(3) Heriann, Leipsig, 1823; (4) 7. A. Hartung, with Germ.
transl., and notes, Leipsig, 1849; (5) F. G. Schoene, ed. I, I850,
ed. 2 posthumous, (Weidmann) Berlin, I858, translated into
English by the Rev. H. Browne (Rivington) 1853; (6) F. H.
Bothe, Leipsig, ed. 2, 1854; (7) R. Y. Tyrrell, Fellow and Tutor
of Trinity College, Dublin, (Longman) London, I871, (reviewed

Page  CXLVI
(Cxlvi

I,vTTe ROD UC TIO A.

by R. C. Jebb in the 'Light Blue' for July, I87I, and by the
present.editor in the 'Academy,'Apr. I, 1872, and'Cambr. Univ.
Reporter,' May 31, 1871; (8) A. Sidgwick (extracts for beginners), (Rivington), London, 1874; (9) F A. Pal/y (a school
ed.), (Bell), London, 1877; (io) N. Wccklciz', ausgewihlte
Trag6dien des Eur., fir den Schulgebrauch erklart, drittes
Baindchen, (Teubner) Leipsig, 1879 (reviewed by Metzger in
'Blatter fir das Bayerische Gymnasial- und Real-Schulwesen'
I880, p. 71-3): Einleitung pp. I6; Anhang p. 93 —III.
The editions to which I have referred most frequently in the
course of the commentary are (2), (3), (5) and (7). (io) did not
reach me until nearly the whole of the commentary was in type,
but before it was printed off; accordingly I was precluded from
making much use of this admirable edition, except while preparing the Introduction and the critical notes.
DISSERTATIONS. (I5 R. P. 7oddrezl, M.D., D.C.L., Illustrations of Euripides, on the Ion, Bacchae and Alcestis, London,
I78 —89. (2) G. H. lMeyer, de Eur. Bacch., G6ttingen, I833.
(3) E. W. Silber, de Eur. Bacch., pp. 71 (oeconomia fabulae, de
consilio et ingenio fabulae, de difficilibus quibusdam locis),
Berlin, I837. (4) A. Kirchho/, ein supplement zu Eur. Bakchen
in 'Philologus' vol. 8, pp. 78-93, 1853 (cf. A..Doerizg, die
bedeutung der Tragodie Xptorogs traoXco fur die EuripidesKritik ib. vol. 25, pages 221-258). (5) Reuscher, de Eur.
Bacch., pp. 34, Perleberg, I856. (6) G. Bernzhar/dy, Theologumenorum Graecorum pars iii, Halle, 1857. (7) F. R. L. Adrianzus, de Eur. Bacch. vv. 367-426, pp. 35, G6rlitz, I860. (8) C.
Vliddendorf, Observationes in Eur. Bacch., Miinster, 1867.
(9) F. Al. Sc/hzzz, illustratur canticum ex Eur. Bacchis (vv. 64 -I69), pp. 43, Halle, I868. (io) E. PfJzder, fiber Eur. Bakchen,
pp. 41, Bern, 1869. (II) 7. Bamzberger, de Eur. Bacch, pp. 17,
Bensheim, I869. (12) C. Bock, de Baccharum prologo (et
parodo) I. pp. 21, Colberg, 1871. (13) N. Weckleiz, Studien zu
Eur. in Fleckeisen's Jahrbucher I874, supplement-band vii,

Page  CXLVII
LITI ER1 TUJRE OF TITE PLIA Y.

cxlii

p. 368 (on 11. 206 f., 235, 859, 982, 1001-5). (14) A. czBergmann,,
Kritische u. exegetische Bemerkungen, pp. 20, Wiirzburg, I874.
(I5) W. Collmann, de Baccharum fabulae Euripideae locis nonnullis (vv. 20 f., 200, 276), pp. 28, Glickstadt, 1875. (I6) idemn,
emend. Atticarum specimen, pp. 45-51, Kiel, I869. (17) Uric/ z
von Wiltaowitz-Moellendorff, Analecta Euripidea, (pp. 46 f'.
'dissensus Laurentiani et Palatini in Bacchis'), Berlin, I875.
(I8) R. Y. Tyrrell, 8evrepL, p fpovraiSe, in 'Hermathena,' no. 2
p. 292-300, 1876; ideml, no. 4, p. 476 ff. (I9) A. Palmer, ib.
no. 5, p. 254, 1877 (in 1. 778, renders E;aqrrerao, 'is catching,'
'laying hold of what is next to it;' and in 1. 1037 adds dyr7vopag
or 'Ayrvopos?. (20) E. S. Robertson, ib. no. 6, p. 387 ff., on
I. io68, &c. (21) S. IMekler, Euripidea, text-kritische studien,
(on 38, I8I f., 212, 278, 327, 476, 86o f., 998), pp. 70, Wien, I879.
(22) Patin, Etudes sur les Tragiques Grecs, Euripide, II. pp.
233-272 (les Bacchantes), ed. 5, 1879.
In the department of Art and Archaeology (including ' sacred
antiquities') the following books and dissertations may be mentioned: (I) Lobeck, Aglaophamus, sive de Theologiae mysticae
Graecorum causis, Konigsberg, 1829. (2) AK O. l Miler, Ancient
Art and its Remains (ed. I, I830) transl. by Leitch, I852, ~~ 383
-390, with Muller and Wieseler's Denkmaler der alten Kunst,
II, xxxi-xlv. (3) F. G. Schoene, de personarum in Eur. Bacchabus habitu scenico, pp. I66, Leipsig, 1831. (4) E. Gerhard,
auserlesene Vasenbilder vol. I, 1840, Tafel xxxi-xxxix, esp.
xxxii 'Dionysos u. Apollo,' xxxiii 'Bacchischer Ap.,' 'Dionysiaka,' xlix-lx esp. 1 and li 'Bacchischer Feldzug,' also lxiii
'Giganten Kampfe.' (5) Otto ahnz, Pentheus u. die Mainaden,
pp. 22 (with 3 pages of illustrations), Kiel, 1841. (6) Marczese
Campana, opere di plastica, tav. 26-54; 1842-5I. (7) Panofka,
Dionysos u. die Thyaden, in transactions of the ' Koniglichen
Akademie der Wissenschaften' pp. 341-390, with three plates,
1852. (8)L. Stephani, Compte rendu de la Commission Imp6riale
Arch6ologique, pp. 161-188 (on representations of Dionysus as
a martial god), esp. p. 179 note 4, and 183 note 7, St Petersburg,

Page  CXLVIII
cxhliii LAYTR 019 UCTIONA'
1867. (ci) 1). Arniold, Platte mit scenischen Vorstellungen in
Collegio Romano pp. 142-157 (Festgruss der Philologischen
Gesellschaft zu Wulrzburg an d. xxvi. Versammiung deutscher
Philologen u. Schulmndnner), Wiirzburg, i868. (io) G. K'inkel,
Euripides und die bildende Kunst, pp. 98, P. 56 f., Berlin, 1871.
(W C). W. AKin&'s Antique Gems and Rings, Vol. II, plates
xxvii-xxxi, i872. (12) A. Ra15pi (Stuttgart), die Madnade im
griechischen Cultus, in der Kunst und Poesie, in 'Rheinisches
Museum' Vol. 27, PP. I-212, and 562-601, i872. (I13) K-.
Dill/w~Y, Tod des Penthcus, Calenische Trinkschale (see woodcut on p. 69), in 'Archaologische Zeitung,' 1874, PP. 78-94.
(14) F. Lenoi-muzl, article on 'Bacchus' in Daremberg and
Saglio's Dictionnaire des Antiquite's, pp. 591-639, i85 (15)
idem, onl Dionysos Zagreus, in Gazette Arche'ologique 1879, PP.
8-37 (with vase-painting called a sc'ne d'omiofhagic, ilsrt
in gil. II 33 f.)

Page  CXLIX
EYPITTIAOY BAKXAI.

Page  CL
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'ETe6pOC 'ArreAoc.

Page  CLI
YIJ 00E I IYX.

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Trwv ~rnflLcdLv YVVaLKag, 'v at' TOv3 a~w Ov EpE~aY7OMV
rovs OtacrO-VS IEtLr)-OV E TO~ V Kt&atpwva. llEvOEis SE 0 Tq
'xAyavl'q -irats irapaXap3ov ii~v /3ao-XELav E'8VO-00PIEL TOCS 7/LVO/AeVOL9 KcLL TLYas ILEV TOJT BaKX(I^) oTvXXapL/3Wv EA7qTE, E'7r'aTO
TOV O-EOV ayy'/EXQOVS GL7rEcoTTEtXEV. O' 8 'KOvTos a'VToV KVpLEV(OLVTCS Wyov 7rpog 1TOV lIEVOE, KaKELVOS EKEIXEVOTEP 87(JuaVTas
aVTOv EY~ov 4/iVXaTrTELV, OV' XE7WY) /LO'VOV OTL 0E OV'K EGTL AL~o'VVTrO'&, aLXXa Kat 7rpcLTTELV 7CLtVTL WS~ KLTl aLYOpOw"7OV TOX/.LOV. 0
SE o-UtaAo~v 7ro-qo-rcag KcLTEcT~pEIEC Ta /3WlaXEAc, a'yaOwv E ctlg
Kt~oLpwhva EW7EcorTE TVv llcvtEV'cL KaTOWrT'1V y/EVEO(Oat TOW 7/vvaLKWV
X/3vovTa V IKO 'o~- a ' aVTV aL8 wc' v T. A/T
'Ay/aiqv KaLTa~p$La/.E'Y?. Kac8,og &c To YIE-Y0VO KaTawtoOo'/Evo0; Ta'
3LaG-7rcao-VTa /AEJA- cYvvaelycyOV TEXEUTaZCOV TO 7rl0-poWf7-ov IEV TaLS
TV/S TIEKOVVOOqV c'wpoc ~otv t'voo E 'r~v Ta` ILEV
7TiofL 7rap yyyEtXEv, E'KaLO -T 0) fYa'OV/4tJtp ETat 8tEGra4Y-qcrEV 2lEpy/oL%
Zva u?7 Xoyo vr TLO 3TW EKo3 WS avG p~oiiro KaLTc(X/pOVrq,O,
I coni. Elmsl.
2- 'va )u 9pyt X6-yo~s Elmsl., Herm.
3- TbV EbKT6Tre (sc. Xp6vov) Herm.

Page  CLII
APlIT04)ANOY57 FPAMMATIKOY YrfOOE57I T.

ACO1'VU(O3 cL7roOEWOEI L~ p' /3ouXO/Xdvo'V LEVOLS~ -Ta OpyCLa
a'UTOZ 'LVcXcLM/SLVIEtV 'E'S UaLV'V c'ya-yw'V TUS1 Tiq3 /L-JTpo'; a8X U r
-qVa-yKcUY-E lIEVOIE'c 8aO-7TcUrat. )7 CMVOGWLa KELtTaL 7rclp'AoxVX
Littera P indicat codicem Palatinum in bibliotheca Vaticana servaturn (no. 287); eundem nonnulli (v. c. Kirchhoffius et Weckleinius)
littera B significant. C designat codicem Florentinum in Laurentiana conservatum (xxxii 2) qui post finem versus 75.5 desinit; ex eodern
(ut videtur) descripti sunt eiusdenm bibliothecae codex. D (xxxi i) et
bibliothecae publicae Parisiensis duo (no. '2887 = Par. E, et no. '28I17=
By. G). (Codicum defectum supplet nornunquam cento ille partirn
e nostra fabula confectus qui Xptazoi-6 Ila'-~Xcvv (('hr. Pat.), Gregorio
-Nazianzeno quondam falso tributus, inscribitur.
E contraria parte, si quando opus est, adieci lectiones edition-Is
Aldinae anno 1503 Marci Musuri cura editae, quae auctoritate codicis
Palatini plerurmque nititur. Aliorum coniecturas, eas praesertim quas
in textum recepi, primio emendationis uniuscuiusque auctore norninato,
addidi. Lectiones quas praetulerunt editores recentiores,-Elmleius
(i82i), Ilermannus (i823), Schoenius (ed. 2, i8~8), Kirchhoffius (1855,
1867), Nauckius (ed. 2, i86o), Dindorfius (ed. ~, 1869), Paleius (ed. 2,
1874), Tyrrellius (i871), Weckleinius (z 8-9), —ubicumnque operae pretiurn
visum erat, indicavi.

Page  1
EYPrIIAzOY

BAKXAL

AIONTYO.M.
~'Htcw ZALo' 7ra-v9 -r7?L'i &?)3alWov X0o6v
IAtoz~cO09, oV TIKtlrEt 7oO' q' Ka'apov lco'pq
'ELXcq XOXEVOEct — ax7T-pa7T?7 opp wrvpt'
juop4o)v 8' aczLtct'aq b'c OcoD" /3po7-qo-iav
7rapet,(L& Zt'plcq, va',ar' Iop7I/)Vov 0' Uc&ip.5
~p co ~E 0p ~ /17,L~ yr icepavvias,
7Tv~fo/JpEvc W~ov 7rvp' 6"Tt Nco-av 4Xoya,
E'pirl~ou BdKXat P: EU5pl7rt'o'VNvHEOcv'T C.
I. O-qai'wv PC, schol. Troad. i (analecta Ambrosiana apud Keil.
an. gr. p. io): Otflflaxal (ab Elmsleio probatum, ab Hermanno in
textum recepturn), schol. Hephaestionis p. 183; 0773atfaV Kara'
Priscianus ii p. i15i (=P. 48) quern Oqiafa/3atc'K-b legisse suspicatur
Hauptius (Hermes, vii 371).
8. MayV Te PC: -re delevit Barnesius, quem secuti sunt editores
omnes praeter Tyrrellium, qui testimonio fretus Plutarchi ai3poO i7rvpo'
niemoriter citantis, &53poi 7Ec 7ripol excogitavit. 8Lou 7r' 9TL 7rup6s Porson.
S. B.I

Page  2
2

ETPIHJ1AOT

a'OcaT-ov ~'Hpas~ /J1wTe'p' i, eL',o E'2V i3pwv.
I 0 Ka'8/.ov, afOcr~ov ", 7wb~ov TrOt3 10
TrtOyqat Owya-rpos, aUIKO'v- a.LWe'Xov 8e WVi
7Tept~ ey&)' KLLaXv~a /3o~pva38e XXoY.
XL~ra'w 6 Av~o3v ro1)9 'rroXvxpv~a-ov,~ yv~as~
4?pvywv TE, J~pO~OV 0?XtO/3X 7TOV9~ WXa'/aS'
Ba4Kcpta' -re -rt~ -TiJ re (SVJXLALOV x0ov 15
M7i8cov 6E7TXOW2Jv 'Apa/3{cv -r ev'3at'l.Lovct
'Aoltav we waoav, 1) 7wap' ~X/-vpa'v aXa
KcetTcL p.4yaow0 "EXXio-t I3ap/3a4pots ' 0'/6LOV
wA pcV~ eXovOcra KaXXwv~prycowrov,~ 7r(XEL%
ELS T 7?)h3 Wp&J )rov i3Xov 'EXX ivd~w vo'Xtv, 20
KaKEF XOPev'o-as' Kat KaTao-Tyo-a9~ E/.taS~
TEXETal~ tv ErqV e/luavI7' &al/.LWV /3POT0LS.
i3. 7Ca 7roXvXpv'o-ovs PC: -rov's correxit Elmsleius qui tamen TC01v
7roXvxpv'oboz 'libenter reponeret' (reposuit Wecklein). -Yuias P et
corr. C.
v. 14 Omisit C. G'in 1' mutatum ab Elmsleio delet Wecklein.
15. 81o0XeL/Lov PC cumn Strabone: correxit Elms.
i6. 6rEX6un' PC et Strabo I p. 27; 7rapEXOWL/ auctor Cluisti
P'atientis i500: 47riXOop Wecklein curn Strabonis loco altero xv
p. 687. cippaq'av corr. C.,2o. versurn hunc post 22 transponebat Piersonus (verisimzilia p.
122); Piersonurn secutus est Wecklein qui praeeunte Schenkijo e'Liarn
7r6Xu in X06sca mutat, Jaudato Chr. Pat. i6oi (i~5g) EtlI r7'Sve wpdro'
jXOcEY'pa1iwv XOO'sa, et allis locis commernoratis ubi verba 7w6wi et X066sa
inter se confusa sint, e. g. Alc. 479, Soph. Ant. 187, huius fabulae 961.
versurn 2o delet, '23 Post '25 transponit Bernhardy (Ind. lect. hib.
Hl~ale 1857) qui post 23 nonnulla excidisse, putat. post versum '22
lacunarn indicat Paley. ordinern VV. i9-,2o in Miss traditumn defendit
Chr. Pat. 1. c.
21i. -rdK6~ scrib~it W~ilamowitz-MNoellendorff (IHer~nes xiv 179).
2 2. C1P' C; eiq P. iiu~pavd1 Chr. Pat. 1564; 'fortasse 'rEXCTa.1
'UtiXOGqv 4q~av'~' Kirchhoff.

Page  3
BA KXAL

3)

7rpw~ia9~ 8E 'bj8a'~ ~-0-Se 'Ps~!EXXqVLI.&30
avwo'XXv~a, ve/3pit8 e'~a'rat9 xpo'?
OVpO-OV TE EoV L9 xdpa, Ktdo-o-tvOV /3Xo~,~ 2
E7ret i d' (l(EV/a4 /L97TpO9~,~ (9KtO-T CXP77V,
AtVO-vO'v OVKc E'awCKov E'lc/vlpat At'.
-~E/61Ekelk) &e 1V/JX'EO'ELJ'eL1)- EK Ovp-7oV 7(1)09
ek, Zq>'j davC'(pCW ' aviv4apt'~-av X'E'XOv9
Ka481.ov o-o/)iojLaO', Ct'W VtV OVVEKa IKTCWELV 30
ZI'7v E'~vcavXwvO,0, 07T~ 717a'lz1v, E*'Evo7aT0.
TOitycp vtv aVTa9~ EK 8OLOV (9~TTP7l~7 E7(0
/tkavLEavt9 05P09 8 OIKODctL 7v~1p~Koot0 OppuvoJ,
OrKEVy7V T EXEtV r/VayKLo- opytwov EA'~OV,
KC~ 7t~V To Oq'Xv uv7e'p/lc Ka~l~etwcv &r'cat 3
7V ELKE?7Y1 EE'7a &O/hZTCOV'
6oi3p K~ov 7T1tTL vaALEA~tyI~lkvt
XX(0pa-t9 Vz7w' E'X4,Tca~ dvopoofo0L 7TjVTcL 7)ETpr-i.S'.
86F 'yap '7T6Xtv Tn711 6EKua~OeW, KEL IV)7 OEXEL
aTXEO-T70V o "eYLaV TW 'V O) /3LIK8a~XEv/~LaT, 4
TE /fL7qTpo9q awoXoyy'wO-ctoi1ct V' uep
23. rmu3e PC: rdo-3e Pierson et L Dindorf (G Dindf., Weckleiin).,25. Ou'pao' PC a Wilamowitz-Moellendorffio collati (i87.5).
KL'OO1VtOP A~oT PC: Kiaosovopg~os Tyrrell; KiO0W-LPv gAOS I-I Stephanus.
2,9. -r~'y3' obiter coniecit Paley.
30. CIvIEKc scribit Wecklein; item in versu 47 (coil. 'cnsei3a
phicis' p. 36).I
3'. f'eKavX oLe' libri: ~E'KavXCv6' H Stephanus.
O'r libri: oi' Mekier (A')-it. Bejir. zu Eur. u. Sop/h. I879 P. )
32. aind Ts Weken rpj'lbi o —rpqo-' Elms. (cf. 687,I
8 14, 12 85).
38. dvop6pots 6' Wecklein; (X'POPO'Ov5 -'jTat 'srlpas scribere voluit
Elms., 'ivoppoCS a-T~-ycCL Mfekler (Euripidc'a p. 19). stvrat (', cur- I
1-2

Page  4
4

ETPIITTAOT

4avev-ra Ovp-ro-V~ (3allzov', o~v TIKTELt Ad.
Ka(3,to9? I-Ev oi'v 7Epaq -re Kat TrvpaVVt(3a
IIevO&& &(3wou OVya7-po', EKVrCO/VKCO'TL
O'q Oeo/.Laxet Ta KaT e/.LE Kat O7TOV3wV a7r-O 45
WOEL /k' E'v ev'Xa'V~ 7' ov'8aWv' tvei'av e"et
Co ) O LJZEK a OS ODC0 E V SiC / a
7Taatcv -re eflfaioto-tw. CS'~ (3 4,XXq x~O~va,
TaVOEVNS OE/JlevQS eV, /,tETaorr7ow 7r0&a,
&LtKJVN9 E/1av70'ov* 2v 86 eq,/3 '(J1~ 776 ts- 5
Opyf a~ iXot v b'povs' B KXaS' a"yetv
~l1Ty, avvai~fo 1-tatvacrt oTpa-rq-Xa-r(w.
WV O VVK ELSS U 70V a~ a ' X W
Loopo 'v 7- E/L/VLeTre/aXoV ek a~p(p~ OVtOatv.
d'XX' CO'~ Xtwrov-at Tttw'Xov "pvlaa Av(t{as', 55
Otao-os; v/t yvvatLKES', asg c/c Oap/3alppa
6/cO/tWa 7rapc(povs Ka t ~Uv 'e/k7T pov q 'C/o I,
atpEcOC Tra'7TtXW'Pt El 77rOxet (JDpvyct^v
Tv7rava, Pe'a(; -re /(uy pOS' e/ia 0 eVp?//la Ta,
/3ao-i'Xeta 7-' ap4o't 3w'/ltaT c'X0o oat 7a6e 6o
KTV7V')EIT6 H~e7OeWSi, (O'), 6Opa Kac4,ov vw6Xt,.
c (p 8e Bac~av~ ek~ KtOatpft'VOI~ 77-TVXaS
E'XOWfV, et., -,, ~o- X pov
46. 7~ ou'3au~is3 C (Schoenius, Nauck, Dind., Wecklein); r' oL!a~zoO
P (Elmns., Ilerm., Kirchf., Paley, Tyrrell). 6' o65auoO C'r. Pat. 1571.;'2. jOTIE? correctum. in ~)JT? P. ~uvd-'w C; o-uv- P.
53-54. versum posteriorem delet Hartungr, utrumque Bernhardy:
djXXc4as f'yw /.opq7'7v I/Aij /(eTE'3aXov coniecit Hermann. Osdov pro
OV6qTpO'V Schoertius.
55. XtzwoDaa P et a prima mianu C: Xtwoo~aa corr. C et C/hr. Pat.
(602; d~rrouo-aL sec. Elms., (vel dhro~orat sec. Kirchf.,) Strabo P. 469.
57. ~K6jpL& 6,ia~o~s coniecit Nauckius. ~ w'pqur6povs P; avv,- C.
59. rt rava vulgo: 7-67rava Nauck.
62. 7r-ri'Xa I'j rccte; irTz'cai edlitio Aldina.

Page  5
BAKXAJ.

S

'A o-1a 9 a7T0o yatia 9 -p cfj C'
tepov Tuw3Xov c't/Jei'ac-a OodC~w 65
Bpolu'(d Oe~di WQZ/vov?)8'v ca/jkaT6'rv T'COIc4lzaTrov, Ba/KLov eva~'Q/1e'vc.
TIS' Oe t T ( e T 1` clv'T (Trpo4)l C'.
pLeXa~Opov9; 6CKTO09 C07T(O, 0r0/kc$ T eVOjby
izov a'was- foa-wLoVO-OW T7a 7zotW-OE'V- 70
Ta ryap ael I.OvVO-Ov (l5FUV?7o-w).
64. -y~s PC: -ycala Jerrnann.
66. Bpo~.dqw 7r'voz' PC: Bpoudcg Oec~ 7r6pop? Nauckius in annotatione cri/iica editionis Teubnerianae (i857); in textuni recepit Wecklein.
67 'q~zo~.dva PC (Kirchlf, Nauck, Wecklein); Ock, omisit P et a
prima manu C, T6V 13diKXLov diapobdla Oeo'v C a secunda mann (idem
omisso, rO', Elms., Sch.): a&pog.va Odeo' Hermann (Dind., Paley, Tyrrell).
68. -ris ycXdOpots P et C (denuo collatus): nI' U y. ed. Aid.
i-rs; /IeXciOpots &KToWos go-T&J Wecklein Elmsleiumn secutus.
70. oo'o6ayOw P et C ante liturarn (Elms., Sch., Nauck, Wecki.):
Soo-o6o-Ow C et ed. Aid. (Ilerrn., Dind., Paley, Tyrrell); 4~oatovo-OwTOuts -yevoOOw Hesychius.
7I. atel PC (Sch., Kirchf.,, Wecki.); aii (Elms., Tyrr., Pal.,
Dindf.): eiio? Jacobs (Herm.). if.VuiTaw PC:' KEXaNOWr& Herm. (Sch.).
cIEXa36? Nauckius ann. cri1.

Page  6
6

ETPJI7JAOT

c ltaKap, ~O(T sP e tva/Iawo &r p ij 3'
'LOtaP a-ye a-e V av
cat -raTEEat *v 7 5
eV) OPE(74& /3aLK X eVO()ZJ
0O7t0LS? KaOappLoL-Ttl
Wr -re ALaTpoS? /.erya`Xa; O'p-.yta Kv/3E'Xa'~ Oe(LLTeU&WX
ava Uyo-oZ TE TtvaTLToJv So
Ato'vvo-ov Oepa7ret)EL.
tTe Ba'KxaL, t"rc Bd'KXa,'
Bpo'ptov wra&ta OcE'v OeoI3
Atoivvcov tcarca-ovaat 8
4fipvyy'wv E'~ 3pcv 'EXXah8os et'
evPVXOPOVS? aymta9, rov) Bpc4o'pov
01) 7TO Tr eyO UO El () W WSVw dLv w-r po(T~f~ f
XoXiaiv9 avayKata-t
=ralae9a Ztoc~ I&pVTaS,~ 90
Wlhv'OS 'EK/30'x0V ~laTyp
ETE/KEV, XLorQVJo aL(03 -va KepavvtpD 7uiX-qya'
xoxiol~ 8'aVtiKa i/tv ) '
O. taoo-e6hrc P: correxit Elms. 76. 6peai PC: peao-i Elms.
77 6ioo P et manu recentiore C: oG-LoLs Elms.
79. 6juto-rev'wv PC et Strabo P. 469: correxit Musgr.
81. KLGOV~ TE6 or7eccavwOels PC, KLOV~) o-7. Strabo: Ka-TLZ KLO-T~OT~a-. Herm.,
0-76ePriVsWreaor. Shilleto. 83. c t'r'e g3KXax (re Ia'KXassP (et ante lituram C).
87. E6pvXL$Povs P prima mann et C cum Strabone; e6v'XvXpovs
P recentiore manu.
93. KepaVulIW C, K~paLUvIca P;.I'q Kirchf., Nauck; -icp, ceteri, cf. 594
7rX77yc PC, 7r~a-'a corr. C, v~a-y~ ed. Aid. 94. An XoXtavg? (cf. 89).

Page  7
BAKXAI.

~aTro OaXc4a'/tav Kpovi' a,; ZE'
KaTa /fjp (O 6E KaVa
7repovats' KCPV7tTOJ) af 'Ha
ETeKel) 8' aviica Mot'pat
TeXeoctv, TavpofKEpo)l) OEOV
tYTIE~ja'VCOEV TES 8paKo'vTC)V
o-TEe/atvotS, C'Wev a"ypav Oqpo'-poobov
Matva'&eq dLbt/3a'XXOVTat 7WXoKa/I-otq.

7
95
100

Plat c —eo/a~v'oVJOe Kto-a L
AuXatK KaXXt/,cap7rpq
Kca& KaTa/3atcytoV'o-0E

GrTpo~~ -y'. 105

9,5. OaXd~ots PC: OaXa"eats Wecklein collato 56r, 7raXduatjacobs.
97. Xpvoae'ats P et (cum glossemnate a-vvi'o-ts) C denuo collatus.
io2. O-qpoTp6q/ot P (denuo collatus), Ovpo-ooppot C: &-qpo'rpo/o-v
coniecit S Allen apud Tyrrellium, dubitanter praeeunte Musgravio;
t9Jqpo7rpo'oo probat Wecklein.
T07. XXo-qpd P et C (ov vel a super et scripto): XXo'~pet Herm.
io8. pAIXaK& P; crLLIXIXKL C sed o- a correctore praefixo (Hferm., Selh.).

Page  8
S

ETPIlIzIIOT

8PO1 7/ 7) Aa'TaS~ KX(a'8ot-Otl, 11I0
U'TtKToV 7 evt3 V7-a VeI8pi8wv
TTOfETE XEVKOTP' XOVl 7TXQKL/.ko)v
p~aXXortv a'/Lzo' &c Vdipffy~as' Vptr'+
oto-tvorO' av'Tt'Kc ya 7raoca XopevoQEt,
Bp6Aluo, e7'r Av a"-/ Oac'owos I1
Et9 Op0 OI p9 va /ilEE
0 4Xy E L '?7 oX po?s e E e
1~' TTo-r)V 7rapa' 16KtpKL(AW 7
00YTp'q76EL9? Atoiwcro&.
W1 OaXa'lkivja Kovpr- OVTLTO~Po1 -y'. 120
rcv JEOI' TE K
AWO7EVE'TOpE9? gVav~ot,
fV~a TPt1Ko'pVOE' alvTpot'?
13Vp(7OTOVOV KVKXcolzai
7'86 pot Kop 53a r 1 poi 2
iro. -q Adrag KXac30O-LoL P (Elms., Herm., Sch., Kirchf., Dind.,
Paley), 77' Xasr 'V KXCLIOLI C: 77'v EXCITCaS KXaLIoto-t Blomifield (Edinb.
Rev. 34 P. 39Til/us. Cr-it. ii 66o) quern secutus est Tyrrell; -q ev Weckl.
I II. O7T1IKTa 'duce stropha' Tyrrell. ir' PC (denuo coil.); 5 & ​​# 39;
apographa Parisina. fV6VKTa' P, lvhra& C: f'y5UT&Y male edl. Aid.
i I 2. -7rOiccqsc-v PC: 7roKa'5wz' Reiskius (Tyrrell).
115. o'r' ar-y7 P et a prima manu C, 6'-&Sarrso.y a manu secunda C:
EUT av Elms.
x S8. ckt 1oar63v C, dpup' LcrTCOv P, cic/' ICTT3P ed. Aid. cL7r6 KIEPKI3wv Reiskius.
I121. JciOeoc PC: ~a~f'ov Dindorf. KP77T6S P, Kp7~)Tas C (i. e.
Kp jras et Kp7iTIES); eodem modo inter se discrepant codices Strabonis
p. 469.
123. 9,v~a TrpLK6pvOEs (4s i-' Ald.) &' PC; TpLKo'pv0er 4~ols Strabo:
bv delevit Musgr. (Elms., Herm., Kirchf., Nauck, Wecklein); TpLK6pIvocs
I&G' C'v transposuit Dobraeus (Sch., Dind., Paley, Tyrrell).
125. qvpo20 P et C (denuo collatus); Ev'pov Strabo (Herm., Sch.).

Page  9
BAKXAJ.

9

av& tI3 K1 vrrvt
KIpa az)6v/30'a (?pvytiov
atiX(c'v 7TvEvA-taTt, (LaTpoS Tre Eat9c
Xepa 0O'KaV, KTLVTIOV Ea-aat BaKXa'iv
Ttdpa 8Sc FlaLVO/lzevoL YaTvpot I30
F~taTEpoS' E~avv'oa1JTo OEaS',,
o-vztav Trpte7-?pt'wV,
aV' xca pet Ato5vvo-o9~.
c~S L opeocrw, (il arrvid. 13
Etc Otac'o-v 8po/Jaliov
7EO 7rEwoo-e, vefl~piQ XO
i526. I~UKXEIU PC et ed. Aid., f~cacKXs apogr. Paris., fpcKX6IW, Strabo:
gacKXELI1 5'aciza ous'r6V'q K~paUocav (i. e. dVIEKs'pacrcav auT6r) Dobraeus. ava
5&BcKXa6SL yvPT'6vW,. K. W5ujo~ 4'pv-yt'wp ast)Xv irye' jicr Herm. Equidem d'vc& 5' dipaiyluara -rujrcivwv vel aliud eiusmodi desidero; etiam
Coilmanno venerat in mentem uvvrut'vyt ex 7-6,uravov esse corruptum,
coniecit enim (ut nuper didici) /3aKXE~ov 5' dv&' r6luz-az'oV Kt~pao-cw aiS.
4.au'. irz'c6sar. at)Sj (3ciKXUa orvtroV, 't apcocv Abvj~odv (D. at). rve~cv'tra
WVecklein.
1,27. -jpvf6a. PC et ed. Aid., KepUSs ci'&u Uzo j~oa' Strabonis codices:
&5vg6q Elms. (Kirchf. ed. i867), &Su3vodz Kirchf. ed. i855 (Tyrrell,
Wecklein).
i529. IEv (9v r' C secunda manu) do-jccao-L PC: ev'a'a-btao-L Canterus;
Fh7Kcu KaXXiL'Krurop v'aa-Ola Strabonis codices, ubi KaX I'ortum ex praecedenti Kcat" (Dobree). 13I. OE6s PC: Pe'as Strabo.
133. avz'?Nav PC (uvp- Dindf.): rpoo-/'av Strabo.
134. at's PC: ots Strabo.
135 7jts C,js '"w cs maluit Dobraeus; Wst~ Dindorf.
6pcow P et C denuo collati; ot~peo-t e codicibus Parisinis admisit Brunckius (Nauck, Dindf., Wecklein). grap PC: eVjr' ait Dindorfius
collato v. iis5 (Tyrrell, Wecklein); '86s, e' o~peo-st', 6s -r' &vt lierm.;
-' Xc-rat' J S Reid; 'fortasse 6s Ayt" Kirchhoffius; ijitHs ~ oSpeuo'ct' 6s bo Sch.
537. 7rE~)o-q (littera v puncto notata) 7rec66s o-e P; 7rto —g r-lisl C
denuo collatus: ce6'n Nauck. s'ejipi'? Nauck. ann. crit'.

Page  10
Io

ETPIHJLAOT

iepoiv Ev(vUTov, aypeovw
at~ja Trpay1OKTovo7), w)/-40ka~yov Xcptvi,
iE/levo'; eL'; opea (J)piyta, Az5&a. 140
6 (' 6'~cap~o'; Bpc'uos', eLIOt.
I~t (3 ya'XaK-tL rwe'ov, pt 8' oLLpw, p"J SeAE
vEKrapt, ~:vpia'w (3' co'; Xt/3avoV Ka7rvol?.
6' BCaKxeOS 8' '~w 45
rvp-o,3i ~Xo'ya 7rev~'
etc vap OqrKo'; aiooet
(3po'1l Ka~t XopoZ't; epe~it'cov 7rXavcaraa;
ia~a,; r' aar'awd~ v
rpvo~epo~v TXO'Ka/LoVlJ, at'06d~'pa pV7rTTWV. 150
aria 8'eWr evla'o7.LcUtv EMrtcpe/lket
Tota(S a~~e KXat)
138. dyopeu'wv Pet prima manu C; dya'-cfw sacunda maiu C.
140. A63ta' 0' Elms.
141. eV Ot P; 4l Ot C: 6 8' 9capXos (SC. Io-rf) 'Bp4~o'lt ev'otV Wacklein.
143. VKTa~p oupelas P, cUplas 8' wjS XIJpa'POU Kap~r6I Zonaras p. 1307j:
4dupiaS 5(~ Op)'O-(KIcc) audacius coniecit Wecklein claoHc 2
Kar-bv… U'repOpwO-KcoPO'.
145. 0' IaKX66S 1' fiXWV 7rvp: IK VadpO7KOS aitl'OELt rPO-'51 Oxoya
veVkas a prima manu C, a sec. manu correctum, deleto 7rip at transpositionis notis (j3 a) additis.
148. Kali Xopo?s PC, 'sed littarnae in Xopo?1 duo puncta subscripta in
P ', retinuerunt Matthiae, Elms. (in corrigendis), Sch., Kirchhoff, Nauck-,
Wecklein; -rol~ Xopo~s reposuit Brunckius, omisso articulo Xopo~s, Harm.,
Dindf., Paley, Tyrrell.
7TXcilcLI P, 7rXavda'Ta C: 'forsan -7rXcava'Tcts' Dobraeus.
149. LcxtaLa T' ',asraw' GXLv C: iaKXaIsDindf. i 5o. 7WX6Kop Burges.
i51. ~ii/pLl~r tr'X7~corngi. 7rpLO —OV C, ubi (ut iam
monuit Tyrrellius) tria. ista verba ax abundanti addita varbum ev''l~acItvr
intarpratantur, 7rcpto-o-os autam praepositionem C'7r ax supervacuo iteratam indicat. brtflp~yet PC a Wilamowitz-Mioallendorffio collati qui in
C supra versum febrtX~yet ~1XeF legit.

Page  11
BAKXAI.

II

It IBA XAI I
WLTC Bax~at,
T,4to'Xov Xpvuopop'ov X~ '
/IEXA ETE TO'V At'VVO'OV 155
/3apvu8polluov ie~wo T-Vpt0ravo~v,
evta 7011 EVov dyaXXOLLEvaL OeO'V
El' (Jpvrytato-t /3oas'111Joa'4T,
Xcoroq 'orai' EV/KEAa~oS i6o
tepaq tepa 7raiy/Ja7ca
/3pe/Aql, cTvvoxa bOLa'tvr4o
ftl~ Opoq ek Opov~ 17 o/va P iia 65
7rXo9 07rc09 a~Lpa /zaTept '~o/at,
KA'XOP a"'yE& TaxV7Tovv OCr1CpT?7/Lak BaKXa.
TEIPEZIAI.
Trig eVs 'mn5Xau; Ka'8Lov EClCKAet UOpwO 170
'ArynfVOPOI9 7raZ', b, w6o'xt Wtcavav
Xtwac'w 6Ewivpyctio- Jso-Tv eRqgat'eOw Ts-i&.
CTCO 719, EUtoayyAeX TctpEor1a9~ 07T
~19TFl VLV Ot&e S aV'TO9 (a)V 1Kro 'ITept
TE4 CJEO/Mq CPTe-159 bs I75
153. w rTe pdaKXCLL W' Ire (3dKXaL P (ita Elms., Herm., Sch.,
Kirchf., Nauck, Paley, Wecklein) posterius W3 deletum in C (ita
Dindf., Tyrrell).
I54. *T.u,'Xou PC: IIaKTWXOV' Wecklein., Xpvo-op6as Elms. XXLai~
ed. Aid. (Kirchf., Nauck, Wecklein); xX~tSa' Seyffert (Schoenius);
XXC&M Reiskius (Musgr., Elms., Herm., Dindf., Paley, Tyrrell).
i6t. flpg~e P. 162z. 418oa.va Dindf.
169. j#dKXov PC: P&ixca Musgravius.
170-. eEP. C recentiore manu; TEIP. PC; idem ante v. 173 C.
7r'xawt… &xa~cXet PC: 'non male legeretur 7rL$Xwt; &KdXEc'
Elmsleius qui vulgatam tamen scripturam non improbat collato He?.
89,2. Elmslei coniecturam quam, Dobraeus quoque proposuerat, dudum
occupaverat Bergierus; in textum admiserunt Scho'enius, Kirchf., Nauck,
Dindf., Tyrrell, Wecklein.

Page  12
I 1-1

12 ~~ETPIHIIAOT

0 t provT a'va77TT6V Ka24 ve163pcov (3opa' c'Xetv
0-TECVOavo 'r c8- K~l09 Xao-TT tv
KAAMOY,.
Q' bIXrao', 06( o-v 7-pvv 'o-O'4nv xKVo
oofnv oofoi?trap av(3pog, eV 80/6Ziow-w div?7K(0C(3 6ETOLtQ90 Ty7V( EX(1)V 079EVI)V oeovi. IS8O
&t yap vtv OVwia?rat(3a OvyaTpo9 E6 t~.
Ato'vvo-ov 0`9 7rE'0flvcv a'V~pd7rwOL9 8E0,
oo-ov Iaff O'/ ta'9 rvvaTo~v av`~eo-Oat /Ie'yIav.
7ro Se- Xopectve, 7rot KaOWTa 'avat 7wd&a
Kat /KpaTcL crcto-at 7-roXL;v; 6yoio Po~18
7epawv e,4poVrn, Tet~pect'a o-v rya~p o0"O'O.
OV IC(L I0tA4,r
(AK09 vKl.O aV OVTE 7VV/CT VO 17uL~pap
OVp0-W t) OTCO0T&V yrwP E7wtXIEVyO-/EO' 27(3E'W9
76POPTEq 0VTE9. TEL. rav"T' e'w~ 7ra'OrXE ~ apa,
ic7 ryc yp?7/co KaWLECIgo)XO~ 9
KA. ov3,coviv o`Xotcwt EI9 opo09 7rc-pa0-o/ev;
TEL.A oXX' 01 6/L1(09co av 6 &61~ Itl/A7v exot.
KA. rycpcov ryepov3-ra wrat8a~wy77oyw- o" E7Wco.
TEL. 6' 06E0 qL/.t0XO KEEOE VCWV Tj'Y?70t6Tat.
i76. dvatpeaz' Musgr. 178. ij8i'jqv Musgr.
182. versum ex v. 86o confictum. eiecit Dobraeus; etiam Kirchhoffio
et Dindorfio spurius visus est, Tyrrellio et Weckleinio I'iure suspectus'.
wlo-qy~' P et C denuo collati: rf'oqvtp b' Tyrrell.
184. iroO Wecklein. 8~ PC: &W correxit ed. Aldina.
i88. W&wv PC: 7i23cos (I) Miltonus, (2) Barnesius, (3) Brunckius:
Miltoni nostri coniecturam omnes editores in textum receperunt.
Nauckius in ann. crit. 'an WY~,?'
i89. TOTM' JUN PC: TavuT' 6',oli L Dindorfius.
192. 6juolws O' Nos '; Porsonus, 4/Aoica 6 Oel's cryv Elms. (Wecki.).
~Xc& sed at superscriptum. in P.
194. d,.wX06 PC (Herm., Sch., Kirch., Nauck): ci,,soXOI Elms.
(Dindf., Paley, Tyrrell, Wecklein). mcZ6, libri.

Page  13
BAKXAL

I 3

KA. /,zovot 8e 7r'Xr3Xews BaKxlc xopevo-olLe; 195
TELl.,u'vot ryap El' ~povoi'ltev, o01 S a"XXot KaxW4.
KA. /LaKpov To /-eXXELZY a'XX EIS E%,ou xyp09.
TEL. 1 o~, V' vawr~e Kait ~vvcopt~OV Xe'pa.
KA. 01) KCLa-ra~povL'W 70 Tco~v OeCW' OvWr79 7yeywS?.
TEL. ov8e'b, ao7to~fL'l/JeoOa Tot('t, &at'l/.L0. 200
7warptovs~ 7iapa~oxa9~ a"sg 0' o5/47XtKa9 xp"O~cI
KcKT7J/LeO, ov'860; av'cra KaTa/3czXeb Xo"yos,?
otXS' e t aicp~ow To o-ocfxn 27VpflTal OpecvwLI.
EpEL TLS' Coqs To yiqpa9~ ovK ato-Xvvo/ztat,,'LXXCOV XOpCVEIV Kpa"Ta Kto-rwoal? Euov. 205
ory, S?7P?7X 0 0eo tET TOLI VE
et XP27 XOPEVELV tEldTE T701' y6patTEpOV,
dXX E'~ aw7awrcoiV /S0vATat TL/LZa9 e"e
KOLVaL9, 3L, dptOiL&ov 8' oi36v av`~ec7Oac OEXEL.
KA. 6'7rrl oiJ' c/JE y, rTapeo-i'a TO0LS ov)' o'pa', 210
ey WrpoO77'7y oot Xoy(,i 7e 27o-olzat.
HVE;7Tpo" MYUCOV9 '086 ta 077OV~i'S,1 7Tepa
200. post hunc versum. nonnulla deesse putat Kirchhoffius.,201. 7rarp31 PC:.ra-rpiovs Valckenaer.
'202. Karaf~aXELt e silentio C (Paley, Tyrrell); -~3cXXq P: KaraLOaXe? Scaliger (Herm., Schoenius, Kirchf., Nauck, Dindf., Wecklein);
Ka-af~a'Xe X6-yots Elms. et Dobraeus.
202. aKpvs-(ppev6s Plutarch. mor. 756. ev'pylaL P; 726p17Tat Elms.,
Dind., Paley, Wecklein.,206-,207. O'VTE…oire MNatthiae et Kirchhoffius.
2o7. et xpV PC (Sch., Kirchf, Nauck): e~p-iv ed. Aldina (Elms.,
Herm., Paley?, Tyrrell); 6O~eL Dindf. Xpm~&xv? Nauckius ann.
cr-if.; Xpj~et Wecklein, ot Xp Bergmann, XalPEt XOpE6OPVT' Usener.
XOP666tV C, X77PEVUEL' P.,209 spuriurn esse censet lDernhardy (Tlieolognmena Craeca 3 p. ix).
&t' ipLG1k3v 3' o&5Uiv PC: at' dapLO/50vO? Nauckius ann. crit., 5taptu.~z' a'
otU5& Heathius, &aipWP, 5' doiv5 Bradeius apud Tyrrellium. Quidni
7wapa1~wd'v 5' o6Uh"?

Page  14
14

ETPIHIzAOT

'Exiovo'; raZ',~ CO) KpaToS~ & y?~t7S'
Wvl E7TTO17act Tt 7TroT epet PebuTepov
HENOET-V.
E 0f3?)J~O' 'iV / -T?3O8 E-Tv'yyavoP X00Ov4s' 215
KXVOa) 3E' veoxFLd v' TqP aVa wrT6XtV Ka '
ryvvatKa'? 77(.tv 'S&?/JdT' CKXEXOL'trevat
7TraOTa~OL f8aK~eacao-7w, Elv 8 (3a07Kci0l9
opeJL Ooa4',EU, TOVPeVCO)07 calf-tola
W7TX?7pELS'& OtaaOOlS~ El) /peJo-tvl EOTa'vat
Kpa~l/pcbv, ' dXX0&0b- EpqIl
7TT66O-Oov~a-a evL'aLS apo- vwvL V717?pETEW,
7-OcbaU1 juv P 8 Matvci8as~ OUoaTKQV',
TI)P ' 'A~po&iT'Ii 7TpoOOO ayeftii TOD) BaKXi'ou. 225
0c0a9 fLEP ovI) E X970ba, 3O1VSx'a
7YC~ova- 7raV&/OL '7p ITO tOE'ya
O'0at 3' d"77etLv, EC VowS Oflpa'oo/ltaL,
D& A T a'Ayav 0' 'I P2 gtKT' Etlb
'AKrat'ov~f Tb' PqUT~p, AiovT6V6 XE'y6. 230I
icat uoba', ct&7pat-S a'p.L6oo-a,? eV apKVGTt
7faVcTWt KaKOVpIyOV T77086 /3caKXdia9 TaLXa.
xE7OVa-L 8' Ct),~ T79 CftE-XyXVOE ~evoa'
ryov; e~wo&~k Av~tiaq a'o xOovo',,,2i5 interpolatum. esse ex Hzizpt. 28i existimat Baier (animadv. in
poet. Ir. gr.), qui versu proximo scribit KXl6W VEXt'.
217. cTCW/ILaT' P, Wjka-r C.
2,20. &6vuoog P. 2,22. dXXOS PC. '223.,r-rulo'ovo-av P.
'224 delet Collmannus qui in versu proximo scribit -rhv 'r 'Aqipo~i-r-qv.
'227. wevahyots PC… 566jtots P, Wav82jLLoo-L….o-re'Tatycl orr. C, 7rav6o*at… T'76yat ed. Ald.,229. oivd' C prima manu. adyaU7'j PC (06,-UTO'vWs)
'233. 6vrts PC: W~s TLs ed. Aldina.

Page  15
'BAKXAT.

1 5

~avOowt'O I300 —pV'Xoto-tv evoo-/.LOL' KO/jJcVV 23 5
01c7rS, 'c-cotq XaptTas- 'Aopo8im EX&)t)
4 qytypas TE KEI4IpovcLS. -vIyytIyvETat,
TEXIETa'S?7tPOTetVO-V ElJLovS' veavw-tv.
EL 3' aUTO d ' oT)J3 Xrh*okoiat, o-Tr'
7waVa-co KTV7T-OVVTa Ov~pc-ol) avao-eiOVTa TE 2740
Ko/.La%? TpaXI7XOV eY)/1-LaTOS'X6pt T61LLV.
EKe vo(? etvat cbtoO AO VLTI Oeov,
eKEtVOS' EV /J/?7plt worT cppc Oat Ato9?,
q eK7TVpO Vrat, XaLLtvdc-tv Kepctvvtotq
UVz /L?7TPt, A iWVI OTC yla-LOVS EIIPvocLTQ. 24
TaIYT 0 xt. 3EL?) aYXovn)' EJ-T v' v ev3 ~ atc,
VI8petq Vf8lptetV, 'OcYTtL9 e`YTtlJ 0 ~ElVO(;
aTap 703 aXXo Oai3,ia, To Tepao-KiwTov
'v7~~Xat-t, ve/3pic t Tetpc-iav opoi
77a~repa TE /Jq7Tpo9 TIJS c/k?79, 7irOXv~ lX'yXcov, 2150
vapOJKt /3aKXeV'ovTr-d'a havoatc raep,
135. eo0GIAov K6/np' PC et ed. Aid.: CiKOyOpSO K6Iium H Stephanus
(Matthiae et Elmsl.), E60OO1J409 Ko'M775 Brunck (Hernm., Paley); ev&IM6Szt
KoALol' Badham (Schoenius, Nauck, Dindf., Wlecklein); I~voo-jp(V K6/JAs
(vel K641iup) Tyrrell, efi'o'iOuA K6/L'qs Collnmann.
236. oliDvd'Sci T' 6'ots (manu secunda 6o-uots) P, olv orci r' 6orr-OLS c:
oLvwra's kio-os ed. Aid., olv~ni-as Scaliger (Schoenius), olvwnrbs Barnesilus. 238. 71-po7z-i',wv Vaickenaer.
'24'2-7 post versum 238 transponit Kirchf. ed. 1867, Schoenium
secutus. 242-7 interpolatos esse censet Wecklein.
'243 eiecit Dindorfius. Jppdr/nj PC: oE'ppdi(pOca4 Reiskius.
'244. Kepavvi'a~s PC: -oti Fixius(Dind.); ef. 594 fJ'v Dind. (Tyrrell).
'246. go-9r 6i~ta PC et ed. Aid. (Schoenius, Kirchf., Nauck, Paley,
Wecklein): br6~ta Elms. (Herm., Dindf., Tyrrell).
'251. f~aKXsu6opTas e corr. C, dvioylawt~ prima littera a correctore
scriptai C: IaKXEVOVT" dvalvouat, 7ra'Tep, editores fere omnes; i-7ra'ep
metrici ineptum supplementum esse censet Kirchhoffius; praestaret
igitur f3aKXIEI')orag'. aXX7 dalvcdveat quod etiam Weckleinio occurrit.
PrsaKXsEeov-ras' al~oi~lcu 7rTIrEp, Porsonus; adXXaL /jcalvo/lca?. Nauckius ann.
crit.; IPaKXE6ovrT G/atio/uat (7a'IrEP) idemn in textze (Tyrrell).

Page  16
i6

ETPIHLLOT

OUKc a77TTtVa1CtS' L0001JOUK EAEVUe'paL1
OvpcTOV,LLEO77 JctS' XeyP EfIJIS /Lt,7poS' 77arep
Cv TaVT' ge~rwas, TetpeJa-ia 70'v3 a' OAeXEI 255
To~v 3allwv' acWOp(1)7T0Lt7Ll elue~~powv lbCOV
UKOWEW 7rTIEpcoTOVS' xa/akirvp~w (LLJOOLJS, OEpEtv.
et lkq cE y~pas~ 7roXto~v C~eppvETo1,
Ka~c' avel! Ba4K~atOL YalitoQ9 /.LTrav
TEXETaLS' 7trovl7paS' EocaywW ryvvat~t rya~p 260
OVTQV 1307TpVoS' Ev c8atTlt ryy'Vcat ryacVQ9,
XO. TrI7 8VGGCE/Si~aS'. d,O V OUK at3M O0Oov'(
Ka8tvTE Trv uv~eipavra 7777yEV?)'a~P
'ExiovoS' 3' W'v 7'a-vk Klm-ato-XvvctS ry4voS'; 265
TEL. '-Tv X4'3y '7t ^ OV Xoywz 'dv p crocf'
tcaXa4~ a'oop~tkac, oi3 /JwE7, ep7yOZ EV xe7ELWtv
3u EVTp0X0V aft yXw3-co-ap W', /Jp07i' e~XElS',
Ev! Toti? XO'yotoYL o 01)C E3vetLCL cot (/pe'VE9.
Opaoi-s TE 8v1!aToS' Ka~t XyetEv 07OS' T' aJnp 270
KalKO9 7FOXiT7JS' 7L7VETat vov) ovK ea
1252. OuVP 0K 9XoP P, ioyv oi'c e~Xwv prima manu C.
1257. ftlpwv C. 1258. KEL' wij Nauckius ann. cril.,265. ytverat PC. yaivos C cum Etym. magno p. 2,2i, -ydsos P.,263. ev'o-e/3as PC (Kirchf., Herm., Schoenius, 'ironice dictum'
Tyrrell): IEvO0/3EEcLS… oc'/3a Fixius, c,3o-…. o6~os Mlusgr.; suora/3Ekss
Reiskius (Elms., Paley, Nauck, Dindf., Wecklein); rijs aiae~elcs (sic)
cL 7X ot. Oo/3j Oc'v; C'hr. Pat. 191.,264-5 transponit Musgr. -265. Ka2-awoXh'veiv Herm.
'27-o1 secludit Dindf.; agnoscit tamen Stobaeus 45, 2.
'270. Opaoso's -re &vaLTO's P et Stobaeus 45, 2; & ed. Aid. et (denuo coil.) C: Opaoa6s I r' E'vo-ro~s Badham, 6paioca r'e aUvaTOs Heimsoeth,
OpaciL' 5U -yc~aro-j W ecklein, Opaov'g 7e 3vva7rOr Kal Ng-yetv Osc go-' adv7'p
Shilleto, Opcsoetr 2e 6vsaTO'T Kal -eaE o16T 7' dvi'p Madvig.
'271. -YIV6rTa P.

Page  17
BAKXAL

17

OVT04 '~ o' 8aiqtw0 ES C')~c7XL
OvIc al) 83vvaPatp) (L'76EOO E'~coWELv 00-09
Kcaf 'Exxa'' C"'atr. &1O yc~p, w veavia,
Ta 7rTjT ev avp~oo~ Af/L1)Tqp OEa" 27
Eo -TiCV, 0l)O/.La 8' 07oWTepov /ov'XEt KaX
aTqjLEP El) ~jqPOFOWI E'KTpECJt)EL/pOTOV'Y~
0, 8' XOEv Er'c Tcw'vr7raXov O':~.e/Jc~ql 70O'
/3o'rpvos? vypol)7W&A(L qJvpJe KcEio-lveyKaTO
OV'qTO18, o' 7rav~t TOVS' TaCXatW&)'pOVS' /3p07OVS' 280
X o7i7,,'Oav 7wXqo'O4^o-tv a/.ktwEOv P0?,1~
vwrVOV Tc Xq'O'q7V TOwV Kaff?/L-pav Kalco)V
&&OOLV,01t) V EOT' aXXO /a'p(LaKov wovpwv.
OUTOS' OeoUTL O-7rElRSETat GE, 7E70S';,
COO-Te tta TOV-TOV ra'yatO' az'Opco7I-ovS' E'Xetl. 285
icat KcaTayeXaS'~ vvw, &S EvcppctCon AtoS
~l1;1pC; &&,~w o coS' KaXC-" 6)EL To&e.
Ze15s~, El'S 8' "OXv~uirov /3p'c/os d'vq'yaycv OEovJ,
'276. 5i'olsc C, 6TC0/Ia P nuper collatus. '277. ~l&,E o's?
'278. 0`&'jiXOcv C, 61' 'Xff P e silentio et ed. Aid.: 6 1' 'X~ev Barnesius et Brunckius (Elms., Herm., Schoenius); 6 16' Mfusgr. et Matthiae
(Kirchf., Paley); 6s 1' Fixius (Nauck, Dindf., Tyrrell, Wecklein); 8 '
'q'XOes Mekier.,'1ov'pz a6YTL~aXov Badharn; an '&os~v wP avo-&rozov?,279. 7re'A' PC: 7ri Elms. dvpe PC; Aid., Nauck, Herm.,
Sch., Kirchf.: r. q3pe Elms., Dind., Paley, Tyrrell, Wccklein. expectareS KIEIiT?~7-ocLTTO (Wecklein).
282. Vrvov C (Elms., Hferm., Dind., Wecklein), dirvov P (Sch.,
Kirchf., Nauck, Paley, Tyrrell): lirpy? Nauck. ann. crit. utrulmque
codicem. wV7roz' habere 'post novam. conlationein' te,,atur WilamowitzMoellendorif. '283. 31lW&~, LVO'v' o &cT' Jiernm.
'284-97 eiecit Dindf.; 286-305 Tyrrell; 286-297, 300 -1, 3105,
Wecklein. 285. bic& rovroiv W~ore numerosius certe Porsonus.
2 86. gel… g-py Wci~w conicit Wecklein. &awyeX~v Herwerden.,289. S'omisit P. Oe6;w PC (Kirchf., Nauck, Weck.): idov ed. Aid.
S. E.2

Page  18
18

ETPIIIIAOT

"Hpa vil) "OcX E'K/3cXE~l) acw ov'paovoD 290
ZE1)~ (3' areTjnkyav?'rocaO' oda 8' Oe6o',.
p94~aS' jftEPOs~ Tt TOfU y00hV E'yKVKXOV/L~pOv
ai ecpos>, e"O'qK TOV(3' /7/ l) eKW3~ Ov9(
&5ovvo-ov 'Hpa,' VELKEOJV' P'O vti'
f& oTr4 -rpaol/val Obactv El) p./pr ALoS% 295
oz'o/.a (ie'racr-n7c actlTE% 07StL QO Ct 0 0(3v
~'Hpt WroO' Wa14tr'pevo'e O-vzOE~re- Xo"yov.
yadl)rt~ (3 O' (aijCol) (e- To' 7atp I~aKXevO-7t1.uOl
Kalt TO buaptOJ(3e? (LCawTK )V 7roXX v " Et,
oral) y~ p OEO eLS~ T O 0-54' &At ~y wroX i 0
xe'yewv TO,LLEXXOl) TOv9q 1te//lvpo~a9 7rtOEt.
"Apcoa', TE Ilotpal /.4E —aXa/3l)P XEL 7i'ao-rp a -ro v yap E) o w o s O Ta K 7I & a4 o
0bo'3osg (te7r-rol' E P~ X OYXq7 OvyeLV
ktaPlta (e KL T VT EJT( Z vo o- v 7apa. 1305
er a' VT l *O fEt K a177- A EX~ftiO-il 7rETpav9
vi)803Cola Gill) revfKatot (3t/EopV~Ol) 7wXa'/a,
/3 aXX ol)Tca Kat a iTtO P 7- Balqdol) xX6ov,
292. a-yKVKXOVAbdvOV C, secundum Furiae collationem.
293. 'interpunge et lege g077KC TOW'' 65~klpoP, 6,c&3ovs At6vvo-oz 'JHpq
VeLK~wP, iLe. M9. -r6zoe T6z' d'7repp?7yuepov at6Wpai O"IA7poVi VELKE'(P, E'KW&6O
"Hpq5 Wt sAt6LO'Pov. vide eld. 582 ubi confer 34 cum 6i i (6o6?)' Dobraeus. VEi'KEOW VUsener.
29. pao~pat PC (Elmsl., H-erm., Schoenius, Kirchf., Nauck,
Tvrrell, Wecklein): aqjafivcu Piersonus (Paley). ev' a-qpc~ &O3s ed.
Aid. et C (denuo collatus), eK btpOS (i.e. f07r~pos) &irT P.
300-I suspecti Hartungo, 30,2-5 Nauckio, 305 iam Piersono
(etiam 'Weckleinio)..302. apFo P, dfpCwT C. 304. OL7~ELV PC.
306. 5eX~oFa-~v P, et, SEXqooc gr' a~2O'p 6q'et Kae7ri' be?41owo 71E'T7 CLs C.
307. 2rE6KoLOL, P, lrekaccO-L C.
3o8. /3aiXsovra PC:,raiXowra Matthlae (Nauck, Kirchf. ed. 1867,
Dindf., Wecklein). PaKX6toV PC, PdKXLtop ed. Aid.

Page  19
BAKXAJL

'9

15,yav -r' av' ~Exxa'. a"XX cto' llevOcf, 7rt60v-.
TO p KaTo9 a vu 3va(t) ~ O(.ctS XEtv, 310O
jL~q8' V ~ K /I; lE', 17 & U1za1 To 1OI voet
povcEW USKEL TtC TOV OC01V 8 EL~ Y'P' &SXOV
Kcat cTWEP8& lcaXt /3aK1XEvU Ka& CYTEcf' t apa.
ovX0o Atwvvooi; (CwO()pov)EL avayKa'oet,yvvaLucas eLS T?7v K~fw7p ti ', XX EV! Ti? 4)?(Et 315
To wopm-t f"E1)iTLJV EtI& Ta 7TaVT act.
TOVTO CYKOWELJ) XPY- Katt yap ev v /3 aE/cL(t1
aV( 1 rye c(Yo fp& oiqaO-aE~Tat.
~ X~p~S', OTCL1) eobETW(Y(Y 7TUvXaL9 319
77-OXXO,' TO IIEVOEO)S' 6" 01)0/La /LwyaXVV7 r'X
KaKEt1)OS', Ot/pa1, TIEP?7TatL Tt/JA)/EVOS'.
KL(Tlj) 7"Cpep ovyKa~a Ka'8uo~ X~E(Yo/v8tyeXLJ,
7rOXta ~VvcoiptLS, a'XX OfL(0 XOpCVTCoV,
KOU Oeouax aX1(TI c((1)v XO'7(1)V 7TLtoELS, elO. 32
jmivlet 7ap (oS' (LX'yLtGTa, KOV"TE (fCplLaKOV;
V I AV~!
uK1C7 Xa/30tS' aIi, O"T' alveV T0VTO)1) 1)O(E('.
309. uxlyap 7-a'p P..311. Poo-CZ PC; Poo-^ eci. Aid.
31.ovX S &6'vo~os o-w/povew, P, /LiJ aw4)popeL Stobaeus 5;, i5 et
74, 8; oO (o1X 6 mnSe.) Stpvuos uwo/poveW C, Ei y'yp Oe6s ae -w4)poPotvP (Cr. Pat. 26,2; aiqpovdiv Salmasius, W's opovcdv Porsonus, A'Oo;j
Herm. (Madvig), /4dj o~/poviv? Nauck. ann. crd,.
31. 0sr' 60EI PC; El'I -r'v 06o-w ro~ro o-KO7IeL Xf-q Stobaeus
4~, 8 omisoves 31i6; et' -r-'7 ~LGL.,'O- KOireso X' Porsonus
(Paley). v. 316 citavit Stobaeus loco altero 5, i.5; versurn hunc ex
1L75p 79 retractum arbitratus, constructionenm valde inconcinflarn praetulit Kirchhoffius (C'3v -r-, ou'uct -robro. Oicolrfn Xp~')) quem secutus est
WNecklein. 6XX' 1P 777^ 9/wasi -r) oT&4)popELV tPOT Ka'PI3KXIa
Bernhardy. aXXV cis 7 —qv pvWd1V 7-TG6TCw KOW7rEL Xpf Pfander.
3'20. 06olh'~c PC; 6olW. ed. Aldina.
3'27. vus 0ouE~kwv Burges; aLEV~l Ocewv Mekler. Fortasse dvscrw5.
vGOELIs PC:. Qu. v6o-ov, Dobraeus; goct Wieseler (Wecklein).

Page  20
2(

20 ~~~ETPITI1zAOT

XO. co 7rpeo-/3v, (DoiE/30v r'ov' Ka'rato-X~vpeL X6'yov,
TiqLCWV -re Bp4'/Ltov aopo/pveits /.LEyav 0ov.
KA. 03?-rat' KaXo9)s o-ot Tetpeo-iaq 7rapy'veOe-El 330
ViVV yap 7r ETEL TE KaLL cpovw"v OVe3EV o/povetsx~
KEL pa) y~ eo-0-0 ~ OE V'7oi0ro, '!~ a-v
lrapa a-o X6ryEJO&O Kait ia-ra~ev'3ov KaXW?
WS' EOL, ~ELEM/ 7 tii 00K? L7O IVK)W 335
7//IV TE6 TL/,t) 7iaVTL T(O 7/EVEL 7-POO-'
a^'~i 'AK-raiawo9, "Xiov pfpv
ov Ci 6atrot 0-KvXaKE9 as eop5ta'ro
&CE(77ra(Ya-aTO K9Eta-a-0V EL' Kvva~ycat'q
'ApTrett~og dvat Ko/LvaOavT ev' opryaotv. 340
A y'77- a-u, 8e-OEU*( raq a a0-ou 0TEqr ~ apa
KtG-cT&) /LEO?/LW'V Tco' OECD' rt/L?7V 813OV.
HIE. ov' pA) 7TpOOOta-rEtqS' xpa, IOaKXEV(7Et 611 av!8'E/lop~Et PLopt'aV 7'nV a?'IV 4toi;
&1CKqV (LE'TEL/L. eY6tEXETa) TLSq wqT~~
333-6 suspecti Bernhardyo, Nauckio, Weckleinio, qui (cum Paleio)
expectaret potiUS KEI /4 -ycp &TW-L ouros0, (US TU Bi, OEGs.
334. i7rapa& aoi Herwerden.
335. o-e/dX-qs PC (Herm., Nauck, Paley): 2;,juXiq 0' Tyrwhitt.
(Elms., Sch., Kirchf., Dindf., Tyrrell, Wecklein).
336. 471A.'3v Scaliger. 337. daKTaL'wvos P, dLK1r&WVOS C a correctore.
339. KIJP0fltats PC: KVvacy- Matthiae.
341. &Op6 am sive aov Herwerden, 3E6p O' W W' o-rltw F WV
Schmidt.
343. KL al aKXd(CCLS S' 1hP C..345. 3' addidit Matthiae (receperunt praeter Nauckium omnes).
T~WOE P; Tjv8C C secundum Furiae collationem; sed uterque codex
dcnuio collatUS TUI'SE exhibet. 346. &KxV PC: 61K-qP Elms.

Page  21
BAKXAI.

21I

Eo'XOt 8E OaIO? 707)3OK0re
/toxXoEs~ TptaiPoLv KaLva',pE'4iov c`LwaXtv,
avo ICaT0) Tra 7rav~a cvryXea~ 0/1L0V,
Ka~ 0TT6A~lLaT ave/l4oLS icab OvEXXatCYtv Je'OeY~ 350
/J'Xto-Ta ya'p vtV 83~o/ata 8pda9oa TaE,.
ot 3' 'V 7T-0XtV 076 cTXOV7TE E~tXvVCa
TOP OcX/opcfoV ~Ev0v, 0O, 610-06,ept V0o
Kcactirj yvva4~t Kcat 'exn Xvlzat'v-'Tat.
Kap7rep Xa/,3?)TE, 3E7LapoP 7ropevLoaTE 3 55
3Evp avTov, WSn A' XEVOI/LOV 81K'lc7V TrvXcI
Oav, 7rt/paV /aKcXevo-t P ei3as W'oV.
TEL. co a-xETXL, W',9 ovic olcrOat Trov' 7rTOT d X0rywv/"8,q~a'?7f Ka& 7Tp~tV e'EUfl'0'q OpePWV.
UTELXO)/LEV qytLE% cv? L, Ka'8u, c'aLTW/J ~a, 360
v7rep Tre TovTov icatwcp ovTo,? aypiov
ep TE 7roXEg, TOP OEo7J /Jq73E PE,
pav aX 67T0V /ILOt KUtGYIVOV /3aLITpOV /pcTa*
7rEtp0) 3 avopOovv 004lk ejtOP, KaL7&) TO 00
y~pOPE 3 t0~~OV 30 7tLTEL cTo 3' "/-L0)V 365
TOBaKXLP yap T74J At', o OVXeVTEO
IIEPOEV'9 aW0 fL? WEOS EIXoLJL.O
ToL9 oToWaL, Kac8p,6c p~avTtlcy /J~v CV
Totq Trpayl~ac-tv 3c fLWpa ya~p ILLw~poq XE"yEL.
347. 7-o6o05 PC (Paley): TroD5 Musgravius (Matthiae, Elms., Herm.,
Kirchf., Nauck, cet.). pVL0ouKo7r?1 ('nisi hic collatoris error est pro
OtIWVOOKo7v' Dindf.) P; OIWPocrKor'~ PC denuo collati.
348. 7rpLaivov C; rpLaivflT P (denuo collatus), et ed. Aldina.
359. e~ecTW's Badham et Herwerden; MI -rcv irpL'v 1ELT7-t 9pe-p3o
Baier; librorum lectionem defendit Alciphro 3, -2, ue/77vas, wS Ouycirptop,
Kal dX-00OLS iZ0T77S.
365;. -yepoVTes 5' P, -y~povr C. 368. o06X 6p'P' F W Schmidt.

Page  22
ETPIllIIAOT

XO. 'Oo-ia 7W0'7-va Oe~ftW) crrpo4~ c'. 7
c~oaifa 8 a' Ka7(a eah
Xpvc-'av 7're'pvrya Obepet9,,
Tad8E IIE10JOEW9 aLets~;
dat(ts Ov3x oulrav
37 5
TOJ) XaEJLE-cLS v701 rap cz aXXta~o7- a1)ov;
evOpoc'v'atL9 aa'ilLovac 7rpwt701) /Lalcap&)v; 0`S~ TaO exeL,
Otaoev'Etv Ire XOpOLF9
fLe7 't avo yeau-at 380
dW7rotacaat TE (LmpqkL1a%
n7roav 80'TpVOs? 6A~
7avo)0S ev cat-r~ OEOJ1),
KWGo000potP~ 8 EP OaXt'a19
av~pao-t lcar~ VWV01ov afuf/zo9AX,. 385

37'2. Xp6ora PC, recte (ut Dindorfio quidem videtur) modo oK-7JrTpal
curn Elrnsleio scribatur pro 7rr~pv'ya: xpvo-lav Matthiae et Hlermannus.
373. Ti'. &6 PC: -ra1' ed. Aid. 3 75. E's C, 'T P.
379. OLE1~a6W P. 383. -ya'vog lv 3at-rl- PtXov conicit Wecklein.
385. dIA01 Pd6X- P, dus~q~ciXq C: #I~ptciXXV Barnes.

Page  23
BAKXAI.

23

aXaXt'VO~V 0-To/LaT(Ow cLVrrTpo(fl' di.
avdou 'r at p vTa(~
To( TAX0? c3UfYVXILW
018Tal?7rG-UXicLS'
(3070S~ KCL To 'bpoPezv 390
(LYaXEVOV TE (LIEVEL
Kat aYVVEXEt (3&J/kaTa- 7opcTO yap o(LO()9 -iOe'pca vaio's VT pc~ '
a-tV Ta /3OCI o 8cv(at.
To~ oocJ0v (3 ov, Y0c/)i, 395
,,o,
13paXv`9 atco0v EWL7- TO1JT&)
UTV? civ /IeyCLX &U'K0
Ta 77TapOVT OVXt O~PoPCt.
/latLvolLEJJ Pov ot TpO~O 400
Kat IcaKo/3ov'Xwv 7rap poq EL OW7 0TW'V.

389. 7iiouvXla PC: ala-v~las Dindorf.
39,2. OuvvXet 5W/harca 7rpacw y'p c wX 4so P; auwdxe &ZILcL 7rp6o-w
-yap dWx 0Stwy C (post lituram) ut ed. Aid.; ~vvgXet 36,ura- 7rppw
(7r6paw e corr. Elms. et Dindf.) yjap 0`1ws Stobaeus 58,.3.
396. Ov77ra& PC: Ovacva' Elms. 7T6 7re A' Op. Obpovit &apXv's
atwv. ed. Aid., Herm., Schoenios, Kirchf., Tyrrell (36Vrepal ebpoy-rtaes),
Paley ed. 2…. (Ppovedv. /3pay,6s aln'. I'Brodaeo, Tleathio Tyrwhittoque auctoribus emendavit Brunckius,' quem secuti suot Elms., Nauck,
Paley ed. i, Dindf., Wecklein.
397. Tro6TYp PC: 7-ou'rou Paley.
398. A-tcLXa C e silentio et Stobaeus 22, i7; r& ge-yadXc P:,LcaKp&
Heimsoeth.
399. 0be'pet PC et Stobaeus: q/epot Tyrwhitt. ris S -95cpoc 'interrogativa sententia est,' Madvig.
400. uateo'o_'vwv P: 3' addit Stobaeus '22, I7 (Nauck); 0' Porson
(Elms.).
401. 4eUol C, gieovye C manu recentiore.

Page  24
24

ETPIIIIAOT

lkoi/pav 7T0 -Kv.%rpov, oipo+n V'
vacro-o -r' 'AOpo~ir7a1?,
eV' at UEAP'TLPoveS~ YE/Aol'-rat Ovarow-tv "EpOTwrc, 405
tlla'bov' 0' a'v EKaro7'cro~Lto
/3ap/3a'pov 7ToTa/Iov p6oal
Kap~ri~'vc~tV alJo/.L/pot.
OJ S' a' KaXXJtE-rvo/Le'va
J1tEptia /Jzov0-EtO4? OLpa, 410
o-EtkVa KXtT 'I;'OXV'jLwov,
EK UT aE it', l c' B pO'tz B P '/ LE
7ripoflaKX 7tE 8aZ/Jov.
EKCEL X a'pt7-ES, EKEL 8OE iiOiOq
TI' AB'K~ v 'et o..
EKEL & na xV~ E S Op taetv. 415
40'2. T&V KV'rpOP PC: K6r-pop Herm. '&o-ov rTd' 'Aqp. E Petersen.
404. ltva PC (Kirchf.): IV' ot' Heathius, (Elms., Herm., Schoenius,
Dind., Paley); f',v q' Nauckius (Tyrrell, WVecklein).
406. wcri'9ov 6' PC. lich/5ov, Tadv (a3v) 6' iMvatthiae. M~O P 6'
ci, 6' Tyrrell: 7ri3Ov T' 9V6' Schoenius; -yata' 6 Thompson; xed'vc& 0'
Meinekius in P11110o060 1 3, 555 (Dind., Nauck, Wecklein), e's ra'v XOov' cav
Hartung, 9s r T~ Era'4ov cv Bergmann, k~zpov 6' aiv Reiskius et Em.
Hoffmann; HI… deapga-rO'ro/.vot Unger, H….iparO'or-rouvot Musgr.
407. BWKadpou ro-rajmOi perperam Meursius. cavO/J.LfOL PC:
civOjA3pov Matthiae (Kirchf., Nauck); 65 ~pq~pp Unger.
409. 67wov 1' a' P et prima manu C (Kirchf.), iiz-ov manu secunda C
et ed. Aldina (Elms.): wroO3 ' a…; Nauckius (Dind., Wecklein, Tyrrell).
ocY 6' Ai Schoenius quod Paleio quoque placet.
410. 7rtvpuac P, wccpta C. 41I. K'XELTl)1 PC: KXrTsI Canter.
41,2. d-ye jue, BpoJtc PC: d-ye /A' W3 Bp~j',g Hartungus, quod Hermanno quoque in mentemn venerat (ita Wecklein). d-e ' JO
Bp6iute (Bp6juE) et in antistropha (qOpevc re) Dindf. (Tyrrell).
413. 7rpof3caKc(755 PC: 7rp6/a3c' c~teU Herm. (Wecklein).
41I5.- fid'KXaLtLt P, j6d'KXC1tL C secundumn Furiae collationemn: IiavKXatT
Kirchhoffius qui in antistropha Xpfl~at -re, r63' civ 1voiga~cv (ita Nauck,
Paley, Wecklein). gdK xato-tv C a Wilamowitz-Moellendorffio collatus.

Page  25
BAKXAI.

25

(3 a~u. 6 co 'Ao4 7rat'V 4v-rLcTpo4~j
xaipet,.ev Oa~iaturw,
O1Xd (3' OX/3o(3rT~pav Elp~qvav, xcovporpo!4ov OeaZv. 420
ro-a (3' Cts~ TIC T'r(V O'X/3tov
TOV 'FE Xetpova &)K~ eXetv
Oti/Ol TFE p'rV aAVwrov'
/L d a)EI7 83,/L?7 Tay-Ta /LkeXE,
ica-ra 4Oa? vvlc-aq 'Fe OtXa(; 425
evaowva (3tanv'
0o000V 8 a7Te'Xet 7rpa,7rt(3t c/pe'va TFE
7tepwOaTv 'rapaL OCJITwmv
To VXi00? O Tt To'v Ofav-XO'6pov 4 3$0
EZJO(t0E p~'F~ 'F, Tzo( av (~qiav.
4i6. rdis Matthiae qui in stropha rd'v K67rpoP, retinuit.
419. eip'iqv'rn' P: Elp'jvca Elms. ipvwC nuper coilatus.
4221. toac P et a prima manu C (Hlerm., Dindf., Kirchf., Nauck,
Tlyrreli, Wecklein); I's'ucv a manu secunda C ut Aid., Elms., Schoenius,
Paley (Leo Adrian).
425. PlkTas 0' iepa&1 Herwerden.
427. ao4ek'v PC: co-ooov ed. Aldina, quad Kirchhoffio, Nauckio,
Weckleinio verum. videtur. o-o4&v 5' irrtXe Herm., Elms.; ao-o/x~ 5'
are4X&wi Paley. 7rpalrbl C, rap' adoirla P. -Opf'vca -re delet Hartung, in uncinis seciudunt Dind., Tyrrell.
428. 7rap& PC: cair6 Reiskius.
430. ortL1ep P et prima mann C (quad retinuerunt Dindf., Tyrrell),
5Ort -re secunda manu C et ed. Aid.: 6,rt -rb Brunck.
431. Xpyfra rcd T' v rcae XE-yoL'A77v z'P P et a prima manu C, yJp)TalI Ta
'r65e Trot XI-yot/AL cii manu sec. C ut Aid.: XeYoIlcLV Herm., Xpw'o-ro'v, -r65a,rot Vdyot' tis Hartung, )~-q~ Ta7-, T05 ' tv bexol/Aav Kirchhoffius (Nauck,
Paley, Wecklein); 5eXoIttcw iam antea placuerat Musgravio.

Page  26
26

26 ~~ETPIHIIJOT

~%-JE P A I I IN.
HeV6EV, 7Wa'e7ltev TNv3' a"ypav r,7PEWCO7TES
~'q'v we'17E~kas ov'8' al'cpptO' co'pI.L?'aa4ev. 435
6 6) a e' amcepiv ov33 aK) Xp aq
oiX' (~y~O~ oX yX-Xa4ev o'vwwr~v y'vv
w ap e~eo v Ic7 7-aE 0 E EtET
C1LLeVE Tre, TOVJLOZ' EV7TETE9 7TOtOV/JkePOS?. 440
adyw Oe, llevOE'W? 8 O3 S (67 eWE/k EWc Xa'8
436. o'5' 7'7 jub scribendum putat Kirchhoffius.
438. ov66' Wdxpo onb' PC: ov'3' cW'xp5' Wciv? Nauckius ann. crif., oibc
w'xP6' legendum esse censet Kirchhoffius (in textumn admisit Tyrrell).
440. Ev rpE~r's PC e'-rpcr's Canterus, cf. 84(Elms., Dindf.,
Paley, Tyrrell); et'rE-rC' Nauckius (Kirchf. ed. 1867, Wecklein); 9,E~V6
-re rovp~v, eu'-por 7r~~. Herm., /4~eve' TE TO'roUs6V, eu'vpErI-s 7r. Schoenius.
44'2. c'yw o P. post hune versum lacunanm suspicatur Schliack,
P~hilol. 36, 347.

Page  27
— " , – -, – 71- '6

BAKXAI. 27
aqk S' az' c-v) Bac/cyas? cza~ a', o-vvypvraoa'
KaSJo-aS' ev &ojwk'Lu 7wav8?/Iov o7-&yly9,
jbpoD8ai` y' EKetvaL xExv/IEpat 7Tpn opyac8aLv 445
O-KtpTrwo-t Bpo6ptov a'paKaXo/z~epat Oeo'v
aVTo.,aaTa 'av'Ta'tS? 3EO7La' r3EXV'O? -7t0&ov,
KV&,Es T "'cllav OvpETp' a"yEV OVyqT7J'7 %Epo9~.
7roxxv3v S' c"'8 cawi)77p OavlkaTWV?)KEL 7r'XE'O9
ELS ' o? Wa7/Cs% 0J01 8c' TaX'c 1 FXELV 450
TIE. JLE'OECTO XetPa TO'5 Elv aIpKvov ryap &)w
IV ELV Oi(O WK'9 T LtE~VEP
wVrap(7t TO /LEP U4J.L VKI ftf/LCpEf)09 C 'Eb,
w C E yvvczKaca, E1 o0c Et ef3s wapEL
w-o'Ka/-LOs13 TE fyap JO-t Tavao,? ov 7ro7 L67T0, 45 5
7YEVVV 7rctp aVT?7V KEXU/LEPOS', tOov! 7rXW'
XE-V/c7 & 86 potacv ELS,~ v5apaOKEvI7p CXEv8,
01X?7O vI3o'at'a-tv, aXX v7T0 o-KtaS,?
T 7V 'A~po8L'Tqv KaXXo7I3 6hqpw/JIEvOS'.
7rpO)TOVP IEV OVV ILtOt Xc~OV 00Tt l? CT )0. 6
A.Ov, ICO/.L7ro9 ovSELS"- p'a&8oV 8 EIV7TEW TOaE6.
444 Nauckio suspectus.
447. 7r0&cp PC: 7re&3v Meinekius (Nauck, Kirchf. ed. 1867).
448. KA771' UFr' d1vKav C, T' post KX?7i16e1 correctori deberi dicitur.
449. Ov)p libri. 450. 'LXO,- r ~sC
-yp. dve
451. uatpso-Oe XeLpwv roiX3' P, quoci superscriptum est ('ypaurr~op
Xda~vOc) manifesto e v. 503 SUMptUn; ~LLtVIE~OE6 XELPWP TOOU' C a
Mahafflo collatus (quod recepit Tyrrellius): /Ltaive-OE XELpoP, roW6
Bothius, (Schoenius, Kirchf., Nauck); u/LSOeOO XELpcWi T0o0' Dobraeus et
Burgesius (Herm., Dindf., Paley, Wecklein). paivc-Oec xcp~ov PC
denuo collati.
455. oi jscLX-s V' U 7lo, 'non occulte et furtim,' Madvig.
457. U PC: re Elms. 'cs 7rapa9KEv-q7 PC: C's Dind. And
7rapraOsKuijg Kirchf., W~ecklein.

Page  28
28

ETPIHIAOT.rOv dvOqz(w1'&q T/zcf3Xov olagca' wov KXLv)ov.
HE. o18', ~ O' o ~a'p(3ewv a(TrV 7rept/3,a'XXEL KV'KXCO.
Al. E7J'TEVDOE'V dC' u, Av~ta (3J /noQ w7arptl.
HE. 7toOOev 83' TeXe-r~ aaS' T (3A`7cv~ cv~ CEXXa(a; 465
Al. Ato'vvoo~?71.LaS(EOE3) 0 TrOV AtoSX
HE. Zcv),~ (3 e"OT5 eK~eb 'TLS% OS IJEOVS' TIKTEL Oeovq;
Al. 01)/C, aLXX 0 ~Ej'X-qV EP~a(3 ~E Tv'cas' yacuotq.
H-1E. ro'TEpL 3E' vVVKT(A)p 0-?7 icar o1lkl/ 77va-yKaO-Ev;
AL1. op~ow opcOva, K'aib &(3cootv o'pyra. 470
HE. T (3 O1pryt COT~t TC/P t(38 LZ' e~XOral oot;
Al. appJT' aI3aKcXcV6TO1t(TV e 18EL'at (SpOT6I).
HE. t'E"et (3' C'V?70(TW TOU'TL OV'OV(7(t Ttva;
Al. Ovu O4ptLL aicov-o-at' &-, co" t (3' a"t' cei(evat.
HE. EL) TOVT' eKLI%17Xev(7as, L, (''alcovCat 6/XcD. 475
Al. ao-E/3Etav alo-KOV'VT GP 'E'xOalpeL 0Oey.
HE. TOPV QOl) o'pa'v ya'p cas- o-a'c3 7rG 'Lb -~s 77V;
Al. 07TOt'O9 ~7OEX6v 01)/C e') "Taoa-oov To(3E.
H E. TOV'T av' 7rapa)XETev(7a9 EV, KOL7(3EVXryv
Al. (3'~'66c TLSq a,.taet- (7o~f XE'7LVOVI1)C eV) IVYLP 8
4+66. cr'3-~-q' PC: do-e~cr' Abreschius quem fere omnes secuti
sunt, dto-6bp17o' Burcges. 467 sq. Collmanno suspecti.
468. 6s (6 C) cTe4'X-qs E'vOca'5 9~Ev~cp -yailots P et ed. Aid. -ya/Aovs
By. G prima manu: &' IcepX77P I~d~e ~,E6~as -ydA~otg Musgr. (Nauck,
Paley, Tyrrell); &' 2:f/AX-qS C'vP3e ~c6'cas yciuovs Herm.: adXXa& MegX77v
jvpci.5' 97cu~v -yacitos Canter (Elms., Wecklein).
469. a' omittit C. 6,uuaT' P et ed. Aid.; 65jbe' C. & "-yvco-ev Reisk.
475. O&Xcwv libri: correxit Victorius.
476. aU-KOOVV6 b'p-yt' P, -0' 6pyixt C: correxit Aid. aorKoiiO'
tecp& a" f'XOalpti Mekler.
477. -yap 6p&~' P (a6 a correctore super bpciv scripto) et C;,~
~w (recentiore manu) C: 6pav yd'p… jv Musgravius; 'fortasse T6v Oeb'
paz' oib9's o-alt Cts; 7roZ6 grts s;' Kirchhoffius.
479. Xf'yeLE Paley. 'legendum EvU 7 o63'z' X-ywp' Kirchf.
480. 95povei'v PC: Xg-ydtv Stobaeus 4, IS.

Page  29
BAKXAIL

2'9

H-1E. 77XOEq &6 7rpco'Jra eV'p' a`)(7c Tov 8ai/iuovia;
Al. 7ra-q avPaXopeliet,ap,8pcov Ta~ opyta.
HE. Obpovova-t ryap Kaictov eEXX?7V(AV 7TO V.
Al. Ta8 E' 7ey FpaxxQlf otvolkot &,E &caiopot.
HIE. Ta' 8 epa' 7vvKTwp 7/EO, 177LE~pav TeXCES 485
Al. lWKTU)p Ta 7roXXWa'- eFL7O'Tq-7 E`XeL alK0T0~.
HE. TrOVW r' e yvvcdica,~ &GXtov eOTL Ka~t oaOpo'v.
Al. 'cv `/iLE a TO y' a to.rpv E~EVpOC TLS av
LI E. &'c77V ccE 8ovvPat &C (7o~tf)W7a'TWo KaK&)v.
Al. o-E' 3 act.LaOiaC y 776)6 a0-e/3OV'VT" E1 TOV OEO7). 490
flE. cv', Opaovq 6 Ba'KXoq KOVK ay4lva-TOv X76yv.
Al. Etf, 0, TL 7TaOCEV 86t Tt' /.L To' SEtPoV epyaOaHE. 7TpO&)TOP ALEV a/3poi' I3O9TPVXOV TE/LOJ' YCEEV.
Al. IIEpC6 6 7TXO'Ka/oq' T(O 0,E6'0 8 aV'TOV TPEbOW.
HIE. EWELtTa OVupO-oV TO'V& 7rapa'oz EK XepotW. 495
Al. aV'TOS'I ikL afatpov- TO7)8E ALOI)VOGOV 00pco'.
HIE. E'pKTatLLrt T7 &7)ov cr – a occv OfvXa'~o/pL.
Al. XVO-et k L a cov 0 'TO1/L&J7)a ' EY(O e
HE. OTV c aX-a7? 'VTV Ev BaiKxatq (TaOei~
Al. Ka~t 7VvU a' wa'xo-X 7rXqo7`Oov 7rapo'v 6'pa. 500
HIE. Kcal 7roD "CTW; oi' yu~p Ofavpop~ 0//.tacra-iv 7'E'L.
481-2. be~p' d-y&wv -raS 6p-yta… /ap/3cpwP Tr'P 8acdova coniecit
Nauckiuas, in textu tamen vulgatam. retinuit. 484. U omnittit P.
490. agaOifas doe/3our'T P et prima manu C, d~a'uaeL 9 YE KauT-f300VT~
C correctus (quod in textu retinuit Elms.): a~ 5' cijaOias -y' 01k IEUaqfoi~v7? obiter ab Elmsleio prolatum ('quae enim, facilior emendatio
qum 'K do-eEedv pro lat~3e?v?'), idem. protulit nuper Herwerden.
a- 5' d4A. -ye -ro'v do-e~oi~vr' Porsonus.
496. Awov6ory Collmann. 498. 0i7cap e-c KaXAW, propter KactarZjs in v. proximo positum, conicit Wecklein.
500. Kall POPv y' (collatis El. 1056, Soph. Ai. 1376) Fixius.
5~01. 'Kal e superiore versu illatum; scribenclui lroO 5' 6MYw
Kirchf. 4avcLp5s P et corr. C; r/xavepbi C.

Page  30
30

ETPIIIIAOT

Al. 7rap' Elkoi- o)' (3' do-e/3i, avz>1-'9 wiv ovic istaopa9.
HE. Xa~'vo-Oe, lca-ra~povcd te Ka't 'EhI/as' 03e.
Al. ai3&3^ (LE (Li)' 8cELV (0Xopo0lJWL OV' 0a)('bpocLv.
HE. EY0O) 3E' (3EL 'YE KVPLWCPO7~ S. 0eWev. 505
Al. OVKO00'''T OVv opL' 'I v 'OUTL'0 —l E
H-1E. HcP.OEz),~ 'AYavs7y' vat,, 7rarp(s (3' `EXt0voi9.
Al. elNScTvo-rv/~oat TovvoQl. eWLtTi7(3EL0 EL.
H E. yw'pev KaOet'p4aTr aV'T ON I TwwLfcaL' 7wE'Xa9
cO t CKOTLOP dCoop2 KV~ba9;. 510
EKEL XOpEVE_ TaCT(3 (3 a', (yI'7o 77a"pEt
-A Xdp (3oVWOV 7OVI3e KacL /3LpG~q~ KTV'7t0V'
7Tjavo-aq, ELf LTI'(fL~~t ET70LCL
AlUTEI/XO(1. )* 0'V o TL yap P.ti XPE6VI, OViTOL XPEoLW 5 15
502. a vrog PC: av'r'v Elms. (Kirchf. ed. 1867, Wcli)
503. /101 Kald 6i)-3j- P et prima manu C, U6e KUI Oh5/as C correctus et
schol. ad Ar. Ran. i03.
505 legendumn aut '&j'yL &E Wsv 7" O' aut KVPIW'-rCpO( -Yey'Yw Kirchf.;
1)riorem coniecturam in textum recepit Tyrrell.
5o6. od' (O&' ed. Aid.) o&O'' b'rt Ngs oi6' o'pgs OV"O' 60-7-L IEI4 PC:
versus a multis tentatus nee tamen emendatus' (Kirchf.). o63'b'ortsct Herm., odc OiT6' 05rov ~?'g o6'6' Jpa~ 10' b'o-7-tT et legendum suspicatus
est Elms., ovK o'to0'0' a'srTt'~,Et (sic) oi06' 6 5pds oiS6' 6ourt et Reiskius, 0" '
~~ -(cetera ut Rcisk.) Paley; 6', r& Xp-f' (pro OXEts) Madvig, in ceteris
Reiskium. secutus; OUK otoGO' aTL-0u'~ (97L -i ~v Hartung) oOO' 6' 6'pj o610'
o0-ra et Wecklein, 6' TIUCLI, od'6' 'p~S 0o65' 00r7- 4Shenius, ap' e610
~~s oiJS' o'pgs E66' 05ora 4 Tyrrellius (e Chr. Pat. 279 a' ' da-'-rL ~-~s 6E1Vc
raT' le p-yaIoL16 v0;), OU'K 01-O' 75-I ~t7I ov65 6'pqs e0' SoarIS 4, Nauck, Dind.
si recte in Aesch. P. V~ 915 coniecit A WV Verrall E'yw, -rd6'
ouaa KO06 7-o7rWo ('= ro7rd~c), etiam in hoc loco eidem licuisset suspicari
scribendum. esse 0V1K dol-' 6 7-1 J~I, -o6row (~= oil 7-rdpc~s) oilS OC"
I(_7o iir z aZI of Phlilotogy, No. 1 7).
513. KTL57roIJI P, KT~767oI C. 514. i-7aci aas C secundum. Victorium et Furiam; idem. testatur Wilimowitz-Mloellendorff. 7ra6aas P.
515. oiire P, o~rt C, 067-01 Porsonus.

Page  31
BAKXAL

3'.

7iaOet-v. 5ap ' 48 -cv' dwctv' V'3pta-pc.-eI
ALETEWa-t Ato'VVG-6S~ O", -8 o'K C'vtX~yt~
y1~a'~'p a&KLcO5V ICE~vcV evS' &OLLAovS ayet(;.
XO. 'AXEX(Oov Ou'yaTep, cip4ctfli
7TOTVL eV~raptieve AlXpla, 520
a-v) -lap ev caEa~ 7-o7-c 7-aeye
T6 ~Ato, I3peco-" ea/3 e9,
OC'r /LyPft) 7T-Vpo'- Ec aOava'TOV Zez';,~ a' TrE KcV /
7raa-E VtV, Tias8 a'va8o~a-o 525
a-eva i-aV8e /aOt V~&I98'*
dva~a'Ivca) 0 r6 TO, c BaclKa-i)6 a)~ talcatpa AipKca, 530
5 i6. a'raip -rot PC: 'nescio an legendum a'7a'p 5j'I Elms. collatis
Tro. 63, CYci. 84, H.F. 1353.
5ic8. itwis &wv -y~p Collmann, ',ucg -yd'P IK3~ZV obiter Wecklein.
5 T9. verba nonnulla quae verbis in anitistropha oitay oi'av oipyadp
ex altera parte responderent excidisse censuit Mlusgravius (quem, secuti
sunt Elms., Kirchf., Nauck, Dind., Wecklein); placet potius verba in
antistropha, ut correctoris additamentum, eicere.
525. i q"p-oo-e legendum putat Kirchhoffiuis. avaz/o-io-as C e
silentio, daca~oao-as P: a8ci/zo-TaT Dindf., — aOT' aba~'a/3asr Musgr., -rj.
civa/3c'aas Nauck. ann. crit. ' glossam aben Imas in vocabula jgpe'95os et
av~dyejoa-as habet C, quae glossa hoc sibi vult, duas syllabas ita accipiendas esse, ut quod attinet ad metrum. duntaxat, quasi non duae essent
sed una: minime tamen editoris est ita constituere ut duae syllabae
revera sint una' (Tyrrell).
526. V"O' 60 PC: Wct Dobraeus et Herm.
5,28. chabaoavW5 PC (Kirchf. ad. 1855): civapcivw Elms. (Tyrrell);
dv~aoalvc Dobraeus et Harm. (Kirchf. ed. 1867).
530. Acakatpac 07'7ca Middendorf.

Page  32
ETPIHIAOT

U-TeoJaP771o'pov~ a7w(09eL
Otaco-ovs~ eXva vct
TI (L apivaev; tI (LE (f)eV7jtqj;
eTt P~at TaV /30Tpv6V'f
Z~~~v a~~ 0tva9? 53 5
T~'Bpo/idov /.keXEEL
(o0'av ot'av op~p,4)
avaoat'vet X06VtoV cdv-TLa-rpo4~j.
y7vo' EIObVS~ TE 8pa'K~lJTo'4
7tTE0T IHevOEVI), O'v 'EXI(AV 540
EC/.VTEVCTE xV0(;I
ar'ptcorov TEpa9~, ov01)0
Tra I8pO'TE0P`, f~VtOV 8' I~
TE ylyaPTr aVTti-aXov 0EOLSV
fNA I rPP
0S EfLE PoXoto-t TmV TOy 545
Bpo~ut'OV TaXa ~vva+4Et,
TOP, E/JAV l EPTOI EXELt 86 -"tao 8yq Otaoo~-a
o-KoCTiato-t KpV7rToJ) EUpKTav~.
&Jp 7, a 550
531i. o-rqa6p-q5'ov PC: o-TrE95va- Dind.,534. vat C; (SC. vj) superscriptumn in P.
537. oi'av oi'ap 6'pja'v secluserunt Bothius, Ilerm., Paley, Tyrrell.
adscriptum in C 7repwo-ou', quod nihil tamen aliud indicare videtur
quam alterurn illud o'L'av esse supervacaneum; cf. notulam criticam in
V. 152 544. OeoZs PC denuo collati.
545. 51 /11 libri: O's E'u Hartung (Kirchf.); 6s 9~Z' v post Dobraeum
Dindorfius.
546. r aT V~a 0w /eL PC: 7TaXeL a. ed. Aid., -rci'c 4. Brunck.
547. 5' omittit C.
549. O-KGTWLZL KpV77TOV 'PV IELpKraLL PC (Sch., Paley, Tyrrell): oGKOritaL~L
KpV7rTrop CIpira~s Herm. (Kirchf., Nauck, Dind., Wecklein).
550. An Ipop61s?

Page  33
-—,7?-~'~ – -~ 1~' –:

BAKXA. 33
ZALo'vULe, 00OV S 7Tp /J TaLS,Ev ak"iXatatv aparyKas~;
JLO'xE ypvo-ww)7a '-rtaoo-wv,
a'ia, Vtpoo0V Kar 'O gtt'nov,
bOVLOU 83 dzicpo9q V/,3pt V Ka~cCI xeq.55
tv'OOV OcpwovOaXpt9,- v
O-vaya~w (0Ev(3pca-, /Li-c
7TE X0PiJ- ov) Oaa,'u /at~e'vOa7o-T, T 0P 7 I KvpOapv c
av-yar? advig. Het', 6
554. 0Xvurop PC: '0X~wrov Kirchhoffius (Tyrrell, Wecklein).
556 v6o-,qs PC: vV'o-o-os ed. Aid.; N6oaas Elms. -ril erasum in C.
557. Oupoo0q5opd's P, Ovpaooopats C, denuo collati. 7~roriN~
-0vpToo~opEcs Otcdo-os Madvig. 559. KOpVO~S P.
56o. ra~o-t P, rats corr. C. mox OcacX lots PC, OaXdgiats Barnesius (quem sequuntur Kirchf. ed. 1867, Dind., Wecki.). 7roXvi'3pcao-s P, -5?v~pcoocr (alterum o- a manu secunda) C: roXvUS6vpoto-u'
Matthiae (Dind.).
563. o-(,;a-yF C, -ex, P: ovv/cYya Dobraeus collato huius fabulae v. 2.
versus suspectus Middendorfio. 564. O'pas PC: Oijpca ed. Aid.
565 gaKatp' PC:,ic'Kap Dobraeus (collatis Hel. 375, Eubul. ap,
Athen. xv 679 B) et Herm.
567. Xope6wv Wecklein. 568. 'Ku(Aav P.
S. B.3

Page  34
34

ETPIH7IAOT

&ta/3a4 'A ~t1W Ei'Xt-oFl.Eva9~ Maiva&'a? a~et,
Av&t'av 7~e, 70vz~ (7-a-s') ewvat/Jwova9~
7n-aTEpct (TE), TOPV EKCxvoL
Evt7T7Tov Xo~pav V&L-tv
KaXXI",Ot7Ow-I Xt7raVetvw.

570

5 75)

KXVCT' cEFL(a CXV'CT" avL3&9,
1t) Ba'lcat, 13) Babvat.
XO. TtlS' O3E,6 TL"~ 7n-60Ev 0 Ke'Xak9
Al. Ia) lS '07ira'Xtv av'8w,
' Ye/kE'Xaq, 6 Atu)q 7rat(.
XO. Ia) t&) &cG'roTa (E(77T0a.
/Ako X PVZ?/iETEPOl' Etl

a~a (C EKaXEOIEV
5 So

569. ~i~ov P, 'A~tbv C.
570. EA-Xo-o-ofdtvas -re P: EXtooouz'vas Heath.
57I. Xv~iav PC: AoSav post Heathium Herm. (quem sequitur
Dind.). i-rtv -ra PC: -rov Herm.
573. Te delevit Bothius (Kirchf.1,Wecklein); retinet Kirchf. ed.i867.
574. estoz' C secundui Furiae collationern.
577. fortasse aias Wecklein. 578. w' IdKacxa,1CO' ia'KXaLElms.
579. ',r66e 056' Herm.; 053e w6oOe' Wecklein; rL's 0'Se W6Ocv..dEKc'XE0-ev omisso Ev'too coniecit Nauckius.
583. ~vp libri. iju6-epov PC: a',- Dind.

Page  35
BAKXAIL

3.5

Oao-ov, co' Bp6',tre Bp6',te.
w-r~ov x0op63 "'o- wova 5 85P
a a,
a a, l
rXa 'ra U EVOEW
pe'aOpa ctaTtVaE'J-Gat wc-o-flwaa-v.
6, Atovvv-o"~ a~vc lie'Xa~pa
oTe/3E7E' M~i. o-c'/3oL67v (0". 590
XaV ILOTL
8tad8popa Taf3Ec;
Bpjuo'tt, c~XdaX4,E'rat O~-/ea9; co-co.
L~.a7r-E lcepavptov at'Oowa Xa,~twai8aV
oIv1tfXeye O-V/J4Aeye &Ap',ara llEvEw~. 595
XO. a a,
Tri 02) XEVCTa(TEL OCV av~yc' a:E/LEpAw? lepoV a/Lc~t Tca'OOV, ag1
roTe Kcpavvlo/3Xo,~ g'Xwe OX~ya
585 -7ro xOov~s evoo-c 7r6-nJvta PC (Ilerm., Kirchf.1L, Tyrrell); 7rf'5ov'
Elms. (Nauck, Kirchf. ed. 1867, Weck-lein). 6aw~3wv Schoenius.
'XO. 8'. w~6ov X60P61s-(sc. o-aXe6et). XO. r'. poo1i -7ro'-vica' Paley. 'versus
non inte-ger, videturque potius verbum aliquod post XOovo's excidisse,
Velut 06craiTcl, quod coniecit, Hartungus' (Dindorf). 'scribendum,r. X*
vocrt 7rvrvc &, a', a"Madvig. 588. &ar~tvci~e-rat C, -~eTat P.
590. 'verba cre'jere Lvv Baceho tribuit C secundum apographa Panisina. sequentibus hemichorii nota praefixa in Aldina, fortasse etiam in
libris. nam post 590 usque ad finem. cantici nullas personarum notas
habet P. nihil monitum de C. certum est haec a singulis chori personis
cantari quas notari nihil attinet' (Kirchhoff, i855). 'HIbcx. ante
a~,o/vLn' PC denuo collati.
591. tbEre (+ ra& P) d'tvct PC: ci'Scre…; Dobraeus quem sequitur
Dindorfius. L8R -r&. Wecklein. K(OLv0- omittit P.
593 Wilamowitz-Moellendorffio suspectus. Bp~jo')SO b'X Musgr.
(Herm., Dind., Tyrrell). acOV',A67at1 C, 4~e7at P (cf. 588).
594. Al. addidit Tyrwhitt. nulla personae nota PC.
596. Xeetoces C. az'-ydX~et PC: a'sy~es? Nauckius in ann. cr-it.
quemn sequitur Dindorfius.

Page  36
36

36 ~~ETPIHIzAOT

At'OV /3ovTas,~;
LIKETE Wr8,e37ES/EE'p/ep 6oo
o~aft~ra, Matva'S'e9 -o ryap ava~ a~va) leam)c TtOetS~ E`VTtEU
i'XaOpa Tat3e ZAtc' 70'VO9.
AIJ. /3api8apot ryvva'tK6Es, ov'ros~ ' KWw-oX?77fLfva& /%t
-7rpo' 7r 48 ) 7TE67TTw'ta2aT iioffa6, ct3 `oLKE, Baxt'ov 605
&taTt~ai~aVTOI; TO' IIEVOE'&,~ AXX d"y' E'avtfaTaTf
aUOtia Kat LpTE E OapK9E/LeJaoa TpJ0.
XO. C c, aO q /4LC7ITOV 77-LLPEV CIOL' /3aKxevL.taTo9,
Al. eLSq aOV/itaii aWtLKECTO, 1/vUK EtO-66EWE~O/qV, 6io
IIevoeCO'n 0)', 61S? cTKOTEtva9 OpKava9?7eaov/Levo,3;
XO. rwc3? 7a'p oi'; Tb18 /Iot Ob'Xa~ 7'v, et' TV' av~tfopa-(
599. OPOVT?3S C, -TaS P.
6oo. aIKETE6 7r6ilcTE Tpobe&fb S6Aa.La8LcK6ICET uLatpa3es PC: ' correctum
ex Etymologico Magno p. -279, 20, ubi legitur &KIcsr 7rcL&t &Ke're Tpogc~p& oa%&Aara /Jc31SLciE et schol. Eurip. Phoen. 641, ubi &iKere 7rS~O'O,
-rpop,rp& ~ca-csar' (Dindorf). fortasse 8. ir. Tpo~ep& j1dxea, Wecklein
coil. Tro. 13,28.
602. cp&vw PC: Tcafvw Nauck (Dind.). TLOEIs C; T1077 correctuni
in ri~es P. 603. -yovos P, 'yo'voe Aso'vvoos C.
6o5. re~rrToKcO' '4cro-OG' aut jo-O-go-O' P, 7reirrW' aO' 'crOw-O' (q
corr.) C: 7ijaO'qo-O' ed. Aid., 7rer7i-TWKaT'; o-O-qO' Porsonus.
6o6. 8&~s 7re;vOC'wY dXX' E4avlfa-rae PC: ra& levO~ws 8W/JaT' dXx'
aVIo-ra-e Musgr.; rb Tlej'Ogws d XX' ad'y' e'~avlo-r-are S choenius et Tyrrellius,
ubi a'y' debetur Reiskio. tkdXaOpov- adXX' cd"y' Eqavfo-ra7Le Wecklein.
607. o-dpxoe…rpd'uov PC (Herm., Kirchf., Tyrrell): O-dpKas…-p~~
Reiskius, Musgr.; uapicS~… rpo',ov ipsi Reiskio minus placuit, probatum
tamen a Brunckio, Elms., Dind., Weckl. 607,-8 uncinis inclusit
Nauckius.

6 i2. ~r~Zs -yap o6' -rtg C, rtKe -ycip' 0i 715 P.
T1JXOLs C denuo collatus, 7nVXaS P.

OL
JAOV C, tkot 1'.

Page  37
BAKXAJ.

37

(aXXd 7rco',?7'XE`VO6p(0'0979 av~po" aVociov TVx)V;
AlJ. av'TO'1 lJ~EO)C7 e/LaVThJ) p'a,&w~ a~vev 7rovOV.
XO. oiI&c c-ov oavvq'*frc 'Ea &,c7(LIlot-tv EPv /3poots~; 61i5
AlJ. Tav"Ta Kat Kca u/3p io aV'TOV, O'Tt /1E &6cT/LEVELv
OVT Etryev ov EX 17IV tV E,0
O'KETO.
7rpol fxa-vats? &,E Tavpou evpaEv, ov5 KaOctpV L,1aq
aOV,
T~E 7~pt /p0X0V C/3aXE 7vact icat X tXl9
7r0&w",
Ouf)/to E',cwvEov, iaSpca'ra c-a'/Tos~ a-T'a~w v w7o, 620
~X60XEtv &WOVS~ 080OVTaq9 wrX'iulov 8' c2yw 'nrapwv
"'o-Xo, 'a;'0-(0 EXEUGOTOV. eV 86 T4j33E T() xpov(r
aVEriva< E&#39;XctW o Ba&#39;tXo9; &(03,ta Ka~t tkrp-pos~ Ta4pc
7rvp avipJ 0 0) EOdlac, &oFaaT&#39; atOec~Oct 8&KCOV
EI, KE,0dY it7&#39; 6KE E6, &/Lcoc-v &#39;AXEXJSov 1Epetl) 625
EPv 7rcV, aiwa9 8&#39; ev ~pe~p /W 8i3Xoq IV /uv~ 7oNv
8ta/J.OE~tq 86 TO1)6 I.LO&#39;XOOV, (6S~ e/tOV&#39;?T60cJJV7TO9?,
LE7-at 4tcJo9? lEXaLtvoJJ ap7rao-a9? 3o&#39;/uv ec-c.
a&#39;O)o puo? (09 E/J otr/e Ofa&#39;VETat, 36~av XEryo,
cfaau e7rotg)cTev KaT EtX7V &#39; T rO &#39;03~.4v09 630
6i 3. -rvX&3v Nauckio suspectum in 13p&#39;XWV mutat Wecklein, in
TcXvWvp L Sybel.
6i 5. Xe~pca PC: Xdtpe? Nauck. ann. anit.
6i 7. Airiowt C, AXrlot P. 618. KaOEapy&#39; Wecklein.
6i9. 9j~aXe P, gj~aXXE apographa Parisina et C (denuo collatus).
621. lrX-qcopo y&#39; C denuo collatus. 6,22. Odkiwp P, 0Oco-oo C.
6,25. &#39;Fo-&#39; P, &#39;JGao&#39; ed. Aid., correxit Barnes.
628. i&#39;EraL C. 630. 0/xs PC: (pdo-j&#39; Jacobs.

Page  38
38S

ETPTI-IITIOT

ycTTe KcLKbEVtE c 0a o ai&#39;Op&#39;, J~ cofa~jv qie&#39;.
&#39;rpo,~ 8e rotQW8 Lv&#39;Tco" 7a38 a"Xa B KXioS~&#39; Xvtvai&#39;vc~rat&#39;
&A1 aT9 E"pfY74ev Xaa~e avlJTEOpaz)uco-at 3&#39; a"wav
7rtKPOT rOVS~ a&#39; OVTt 860O7LOVI~ TOV ~ IE/ZJOVY~ KO2TOV
&tapLEeLS~ Vtoo9 7rapetTat. Wpo"~ QEWV Cyap N ~v
avp 635
&#39;L XOIE&#39;V &#39; OX/ffI7O" r&#39;cTVX~OI 83 JK,30"? e (&#39;
17)/. &#39;CO qKW 7rpoS? vzas&#39;,; HcPOEwoj, ov&#39; Opov-ri-oa~.
W (&#39;PLo 80KCF, #O06EL Iyov dap/3zi&#39;X1 UoUCOW E"&#39;ow
et&#39;? Tr-pOvw7TL aVrtX 72et. rTi 79T07 ap EK TOVTWV
epeI5
t, ws0 y p aVTOVi 00 Wr, icav 7rz co /g6 zEr c 640
7tp(S~ ooc00 u fya~p a68po"9 ao-iCeL&#39;V c&#39;O~pov&#39; etoy&#39;6
a-cay.~ ~ ~~ OP17
&#39;TrrovOa 3EtLa&#39;a awreofev&#39;ye /2 0&#39; ~E&#39;vo9
6 apTt eSE071-40t9?7V KaTripafyKaw-,lke?.
ea ea~
63 r. 77106 KCLKe&#39;pTC P, VaLev 76C KaKE&#39;viret a c2orr. C. awf&#39;p&#39; supplevit Canterus.
63,2. -rG& 5&#39; libri: -rcLS&#39; Victorius et Musgr.
633. OuVP7p~aIwo0TcaL 5&#39; ci/u&#39;w coniecit Nauck.
635. 7rcape?-cu om. C.
636. &6cO&#39;X.4q-&#39; P, Ceb-6XA-qo-e (v add. manu recentiore) C; C&#39;r6Ncc&#39; ed.
Aid. ~ K AcKXcs ei-ywv libri: EK/3&s e&#39;yco&#39; Bothius; "7o. U /3aa-LXCKCOV
Elms., "j0. 5&#39; iCK BaLKXIL5wi Herm., EV&#39;Xos ~3 18tK~aS 5&#39; a-y&v Tyrrell.
638. ipo~bsZ -yap Fixius. 640. /d-yas Cobet V. L. p. 5872
collato Rhes. 32 3.
641. doKEEP C denuo collatus, apKIE? P. d3opy-qoiav P; -la C
secundum Victorium et Furiam.

Page  39
BA11 KXAJ.

39

E0 O-Ttv a~vq7p TL 7-ao8e;?TS TpoOJw7rto9? 645
fOatpe 7rpo09 otoLQs, rot-,? EfIoLS&#39;(, e~lo e)/3413WS
Al. aT&#39;G3-OV 70W3, &#39;Ply&#39; 3&#39; 157i-&#39;609 qr&#39;ovxov w6~&#39;a.
TIE. 750&#39;EV o-i&#39; 8eo-jua&#39; 8ta~vyftw) C`&#39;f 77repa&#39;1S&#39;;
Al. OWEK E`77-OV Al Ov&#39;K 7?7>ovouaS&#39; oTt XV&#39;ow pec Tt9:
LE. -ri 7-olS&#39;, Xo&#39;yovq cyap ELcf&#39;puo avv at 5
Al. O~q TJV 7T0XV/)3oTpvv (i(7T17EXOV cfwct /3PQTOF(?.
lIIE.* * * * * *
Al. cO)VcIto~a4 87) TOVTQ AtOVijo-o. KaXo&#39;V.
lI E. KX 7etv KEXeU&#39;w 7r-aVTra TrV&#39;POV E&#39;V KV&#39;KXp.
Al1. T1 3&#39;; ot3X twerp/3ai&#39;vovot Ka T~tX&#39;q Oot;
H-1E. o-o4o~ ao-o/, o-tv&#39;, 7-X?v a&#39; 3Z o-&#39; eivat a-oob&#39;v. 653
Al. a &Z&#39; FaiXtO-Ta, TaVT7 e"yw&#39;y ErJ2VV o-oc0,4;.
KEWVOV 3&#39; dKOVOa&#39;o?7PLO)Ta~ TOWS X0yovs&#39; LafOE,
0? i5povI~ 7wapEO-TvV ayryeXaw, TI Cot?)ELLS 3 Coot pLevVOVpev, oi,ev~ov/5e~a.
AFIFEA01.
HEVOED KpaTV&#39;VCOW Tio-&~ Oq,8atias? XOovo&#39;q, 66o
0?)KOJ KtOatp6Sv&#39; cKXt7TW)V, ~&#39;11&#39; O"r
645. dvijp libri. 647. 7r~a libri; rpo&#39;7rov Musgr. (Wecklein),
pfrOTLV Blomnfield, Fixius, Opbpa Middendorf; &#39;,rv~aIrepoP Schoenius.
649. Ol&#39;K 7iKOuo-as P, &#39; 0k?7)KOVE-ag C secundurn collatores omnnes,
idemn apogr. Paris.?wac-et PC: I&#39;paullo melius esset XVo-ot&#39; Elms.
lacunamn unius versus quemn post 652 excidisse putaverat Dobraeus,
rectius (ut videtur) post 65i indicandamn esse suspicatus est Paleitis;
itaque verba c&#39;IEOLraS 3ij TOihT ALtovi%-C KasX6J&#39; ipsi Dionyso reddidi.
653-7. personarum signa confusa in P.
65 3. KVCLdeV P et prima mano C, KXCIEIv corr. C: KX5ELIV Elms.
655 o-o-pb e.T P e silentio, et C inserto -y a manu secunda: a
reddidit textui Porsonus, laudato Chr. Pat. 1529, 0-0r/0ir Ocr/sir O-b KatL
*o-06 9grX7, 7r6&#39;T(oy. 658. a&#39;iyyeXXcZv P.
659. q~elJ~ouLe~a C prima manu, q4ev~ozj&#39;gOa P et recentiore manu C.
661. KLOCpwjP&#39; P.

Page  40
40

40 ~~~ETPIHJ~IAOT

XEcvKPI&#39;q Xt3o9p, a&#39;vd-o-av e&v/aet&#39; /3oXat&#39;.
H-1E. &#39;KELS? 86 &#39;-olav vpoo-TO&t" o-wrouCS?)v X01yov;
ALTF. BaKIXaq ",roTVtda&#39;8a, elctSw&#39;v, a&#39;t Tqr0ocSe fy?73
OWOTpO~tO-LXIEU~OV KCOXOV E&#39;~?7KO&#39;VTtoav, 66.)
17/cw cfpaio-at (ot~ Kab woXct xpl&#39;nwj, ava4,
Owg Scava 3p(5e:t OavIa&#39;Tctw) TE Kpewc~cova.
0E&#39;x~j 8&#39; aKovNaaL, 7r07-Epa o-ot wapp~o4ta
opc&#39;0u0) TaN KEWOEV 77 Xoyov U7TeALXLe-cLa
To Iyap a~ o-ov rc)v cfpVClV U8c3OL, ava~, 670
at &#39;r O V OV~o Ka&#39; T&#39;r /3ao ~tKucNV Xiz&#39;.
H E. Xay&#39; ( d oqo E&#39; 4tuov 7raVTO&)? eOEL*
(r8ypctKa&#39; vg o &#39;X Ov~wto&#39;at Xpe &#39;i)
aOO tWE7rqq &L6,tOTEpaL BaKcX v 7T-p1
TOOWe /LAXXov 702&#39;v v&#39;72-06E7-a 7W T7ra 7
yvv4~ ~lLSETy &Ky wrpoo- TO7)0o/V.
ALT. dryeXa a Ed /3oo 80- 4taT&#39; adprit?&#39;p" XE&#39;raS~
tpi~ToXoiE&#39; V7rE~}7KpLtQl, 97VtXC 7&#39;-t,
662. Xcovpos &vcoyc PC: d&#39;PEZuav Xto&#39;vos G Dindorfius e L Dindorfii
coniectura; idem coniecit Nauckius (Thompson, Weckl.). ec&#39;a-ye~s PC:
dac~yEt5 Musgravius quem. sequitur Dind.;!cawyEds Wecklein collato
Rhes. 304 XLOvOS E&#39;caWyEO-T4JLV.f
663. 8&#39; Th-otav libri: 8U vrola Porsonus. &#39;fortasse 5U 7rOL&#39;, lrpOorLOCIS
a- 7rov5-j- XS-yov&#39; Kirchhoff. 7roiw,… Xo&#39;,yw Collrnann. 7rotaip…X6-yc J S Reid.
664. T&#39;IcrSe y$~ in lOCUM T?~5 7r6XEws irrepsisse suspicatur Wecklein,
collato v. 20o.
669. TSaKIEWOEV libri et ChAr. Pat. 22,20: Ta& KELOev Brunck.
673 eiecit Nauckius collato fragm. 289, i. 675. 7-as omisit P.
676. ~rpocrOqo-olkev PC: 7rpoq7o —ou.ev Hartung.
678. pk~o-wv neque cumrn e~i4KpL~ov neque cum d&yeXaZa PocTK75/.arac
recte construi posse ostendunt vv. 734-745 ubi non usia~ot tanturn-,
sed 7ropts, 5ca~scXat, -ra 6pot commemorantur; adde quod genitivus a
verbis dlyeXccZa /3OoK&#39;/LaTa nimnis, remotus est. suspicor igitur P6encKoV
esse scribendum, praesertim. cum in cursivis, codicibus litterae jt et 0
saepe inter se simillimae sint; cf. giXos supra v. 25 e P3~os corrupturn.

Page  41
BAKXAJ.

4&#39;

alccivag J~97 Oep/JatVWV XOO&#39;vat
OP( (3E OtacTov9 rpcv? fyvv7atlKctct Xop(O I!) 68o
Om 7PX evoS~ ftev Ai&#39;Tovo&#39;q ~rov- &3vT&#39;p7,arp&#39;AyaiS &#39; c7n-, Trp fov 83 &#39;IV~ oo3
&#39;q~5(ov &E 7raciat, o-&#39;a atv 7rapetqLEvat,
at (3 v (3pvo" OvXxourt 7rpOI 7rE(3() icapa 685
Etcy/aXoiX-rac c- vw ovx W, v Y
~Vfevag Kparypt xa t Xw-rov *r&#39;frO,
6&#39;qpaV KaO&#39; ~&#39;Xv KV&#39;7rptv &#39;pppt.e&#39;va9.
O-TaOELO-a Ba&#39;K~atq, IE~ VwVOV KLZJECV &&#39;-a 690
/.LKmpLaO&#39; 0)9 17`COVG7E KEpoqOOpCO I8oWiw.
at (3&#39; woI8a-Xov&#39;orat OaXepov5 o/ fh vevl
dvia pOal, Oaiut&#39;&W~&#39; EVKcOO7Ja%
vc&#39;at vnaXatal 7rapOE&#39;VOI T&#39; 6&#39;-T J~V(yE&#39;.
68o. yvvaLLKIWV P. 68i. roOi U libri: -roig Scaliger.
682. rpli-rq P et corr. C; r-ptTOV prima manu C et ed. Aid. TptT&#39;q
5&#39;`Ivw TrpITrov Herm.
683. E8oV libri: -q5&#39;op Elms., Dind., Paley, Tyrrell, Wecklein.
Kd/j~aOLv audacius Herm.
685. 7r~6w PC: 7rgbov ed. Aid. 687 O&#39; wc~c&#39;as PC: qv- Eimsl.
688. jp-qwgevas C, qjq3pe F&#39;vca P: &#39; pvwtte&#39;ras ed. Aid., &#39;pyw
1tdzv~v Wecklein, &#39;vcqiw~ava9 Nauckius laudato Jacobsio in Aeliani Natz.
Anim. 7, 17 P. 260.
694. irapOgvot TV Kd&~UYIES libri: 7rcapOevoi r&#39; gr&#39; c4uyer e Chr. Pat.
1834 (post Musgravium editores omnnes); ov&#39;uyol -re Kd4UTEs Usener.

Page  42
42)

HTPIHIzAOT

Kat 7rpw ra /.E&#39;V KaOEUc- l L.4vs O19695
vef,8pu&#39;a9? T&#39; a&#39;V6GTeiXavO&#39; oo-aLotLv a L.aTCOVl
OVV3Eo7Jt AeXEvTro, Ka~t KaTaoJ-iKTovS&#39; 8OpaS&#39;
4bco-t KaTe~oc-alPTO XtXULc)Gotv 7evvZJ.
aci 81 alyKa&#39;Xat-t (8OpKawS n7 JKVJLZ-OVS&#39; XVt(Ow
d-1pio, eXovo-at XEVKOV C&#39;3b&#39;oo-av yaXa, 700
oatVEQTOKOLS&#39; /LaJTOS~ 7)v o-7apyc~v g&#39;TL
/3eq X07noio-aty E&#39;7wt 8&#39; f"OEVTO KtOYYWt&#39;OVS&#39;
CTT~CflaVOV? ~3PVO&#39;9 TE /LLXaKO9 T&#39; aVoEU4JoopOV.
Ovpo-ov Ttl~ Xa/3ov~o-&#39; e7rato-ei eLS&#39; 77TE~papV
&#39;OEv 8pooo(f)8qm f&#39;aToq E&#39;K7r7-q3q z&#39; ~ris 705
a1X17&#39; 8e Va&#39;pO&#39;K IEI&~ 7TE(30V KaLO7/ce 7y7
ta T&#39;81E Kp?71Y17V EC LZ&#39;7K" O Ltvo? OE 6
00atL? &6 XEVKOVi wrco&#39;/cva oI w600o9 7 -ap17v,
696. 6giudmn&#39; P, 4qaru&#39;wv C.
698. XLXu(Lco-a -yip&#39;ap P, XLXi~cwoav -yezvv C, denuo collati: XLyJcwo-Li
Heath.
701. 5ocua P. /Aq6s PC: gao-r-0s Elms. o-rapnwv P.
703. Wf~o-o&#39;povs PC: -ov ed. Brubachiana.
70o8. 7rd$paros C, w6&#39;lkaros P, denuo collati.

Page  43
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43

aI~lyowt (aKTlVoLOt-t &ajio&#39; a-at XO6&#39;va
yaXaKToI~ efLl EyO EK 8c6 KctG0(YIOV 710
OLpo-60&#39; 7jXVKC~at /,CtXIi-os&#39;Tga~r~ov P5oai.
WGTEt 7T-ap?7o-Oat, T-ov OeO&#39;V TO-V iAVv *EfrYEV
EvXaWL7)v av7,LETJ&#39;7XOES&#39; CIGOL(A&#39;V.Ta&#39;86.
~Vvv1Xo(lwv 8E /3ovKO&#39;Xot Ka&#39;t 7r&#39;0tqLEVcE9,
OlcOJP(~ Xo&#39;(ywv &th)&#39;O&#39;rjTES a&#39;xx?,xotq cpw 7 15
0), 3ctva (3p65-t Oav/Lta"T a) V7T E`wa4Wt
Kcat Tq7F( avi KtaT aO&#39;-TV Kat Tpi/3&v Xorywv
vaLOVTES&#39; OPEWo, OctXETC OJ7pa(TwLLe~a
IYJevOeOJ9 &#39;AyaVt57V,wiyrp&#39; EKc IaKevALa&#39;TOv 720
XaptV T avaKCTt Oft&#39;WCO&#39;; Cl) 8&#39;?7/1dV XEryeLZ
~&#39;oc Oaclzctwv (&#39; EXXo~t(~opcv qx513cu9
KPV ac)TES avTOvs&#39;q at&#39;8 Ti) Eay L1fl
wSpav EKlVOV)ov 6V&#39;p00) etq I3aKxev1L.ta7-T,
IaKcXoL a&#39;Opo&#39;O) O-To/J.~aTt TOPv LALo 707)07) 725
Bpo&#39;pov KcaXovcoaac ra-v 8e JvVE/3aK1xEV&#39; 0"opo
709. &aipuo-at PC: XIK/.1c~oaa Par. E, idem superscriptum in C et
apogr. By. G.
710. foplois libri: &To-~o Barnes. -yatXaK&#39;roS CTXov Va/LaT&#39; Vaickenaer; vac 1o~) -y. ETXov Jacobsius; -y.?&#39;70,a&#39;s? Wecklein.
715. KaLvcWV C secundum. Furiam et apogr. Paris. (admisit Musgr.);
KOLV3V C sec. Elms. KOVWCOP &#39;post novam. conlationem&#39; PC.
71i6 &#39;versum ex v. 66 7 (ubi OaVUpAT1&#39;V 7IC KpEtfcacova) hue illatum eiecit
Dobraeus&#39; (Dindf.); agnoscit tamen Chr. Pat. 2-213,?qKW obpco-at cot
Kai 7roXEt 7roXXaL ~6E&#39;v1L WI Ka11a&#39;a 7rdvrra Oau/Icirwy &#39; C&#39; 7ra a. W
&h"p 6pJZa-t Madvig.
721. 061wev PC: vel WL/ev vel 06#~keO Elms.; ipse prius praetulit,
posterius alii (Bothius, Schoenius, Kirchf. ed. i867, Tyrrellius, Wecki.).
7&#39;22. AoXXl~oiLEV P, AXoXloX/EV C: IE&#39;VXoXl&#39;~oILEv Dind.
7,26. 0UV~f36&#39;KXEUO-&#39; PC: 0-UJ&#39;E/3KXEVEV (Longinus) 7repi ib/ious xv 6,
unde ITVV6f~cKXEV&#39; Porsonus.

Page  44
414

ETPIHIAzOT

Icat O?7E9 oV v (S yi a lItOv bp/.
K~E S&#39;Ay/a 7r~ Xr/o- tov OpOKVOLpo
Ka&#39;~ &#39;~E7 &#39;S70" w&#39;, owuapwrdo-at yw 7O4Xow,
~xoi&#39;rn&#39; KlJ&J(7aa9 e&#39;vO ccpv7F~o/.tEV (SEF,~ 730
817p(O/.LEO a&#39;V(pwOV T~w(SV DIV a&#39;XX&#39; eWErO-Oe fpt,
EWEcOOE O)P&#39; co, S Xepo&#39;i 0ww7Xto-ctcvat.
17,LctS&#39; (Lev OVV (/)VryOpVTES~ e4~17XV4Caiev
BaCIX63V cTwapayftoP, at&#39; SE&#39; vejzofpcatS~ XX&#39;onw 73 5
e E&#39;2XOOV XEtPO9 aO-t8Sp0V fLE1 a
cat T71 /LV lvAP 7rpoo-et(SE cV`817X0o 7rO&#39;ptL&#39;
/.LJKCWfEZJ7V e&#39;Xovoap eV XepoLL&#39; &tct
&xa 6 (SapiXasq (Ste4povv c~rapa~y/fzaotv.
&#39;80jE (S CtV 17 7rXEvp&#39; 17 S 7X0V IfL/aav 740
jJLrWT6LV&#39; av/oi TE Kab KaTaO Kcpe/1LCaCTa&#39; 8e&#39;
Ea~a~ l57 &#39;TEXc&#39;atS&#39; dawec~vpp&#39;v&#39; at&#39;pta-rt.
&#39;ravpot (S&#39; i/3W-Ta&#39; Kecek lce&#39;pcas OV11OVfL.EVOL
To 7rpoo-OEV, e,9oaXXOVT-O 7TPO ya7av (SE/Laa&#39;,
I.LVPct ab Xetp(At)v ayolLeVoL /eavt&OA. 745
Oaioo-ov &S 8&e/opovbpwro (TapKos&#39; epV(Sv-a
727. 5p6/Cov Bergmann. versumn interpolatum esse suspicatus est
Baier. 7,29. ~Uv&#39;aprd-iocu Dind.
731. 8po/.tai5es cmai Kv&#39;vcs suspectum. Nauckio.
735. owapayguov C. vel.461.evat P, vE/Lo/J&#39;Vats C, denuo collati.
738. 9Xovo-av-&iKa PC: 9Xoouavu-&Xa Scaliger quem. secuti sunt
Ilerm., Dind. (c"XKivouap-31Xa Reiskius, d-yovocu-apiXa iIusgr.); &K?1
Elms. (Schoenius, Paley, Tyrrell); dK/J4 Nauck. ~iq Wecklein (collato
~3iap e 3tal in Aesch. C/ia. 656 ab Hermanno eruto); qmepovcap-/31q iam
antea coniecerat Collmann.
740. 7rXeupa&#39;p libri: 7rXe6p&#39; Barnes. 743. Ka&#39;s Dindorf.
746 &#39;quod ad accentum, attinet, Aldus 6&#39;&ra dedit nec variare
videntur m5s. Barnesius, quemn sequuntur Brunckius et Matthiae, diserte
&pUr&&#39; (Elms.). gV3UTa PC denuo collati.

Page  45
BAKXA1.

4 5

o-E ~vvac*ata /3X~apa $anrXei&#39;ot9 Kwpat9?.
Xwopov- 8&#39; &c),r&#39; O"pvt 0E9 a&#39;pOetaat 8pO&#39;ll~)
7ire&(ov i&#39;woT~rets&#39;, alt 7ap&#39; &#39;Aow&#39;7rovi poaZ9,
EvKap7rov uM vt EK3XQ O q Ejfai(VV rTxvv, 750
&#39;To-ta&#39;q r&#39; &#39;EpvOpa49 9&#39;, at&#39; KtOatpw~voq XVras&#39;
V"pOElV KaTp/CKaO&#39; VCrc7/ 7TXEF
e7rtELWcv ovo7aL 7ravT avwi T7E Kat Ka7-cO
&EdOepov- &#39;pwa~&#39;ov bpt&#39;v EK &/EO ITev rva,
07o- "E&#39;7r&#39; C01)&#39;LOV E`OEOav, ov&#39; Seloj.L& ~7r0 755
7rpoiETO LN ETLTTl EL&#39; Xav 7r&Sov,
7r CLXfpov Vi~ e~raLrEV. 01, pi op 6 5T
v s&#39; icwX &#39; ~y opouv pv 7 8EO/ &#39;E~ Bay3oo f7Tp
oXae 0 LvO 4v OE&#39;a itv, dva4:. 76
747 P7 Cuvcioat C (athie, Mavg Wekl} o-) ^vvI? e rim
man PK)~v~/5Psc anuv (ita Els. Hem. Schoeus
4751 o as libri: CT~& DMtind. (Kdircfgac, Weckl.;a vaiein).im
misit P. a va&#39;atocs P&#39; Bruck. mn iaEm. emShe
752.hf &#39;fortasse Dindf.,7Paley,0Tyrreirc.f.adsAC8aZSrconieciprobacit
Madigq9 V 754o pro alawroO scribio voitus.
754 &#39;qautgrvit(erncorruptus au m-qanca orti versiclot Buakust uno
I Iartungus.
&#39;Mduo. &#39;in Florentino quedern xvlia dscri pta supplevit manu
recentior; in ipso archetypo post ilium. versum duo foiia, vacua relicta
sunt a librario&#39; (Kirchhoffius). ante v. 757 lacunam suspicati sunt
Tyrreiiius et Middendorfius.
758. eKaLeO&#39;P: gKat&#39; 9O&#39; Bernhardy, gKatev Elms. (L&#39;Kaev Dind.).

Page  46
ETPIH-IzAOT

ToLSg 16ev ryap. oX XQYoJT(Vr /3EXo9,,KEtVaL 86 Ozi&#39;po-ov&#39;~ Ceavtecact Xcco
E7-pav/67lw~&#39;OVJ Ka77-EV06JtL~0V OVIYy,yVVaLKE9?a cLVpaL OV av "ev Oe(O&#39;)V TWO&#39;;x
VCAXWJ &#39;X6VPoV71/ OOeI) EKtivcav 7ro~3a, 765
Kp~qvas&#39; I7r&#39; av~-ra, a& avi3,c a17ats&#39; Oco&#39;~.
vt#av&#39;ro 8&#39; a 4. ta, o-T-ayovca EK w&#39;c7ap~qi&#39;8w
&#39;yXa-co-, ~pKOVrTs~ C fxi0V1V P.
TOPv 3a~t&#39;OV&#39; o~v&#39; T&#39;V3&#39; OOGTll~ EI&#39;T, a) SEUO7OTa,
~&#39;xov wXe ~ IC t &#39; &#39;rc &#39;r&#39; 2f.Xx t&#39; ~ cya9, 770
KaKcEtvoO ac-tv av&#39;-o&#39;v, cOJ" E&#39;70 KXVO,
i7)7 7ravCTL&#39;X ov7T a/J -eXov 3oivat /3poTo&#39;.
OtVOV /1/1V7KET OPTO&#39;~ OVKC EO-TtvV&#39;7tl
ovi8&#39; a"XXo T~7 v~ o &#39;8v cWOp &#39;7ro v eL9ovc a ETL
XO0. 7-ap/3a2) F6o7 EI7etEL ToV Xoryov&#39;~ JxcvOcpos&#39; 77
ELS? TOP TVpa1)vov, aXX&#39; 06/tos clpqa-Erac
AL0&#39;VV009?OT(O-06V OV&1)VOS&#39; OEO&#39;)l Elv.).
fl E.?8)7 TOW E&#39;yp,VS&#39;0WLYT 7rVp Vcfa7r-TeraL
i51&#39;ptoji.ca BaKX63V7, 0&#39;4ryos? E&#39;, CEXX)7vas. /y&#39;a9?.
aXX&#39; OV&#39;K OK1)PEW&#39; &t* o-7,tEx&#39; 6&#39;7 HXiC-Vpa,~ tcov 780
7161. Trii P: -ro6s ed. Aid., To~s H Stephanus, (Elms., Schoenius,
Nauck, Kirchf. ed. 5867, Dindf., Wecklein), -ras post Brodlacumn Barnesius (Herm., Kirchf. ed. i855, Paley, Tyrrell); -n~v Brunckius quemn
sequitur Matthiae. 7j64. IYV~aFKas P: -YuV&#39;cKES ed. Aid.
766. KpjPats ~r&#39; alre7as ed. Aid.; &#39;fortasse Kpvt 3&#39; ITF a~-rass…
bvoav a&#39; ac&#39; Kirchf. 767. vli/ac i-r6 o~a- – – &#39;c
aLlcLT&#39;qnpas oreayo&#39;vas bcK 7ap-qI5Wv… 6p6JKOVTES… xp6a (Xpo&#39;ai~ am, antea coniCcerat Porsonus) Hartung. vi11at -r66&#39; acduc Herm. 768. f3paLKGVTOS P:.es Reiskius. 776. 7r po&#39;s -ro&#39; -r&#39; pcvoii bis Chr. Pat. (2 2,22, &#39;2244).
778. eY/d7rrEcrtL P: vU5&#39;r/JcLratE auctor Chr. Pat. 2,227, qui versunm
integrum suos in usus convertit (ita tres codices a Duebnero coliati,
editio Benedictina babuerat oWocs-ep 7r~p Er/e7rTI-raTc). v/JarETeat receperunt Nauck, Kirchf. ed. 1867, Tyrrell (3&Tcpat q~popri~s), Wecklein.

Page  47
BAKXAI.

47

&#39;niXaV KEfXEVE 7Tc &#39;vas~&#39;cwtijO&#39;Povs&#39;
t7T7rw1&#39; T a7Tal)-rav -rayvwOo8,v EWe/JjJ3a~ws&#39;
wcX&#39;ras&#39; 6&#39; co wafXXovo-t Ka&#39; -r&#39;Owv Xep&#39;
* aXXovo-t 7)evpcas&#39;, as&#39;, ewvto-pamzkvoLLEv
BafK~tc 07v o yap aXX v7re(J/3aXXet Ta8E, 785
EL 7Tpo9 yu&#39;atKoWv wetcol.eo-O "a waoCXOjU6V.
Al. 7tElOEL /UEVP OV(Se&#39;V, TWAV E/LowZ Xoy7(A KXV&#39;(vV,
THEVOEV KaKccv^&#39; &E wpos&#39;(~aee O~O7)a&#39;cX~&#39;"v otFt
ov&#39; Offqut Xpal a-&#39;& 0&#39;71X Evaipeo-Oait OE~f^,
aXC&#39;a-ov czrtv Bpo&#39;,Atoas&#39; oa a-&#39; aVe~,Erat 9
KWVOvz-ra B6KcXas&#39; e1Ji&W opao awro.
H-1E. ot&#39; aL1) Ofpevw&#39;-Evs ~tk, a~XXa&#39; Uaoywo&#39; Obvrydv
0W0E Wo; i" oo 77-a"Xtv a&#39;vao-7-pE&#39;*frw &lc7
l.OvSottL&#39; av azv~3rA) /,wiXXov i) Ov/Jzov(L.EVOs&#39;
~7r&#39;pos K/EEv7pa XaKTtL~0ktL OW17TOs~ &#39; ( OCCO. 79
H1E. Niow~, c0oi&#39;o / O^Xvv, Wao-7rep ac4tau,
7roX)Vv 7-apcafs&#39; Ev KtOatp~jvol&#39; 7rTv~ats&#39;.
Al1. OJCV~E6a-OE W7a&#39;vTes&#39; Kat T6/cS at c-Xpo&#39;v do —
Ozo-ota- BaKXOt^V EKTPE&#39;EWEJ XaXK)7aTovs&#39;.
787-843. dl&#39;yyeXog P: Al. Tyrwhitt. 7rdiOet P: 7relo-e Tyrrell.
790. &#39;o-6Xak~e Elms. O1k aive1~e7ca P.
791. KLVOOV7-1 P: KLVOOVTa Canter. post /3riKXcas addit a- Lenting
(Wecklein). fortasse O1 & 1wpe&#39;,E-rat (790); idem. conicit J S Reid.
793. o-cbo — P: oC$Lo-tE ed. Aid. -r63&#39; P: i7r63 Carolus Dilthey quod
nemo in textum recepit. &&#39;K-qV; (interrogative) Kirchf., Xlpas Weckl.
796. dai&#39;os Wilarnowitz-Moellendorff.
797. 7ro&#39;Xeptop rapci~as Collmann et Wecklein, non modo, quia
-povov iroX15v -raprs~cs inusitatum, sit, sed etiam quod verbum. 06o-w, ex
antecedentis distichi 061otti corn acerbitate quadam. iteratum, ita aptius
cum c/5pov cohaereat.
VV. 798-9 Pentheo, 800-,2 nuntio tribuit P: correxit Tyrwhitt.
798. 4Psu~etoOe P: Oe6eaoOe Elms.
799. &K7-pe&#39;retv P: b~rp15rEW? Nauck. ann. cri1., fEKXLWEW Hartung.
BaiKXaLS scribendum esse suspicamnur quod Weckleinius quoque conicit.

Page  48
48

48 ~~~ETPIH-IA()T

HE. dw&#39;pp 7EA)f Tj(,Ze a-v/IW7Te~Xe&#39;YAkeOa ~vC&#39;M, 8oo
A
0S~ OVTE 7TaoxwoV ovTe (3pOv O-L7?)oE-Cat.
HE. T1 I 8pWov&#39;a; (oVXIEv&#39;oP)7a (3ovXElav&#39; 4uav~;
Al. Cyw&#39; yVVa&#39;tKat 3ev-p&#39; 3-,"&#39;o a~o (3t~a.
HE. OL/Jwt&#39; T0(3 17(3? (OXtOV ELS /.1 Ix % 805
wlw7&#39;o&#39;v Trt, a-woat & d1 NO)X~ Te~vati? 4sktaq;
HE. ~VVIE&#39;OIEcTO KOW^ T &#39;ra( ti&#39;a I8aKXEVnT&#39; a&#39;6.
AL1. Ka& t17 jk) VVCO/L&#39; IV TrOV&#39;TO&#39; 7, 1tT7t, T7YO) OE(O5.
fl E. &K/)&#39;pCTC Iaot &iEvp&#39; &#39;07Xa&#39; oiv&#39; &E 7ravo-at X5,io7&#39;.
Al. a 810
)30zXet o-~b&#39; Jv o"pct G-v7KaO17/.Lvaq~ tt3ezv;
H-1E. IpaXt-r~a, ~LvplQV ~ye 83o&#39;) XPIO a-Ta o~v.
Al. Td S&#39; 1,? e~pwra TOV^3E 7rE7rT(WKaq? Leyav;
HIE. Xv~rwp? FU) eWtuOt/J ai&#39; e4%6WF)eva9~.
fl E. ca&#39;h&#39; &#39;t&#39;oOt, Ot7^ 7y&#39; v~&#39;r" AXa&#39;Tati KaO17/)Levo~;.
Al. axx, E&#39;~tXVEVoo-,~i oicv eA077 O a.
1H E. AVXX&#39; /cvw3S&#39; KaXcO, rya~p C~EtvaT Traf3E.
Al. ayoJFLev OVV 0-E K~aWLXetpJ7O-ev9 0o8y;
H-1E. a&#39;, 0)O~ TaXtoTa, 70V XP0"0" (3E COt 0Oova^. 820
8oi. 6s P (retinuerunt Herm., Schoenius, Kirchf. ed. 1855, Paley):
6T&#39;legebam. olim&#39; Musgr. (in textumn receperunt Elms., Nauck, Kirchf.
ed. i867, Dindf., Tyrrell, Wecklein). 8 02. 67-ap P: d rrdu Scaliger.
8o3. Li&#39;P 5ot5Xatct, 6ouXevovr&#39; Cjua71; coniecit Nauck.
8o8. juj (superscr. v) P. gOTL P (Herm., ideM KEi so)): i&#39;a-OL
Musgr., f&#39;s ri Tyrwhitt, gs i-t Bothius (quad mavult Kirchf.).
814. 9otvpcoeb&#39;as P: IJyv- Elms. r-epwscu&#39;v Brunck; Xi&#39;xvws Metz-er.
8i6. 6&#39; P: -y&#39; Aid. KalOl-qd ss J S Reid, sed adversatur K1IP (817)
8s.OA-Xs P: 9X63gs Pierson. &#39;fortasse Kccw OXsXA? cs Ply
8i8. rdi~s P: rT63e Hermannus, solus. 8×9. a&yw A~z&#39; Portus (Tyrrell).
820. U a&#39; od P (&#39;cot puto sequente otl posse crasin facere,&#39; Herm.):
SC -y&#39; ob coniecit Elms. (recepit Schoenius): y, adPly(in.,&#39;u,y~p oad 00ovCo aut 6&#39; ov8Eil 000&#39;vos&#39; Kirchhoffius; 8&#39; od cot Dobraeus, 6U
cot Natick (Tyrrell, Wecklein).

Page  49
BAKXAJ.

49

Al. crtELXat&#39; vvv d&#39;ikot XpaC7-&#39; /3vc-tL&#39;PV0V 7TEWXov)SX
HE. ~ ~71 0 ru&#39; yvpat~s av~po,, TeXCO;
1-1 E r&#39; 8 r&#39;8&#39; &#39; Ka&#39; 2
Al UE ICTaJO-tv, 171 apq 17( OJ07(9, EKEL.
H1E. EV 7&#39; EL71-, aVT-O&#39; Kcal TtlS EL 7raLXab coof)6sx
AL. AtoPvt&#39;-os&#39; i7/raas, e~e/l0vJ0I0cev T-a&#39;. 825
H1E. v&#39;zj,~ o&#39;v ryevot-r&#39; a/&#39;P &#39;a" pc VOVO-etEL&#39; KaXWS;
Al. Eyc)&#39; 0-TEXo&) 0e &O/LLLTrwv EtETw)u(oXco&#39;V.
HIE. riva 0-TOX?&#39;v; 0" OXvv; aXX&#39; ab&#39;806Ss/- p&#39;E e
Al. OV&#39;KE2t OEaT &#39;1 Matva&#39;&Aw 7rp~OvOwo(; EL.
HIE. JToXq)V &E&#39; Tria obis alp4oi Xpa&#39;T EfIoPv 83aXetv 830
Al. Ko/.i/1v jaev) e7Tb coO KcpCTt &#39;ravaov EKTEVCO.
H1E. To&#39; 6EV&#39;TE(OV 8e c~yPya 70o) lKooyUov Tri ~a~t;
Al. Ec&#39;Xot 7r0&jpetv cE7T~ lca&#39;pa 3 o-Tab,LTpa.
H1E. v Kaat Trt &#39;rrpcq T&#39;Zoa-S a"XXO 7TP000 TCEtL9 EIOI
Al. OIpa-av YE XELtb Keab ve/3pov^ UTLKTOV p&#39;a9. 835)
H1E. Ov&#39;K Ay c8vvatp.v Oi-Xvv E&#39;vc-vlat crTaXY7v.
AI. d&#39;XX a&#39;tpa i0c 8 -va/3aVv BadK~atL paipx.
HIE. Opo6Y, /xtaXEV xr.1) 7~raTV EN9 KaTaa-Kaor1v.4
Al. OO(ATo9 6TpOV 70V)1 17 Kaco1C01 017payV Ka
S21. vtv P ucv Canter. 824. E&#39;L2raT au&#39; ril&#39;, &~s c-cc conicit
Wecklein; 824 sq. interpolatos esse putat Collmann.
826. d&#39;,c~ POVOCTIEZ coniecit Elms. 829 ci; (interrogative) Nauck.
vv. 828 et 8.37 interpolatos esse suspicatur Collmann, qui in locur
versus 837 versum 8,29 transponere vult.
v. 828 etiam Weckleinius seclusit, qui in curis criticis p. s,~ versus
827-843 aiVW KdTW rtOELs, hunc in ordinem redigendlos esse censet, 827
830-33, 836, 8,29, 834, 835, 842, 837-41, 843.
835. rE P: -ye correxit ilerm. &pos Vecklein collato jAled. 5,
ubi C habet Upo3 (neque aliter scriptum in papyro Mfed..5-12 ab
H Wejilo et F Blassio nuper edita), P (uti hic etiamn) 6Upcs.
vv. 836-9 post v. 823 locat Metzger.
837. aipua Os&#39;oets P: &6caus Wecklein; coniciet, fortasse quispiam
cc4ac 06oc-etv collato v. 796 0&#39;o-w 006sov. Ec7 ccuaOco-Ec? Nauck. ann. H.
&#39;fortasse ai&#39;carc.%-p&#39; Kirchf.
S. 13. 4

Page  50
50

ETPIHJIAOT

li E. Kca&#39; wcrs Y, V TTCA" d/ Katctai&#39;Js&#39; XaO &#39;v; 840
Al. 0801L9 Gpr7/1LoV&#39;~ L/keV*ey yyC q a-5po(IL a t.
IIE. 77-av KpEL-o-ov (VO-TE,~u) -&#39;yye& BadKXaS; e/Lot.
EXOwlv y (ES0 OUCO1 ai 30K17 /3OVXEVofU
AL. E~EOL7Tra&#39;VTy, To&#39; y E/-LOU EV7PC7TeS~ 7ra&#39;pa.
TIE. o-reIXotl/ &#39; alv y Y/ap &#39;(7-X cEX~ 7r-opelJoata 845?7 rotGot Go-ootG&#39; weTo/-oat /3ovXcv/Iaaotv.
Al. yvvaLKce9, alfl&#39;p Ev9 /3o&#39;Xoiv KaOLo-7-aTatW 848
&#39;~t86 Ba&#39;KXa(;, Oi&#39; Oavo)v 36o-et &Krn!q. 84
At 2v-e,7VP (00V Ep&#39;yOv, ov ycap et &#39;npo&#39;ow,
TtG-(ILtcO avT-O&#39;V. TrptpcTa t~EcTJ OPbpmw~v, 850
E71VEL cAappa~v xVO&#39;av- ((s) cpovw&#39;v /LcV eI)
ov ) Oexrjoy-AI?7 1 O~Xvv E&#39;veivat o-To 77v,
84&#39;2. ye~niv P: &#39;/yyeXdv Reiskius et Piersonus. KpCL0-OOV 607Wt
7) C-y-yEXtiv? Nauck. ann. crit. lacunam, post hunc v. indicavit
Kirchhoffius; versum. ipsum spurium iudicat Middendorfius. B diKXaii
in aio —rovs vel (ut iam, antea Jacobsius) Oj~s~j mutandum. esse suspicatur
Wecklein (cf. 854).
843, 84.5-6 nuntio, 844 Pentheo tribuit P: correxit Heath.
843. AXO&#39;vr&#39;-jovXes&#39;aojcua P (Wecklein): AOOi&#39;vr&#39;-j~ovXesiio-o.ev ed.
Aid. (Elms., Herm., Schoenius, Paley); f&#39;X~w&#39;v-~ovXcssbaoj-ai Kirchf.
(Dind., Tyrrell); E&#39;XOWv y&#39; Nauck. av&#39; P: i&#39;v ed. Aid.
844. c i7rpi&#39;7rf&#39; P: eurpser~s Canter.
845. prima manu P, ~ secunda. 7-re(Xco(uS&#39; Schaeferus.
846. 7-d To-So~tO 7reflob= P: roLTOL coGLOL 7rd&#39;cojiat ed. Aid.
vv. 848-7 inverso, ordine in P: transposuit Musgr. 848. &#39;,v&#39;p P.
versum, damnat Middendorf. 847. Pd&#39;KxcES P: tgciKxats
L Dindorfius (Dind.). versum &#39;magistro Byzantino&#39; tribuit WilamowitzMoellendorifius, qui paullo, severius adscribit, editores &#39;Byzantini sapientiam. traiecto versu Baccho tradere quam &#39;~Oos artemque tragicam
respicere malle&#39; (Anal. Eur. p. 209).
85 i. &sOels Barges. 85,2. Oe~iaosi P: correxit ed. Aid.
post 85&#39;2 fpcrIIY VrEOVKiI~S Kai 7&iOVS 1~ Sposvos temere ex Suida addiderunt Schoenius et Tyrrellius.

Page  51
I3AKXAJ.

5&#39;1

t4(i (3 acVl)Cov TOD) O/pOVEL7V ElV8V(3l0-Tat.
XJI7W 8&#39; V yeAWTa (O)?/3aiotS~&#39;ObeLV
EK TwP1 a7TELXOJ)V &#39;TOOrptv, aiot 83LZstO&#39; 77 P.
aX). ELFLkL KO&#39;Cr/OV &#39;ov7rEp Ebs~ e&#39;At~ov Xa/%>&#39;v
ai7reo-t IWIqTpOI EK XEPoLv taTaaUal/7et1,
IJEVOCE 7Tpoot-qfJv- yVWo-,ETat &&#39;Tol&#39;V t
AtzvoPvG, OV &#39; W1 7e(/VKE) l&#39;V TEXE 0EO0&#39;( S6o
86Ea&#39;oTaTo9?, aVOpO)7T010L (3 9777T1&)TraTOS&#39;.
6170-&) 77TOTE XEVKO1)
7ro(3&#39; dva/3alcxeV&#39;ovoa, &pav
It a&#39;O&#39;pa 8po86o&#39;
pt7rTTQVcY (O vc/3Pqpos&#39;; XXoepaiS&#39;
853. e~ 5&#39; dMVwxv Middendorf.
854. Xp s~w P: O &#39;c-w (e C&#39;hr. Pat. 2 311, 6OXciv T&#39; 9077Kas 7-ois &Oporo
yAw~c &#39;tr) mavult Nauckius ann. crlit. 6&#39;~ewv P.
855-6 transponit Wecklein, Ut -YAXwa 03q5XcEp artius cum verbis,cK
7-Cov d7rELXWp cohaereat. 856. as E6C&#39;U&#39;ao-Ev? Nauck. ann. crit.
86o-i vix sani videntur Kirchhoffio. bv TEXEL P: ciyoo-lot Dobraeus, lyy~cX~or Meinekius, Ipar&#39;,rtcLs Nauckius ann. crit.; AXXgpocg
audacter in textum recepit Weckleinius, laudato Hesychio, 9XXcpa&#39; KaK&&#39;.
*T…EPT7vif Hirzelius &#39;deleto versu proximo in quo ineptum est acIsOpc&#39;7rowtc&#39; (quod ad 4s attinet, praeiverat Dobraeus). 86i. dv&#39;Opw&#39;rraot&#39; P:
codicis lectionem e compendio dvoc(ot exortam esse arbitratus, el~vooi~oL
coniecit Badhamus. cirpwo&#39;rtct Musgr.; E C/3 oiE~o0t Herwerden qui utrumque versum, interpolatura esse, existirnat; at3cb&#39;pouo- Mekler; 60101o5 5&#39;,j7rur7ar-os 7rIXEL Dobraeus. 7rgqPvKEV) &#39;7rlpq57JEl legit interpolator
versus i8,2, Atwva-o Os&#39; 7 req57vev dlOpcwlrots NOWs (Dind.). v. 86i
facile carere possumus.
86,2. 7rca&#39;vX~to-L P (tertia syllaba fuerat Xct): 7ravvvuxiotT ed. Ald.
864. Slp-v P: &pcw Elms.
865. cis axWlpaz P: aWIp&#39; c&#39;T Musgr. (Wecklein, alse~f&#39; s Dind.).

Page  52
52.;

ETPJHIZSLOT

qpfrat~&#39;ovOa XC,lyatco9?~8ovaL%~
I?7 4K&#39;c w a o/3 av V/y p
Oipcav f"a OvXa~a-s~
EV7TXEK/,TWV &#39;7re~p d&#39;pKvi6ov, 870
OwVOv.7-wV &KVvatyETatS
(-LOX8OtSq 7&#39; (i&#39;/Cv~pftot9~ JEXXa Opc WvE&#39;t 7rE&tOV
7Tapa7rT07JIMo, 77 Eocva
/3poTrco&#39;V Epq /,ia t 875
(7KtapoKOic~ov 7 El) epPEU-t) v&#39;laSX
Tt TO 0TO00V 97&#39; T7 To&#39; KaXLOV
wapE0c6v ye&#39;pas~&#39; V floToL7X~tp VTTEP IK~pvoaq
(Ai) EOfJWV Kepel&#39;acctO IcTXt~; 88o
&#39;rTt KctXOv OiXov ad&#39;.
Op/.LTat Po C, X O/A1 w cVTLOTP04~11
867. M~ovaZs P: &35- Elms. fortasse ev va&#39;irats (collato io84)
Wecklein.
869. q50/3Epu&#39; O&#39;ipap.&#39; P: too~epbv O&#39;pa s&#39; ed. Aid. (Elms., Schoenius,
Kirchf., Paley, Tyrrell); e/ofepciv O&#39;pcw Nauck, Dind., Wecklein
(cf. i171).
870. &#39; fortasse legendum 6EU7rFKTrWV 0" Elms.
872. – Pi tp m vut Cobet. V. L. p. 604.
873. AoXOXpO I r&#39; prima manu P: /LO&#39;XOots 6&#39; Fixius; coniunctionem
delet Wecklein. db-(v8pd/OL5o i&#39; cVX~aus P: u&#39;KpN4oL deXX&I Herm.
(Kirch., Dind., Wecklein).
874. 7rapb& 7ror&#39;L~op P: correxit Reiskius. 7ij3opueva P: cii- Dind.
876. O-Kt~poK6/LOU 0&#39; EpPEOUL P: IKLapoK6/IAo1 T&#39; E&#39;&#39; 9P&#39;V6cTLP ed. Aid. and
Nauckius in teax/u; o-KtapGK6Juo&6 r&#39; e&#39;pveoup Nauckius in ann. crit. (Dind.,
Wecidein).
88o. TG~jv hic et in antistropha (goo) delet Herm. KP&JOTW P.

Page  53
BAKXAI.

5 3

M7U7TOV Tt, TO Ot01)
CrO&vos&#39; aL7rEV0V&#39;Vl, EL & ~OTWOV
TOV9~ cwyvcoyoo-umv 885
Ttl/vTa,9 Kat 17 Ta Owt01
ab&#39;~ov~s~ 01)) /IaLqJElt Ka.
KPVITTEVOVO&t 83 7TOLWXWS1&#39;
001) Xo&#39;o 7T0&ta Kal,
U&#39;qpw3GtV ToPV a&#39;O-E7TO). 01) 890
^lpKpClGtTO1 VTOTE 7(01) V04t (01
y7V600-KEL1 Xp?7 Ktt& /JVEXETa).
KO cfa p ~a&#39;va vo1.d6 Tt, 7T-OT apa TO&#39;L tu&#39;tv
TO T 6 Omv~ jtaKpco 895
1)o/.zqo1) act OJUCEt TE 7Trt0VK09.TI, To ooc0v n&#39; TI To ICaXUov
7tapa OCCO yEpa EV IP TO
17 XE`P vVrY KOpVoafa9
TW1V EXOpCOOV KpCtIO-0-&) KcLTEXCLV; 900
0 Tt Ka~uoiv fIXov aEl.
CV&8lfl(ov ILEYv 09~ C/ OaXdovwa9 Ow~Bs.
c4V7e XetLA.a, X ti va 8&#39; E"KtxC1v
883. r&#39; Oeoiv P: -r6 ye Meop&#39; ed. Aid.; -rt 76 Mmo Nauck. ann. crit.
(Dind., Wecklein).
885. -ro~s -ra&#39;P ayvwsioo-6vcP Nauckius ann. cril., servato tamen in
stropha elT atWepa (865).
887. ciV.~LcLLo/i4va P: TbP faivo/ugive Barnes. 60K~, praeeunte
J F Daviesio quern secutus erat Tyrrellius, in textum recepit Wecklein, collato Aesch. A6.% 421I, ubi 50&#39;~at in ii6iat (sic) ab Hermanno mutaturn (Hesych. 66K-qV (Sic)&#39; 356Ko-q-V).
89r. yicp punctis notatum in P. 893. T&#39; P: r6&#39;a&#39; Heath.
90,2. OaXaicono-s P: -as Brunck, 903. XEZlka P: Z KOa ei.- Aid.

Page  54
ETPJT1IzAOT

08actt~Zwv 6&#39; `S~ fV77epOe PO4XOWV
E7EZIEO&#39; &#39;eTEpa, 6&#39; ECTepoS E`TepOl) 905
OXoIKcal, 6vva1LLet 7Tapr1jX6EP.
ET1 Et E X77rI6EY a&#39;
6EXCUT cT7 tY eV8
/3proto,~, at&#39; 6&#39; dw&#39;7/3?8-q-avr
8&#39;6 Ka-r &#39;7 ap foT /3ITO 910
EV&#39;8aifIWV, aKap tlw.
AIONT:OVI.
a&#39;EI TO WrpOU lJov a /D7 XpeaOZ opai)
owvO1&#39;7-ma&#39; i-&#39; cio-7woz&#39;ao-a, HeOa ~ w,
C&#39;~tO 7ra&#39;pOtOE 86co17tw 0JOyi(Lt
OKev?)v ryvvatKcoS&#39; tzaLva&#39;8O9 Bacv 6"Xwv 915
(Lp- &#39;I~~is (?S a XoX KaTao7CovrS
7rpEWeLq &6 Kac86uov OvyaTrepwP (Loprj aW.
HIENOETVI.
Kat ya4yv opaV taot U6to v 77XiOVs~ 80K(3,
&co-a4 86 60/as~ Ka~t 7rO&#39;Xto-tk E`77r-a&#39;To-royov
905. E&#39;rf&#39;pccP: 9,repaLElms.
907. Aviplarx1.fplotoru&#39; 9T&#39; CiCu P: /AWplaL &~,uvptotatv I 9r&#39; e&y Herm.
(Nauck, Kirchf.2, Dind., Tyrrell, Vecklein); A. 5&#39; 97L fZVPio40c&#39;v IELOGLL&#39;
Schoenius; idem coniecit Paleius nisi quod 1.vpiots dedit.
9i0. pscap P: cIuap Elms., Dind., Tyrrell.
v. 913 uflclins inclusit Tyrrellius ne Euripides 315 -rai rv drstPI&#39;7c7 videretur; quo fit ut Dionysi orationi totidem versiculis Pentheus respondeat
ar6Jevh7a P: correxit Musurus (ed. Aldinae editor).
954. Kq5O)i /fuo, litterarum concursum parum suavem, practulit
Herwerden.
9i6. &#39;scribendum jayrp6s -ye&#39; Kirchf. KUL&#39; P: fEK Herm., Ka!L
XopoO Hartung. versum spurium esse suspicatur Middendorf.
9I7. ikopoq P: I-topq&#39;p&#39; Musgr. (Dobraeus, Nauck, Kirch., Paley,
Wecklein).

Page  55
BAKXAI. 55
Icat Tavpos~Wd itv ipOo-Ocv?fl,yEuTOat Zolccls~ 920
Kal Co- KepaL-ra icpa~ r pOo-VrE~fKe vat.
aX 177OT 1/0-c Oq&#39;p; TETacov&0crtC ycp oil)
zAd. O&#39; OEO&#39;I 6~kapTEL, rp~OO-OSv ctw OVx eLEtVL r,~
CP-77ov80o?7ZV&#39; V~vV 6&#39; pa9 a" Xp77i) o a OpV.
HE. TI cOaivoLatc 8&#39;-7T; -ozb &#39;rqvl JVOV 0-Tao-t 92
17 TI-iV &#39;Aryai%? c0-r v"~tat /L1)7-po9 7/ej
Ald. av&#39;ra EKEict9 EttO-OpaW 8OKa&#39;) c-&#39; O&#39;p c)V.
9&#39;21. K/paL-ra P et schol. Lycophron. &#39;209: K4pq Tre ed. Aid. unde
Kdpac~ Brodaeus. 9,22. cO&#39; dv~p Middendorf.
9&#39;23-4 primus Dionyso restituit Tyrwhittus. 925. &#39;nescio an
legendumn ris&#39; Elms. 926. Y&#39; a correctore additum in P.
9&#39;27. &#39;post haec verba versus unus Dionysi, duo Penthei excidisse
videntur Kirchhoffio propter violatam stichomythiam. eadem de caussa
unius, versus defectum Post 934 idem notavit&#39; (Dindorf). Weckleinius,
Middendorfii potius, sententiam amplexus versum 929,, utpote nequaquam necessarium, damnantis, in versu 931 C&#39;~ C`6pas in ~!K (drpas mutat,
qua, coniectura, versus Mle suspectus mihi quidem defendi videtur; scilicet

versu ipso servato, nihil inde mutuari necesse est.

Page  56
56

ETPIHIAOT

dxX&#39; c&#39;8pas&#39; qo-o 7T&#39;XOKaaoq e EGtJT7X&#39; 0"
OVX Oj( Ey~w ZJV SJ7TO 1.Urpq KaOy&#39;pLLooa.
IHE. ElJW ov 7rpoo-etctW~ atL17V 1vaJ-eI&#39;OV T&#39; ECYOI 930
Kat /3aK~ta&#39;~(AV f f a&#39; icwpi~ioa.
Al. a&#39;XX ab"Toi&#39;?7.Eovs 0ce Oepat7rEV&#39;etl /EXEL,
7rcXtV KaTaO-TEXOV/JUEV&#39; &#39;XX&#39;" pOOV Kp
H E.18ov, Gu K00/uet&#39; ao&#39;t ya~p aIvaK6L/JUEo-Oa 8.
A l. N v&#39;at TE 0- XaXOXTL KO&#39;iX E, 77rE7TX aw 93 5
T-TOX US61s&#39; VWO eCfo lpoto&#39;L TEtvovJLJ) cc ev
HIE. Ka&#39;1JkO~ SOKv-ct 7rapa eye 8&Eto~v -wo&#39;&a
TadvOev~e 8 O&#39;pOWs&#39; 7rapa TE&#39;VOVT&#39; EXEL 7rE7rxoS&#39;.
Al 7 7OV /IE TO)V 0CMV 77rpCOTOV?77? etE (IIXO)V,
o-rav wrapa Aoyov 0-o pp vas)Ia ~ s q s; 940
HIE. 7rOT-Epa 86 OV&#39;p0-0o 8e~ta&#39; Xa/3ow XEPt
IT?78, BaKX2J ~ta&#39;XXOV EbKao-07)o-ouaa&;
Al. Ev&#39; &eta&#39; Xp?) Xaiza 83E~tco 7r0(3&
aipetv wviv ativa) 07t ILEOE&#39;aT?7Kcal&#39; oJpewvc.
HIE. ap&#39; 4av Svvaittyv &#39;ras KtOatpc~vo- 7&#39;v% 945
avrato~t Ba&#39;KXatS&#39; TOWS C/LOtS&#39; W/)1L0tS&#39; pEW;
Al. &Uvat&#39; "v, ei 30tXoLo~ Trs 8E 7wptV Op~i&#39;as
OVK et xeS vrytcts&#39;, l)VV (3 E E S LI&#39; (E (S.
HE.,tLoxXovs&#39; 0EPWAtEV i7 yepotv dvaJtaJow
KOpvcoatS, &#39;7 oIcako)v J,&#39;4tov 2&#39;,3pay~ova; 950
93o-i in margine additos habet P. post 934 unum versumn desiderat Kirchf.
940. rapa 0-yov, P: &#39;-rapaiXo-yov Porson. sed cf. Shilletonemn in
Thuc. i 65
944. arpEuvL P: correxit Aid. 945. irrv~a&s P: 7rTVXas male
ed. Aid.
946. as6TatoLt laKXa&#39;tg P: &#39;KatL I&#39;v BauKXaus, aLr&#39;vjou d&#39;dr a t&#39; schol.
Eur. Phoen. 3, unde aivi-a~ocv AacTaLZI in textumn receperunt Dind.,
Kirchf., Wecklein. scholiastamn hunc versum respexisse indicaverat
Valckenaer.

Page  57
P-1. -1 – – – – -. – I

BAKXAI. 57
Al. c 7c -ryeT Nv1.u~x;v &3oXc&o i(3pLaa
ica&#39; Havo, eopa9?, CP&#39;O E&#39;XEL O-Vpt&#39;y/lara.
HE. KaXW9 gXc~av QV&#39; a.OePveL VtK9/cyrov
ryvvaUwat% Aa-atcWtv 8&#39; E&#39;lLhV Kcpt;f*W34a
Al. IKpV&#39;*Et 01) Kpv*V&#39;fv?&#39;7V (76 Kpv0f)O))lat Xpeuiv 955
E&#39;OO&#39;vTra &XtAm Matwl&WP Ka~wawo~ro~v.
H E. Kat /ll (0Kw0 0-a."bt, EV) Xo&#39;X/LaL9 opvtua; ds,
XEK&#39;ip&wz exco-Oat OtX-raTovs el) EpKEOW4.
AL. GKOVU EW7r aiiro TrovT- Jdwoa-irEXXEL ot5Xa~X?7&#39;JEt (3 ta.&)9 TckaS., 7/iv Uv&#39; /14 Xqof)Oy9 7ra&#39;pog. 960
HE. K/tcop~E8a (3I &#39;cZ-Fqa71 /Je Rq8a XOoO&#39;VO
(LOVO royap eil avrTov) avmp -roXL ko) 3E
Al. iLvoS? o7V 7rOX(0 T 8(( vwr~pKaLE%/OOS
TOLtyap CFa. lyCVEI? ava/.LEvOvG-tv C)vS EXP)Th&#39;.
e&#39;wrov 84e&#39; 7op0(7T (3 Jq/L E&#39;70 a.&)pt9, 965
KELOE) (3&#39; dwda&#39;Et a.&#39; ~Xo HE. y TEKlov&#39;ca&#39;C rye.
Al. EW771flLOV OP7-a 77a&#39;a-t. HE. 6&#39;7r~ T&#39;rci(&#39; pyopat.
Al. q0epo&#39;Pevos? n&#39;et HE. C~43pO&#39;T&#39;q&#39; J1,u4V Xe&#39;rytq.
Al. XEPO,/WqTpOSX. HE. KcaLL TpVoabe2v a&#39;vialyKd&#39;Al. pvcja&#39; rye Tot~ac(3&#39; HE. a~toWV f-Le? a7r-ToAat. 970
Al &3LVO,~ Uv, 86Etl-&#39;0 Ka71-l 861PV E`PXEt va&#39;O7,
95 f. rc~i&#39; vel -rap P: ra& H Stephanus.
952. KairvdE P; )levis Brodaeus.
955. KpV-~U&fVt P: KpVO6fl~c1 ed. Aid. &#39;
96i. x~ov~s P: 7r6Xws e Nauckii coniectura Wecklein.
96,2. cl4&#39;(sj&#39; Aid.) av&#39;,ros&#39; P: au&#39;T(dV El.s&#39; Elms. (Dind., Wecklein).
dorwnv coniecit Paley.
96. xp~,z P: Xpew&#39;t Hartung, ac XpA, Fixius et Wecklein; oi&#39;
Xpc~ mavult Kirchhoffius, ou~s ye Xpds Bergmann.
965. elk&&#39; P: cru Aid. o-w-rT&#39;aspc J S Reid collato v. 1047.
968. &#39;nescio an legendum g4ooi XVycts Elms.
970. &#39;vereor ne scripserit ai~iwv -yap a7rToA.4at&#39; Ierm.

Page  58
58

IETPJIHIAOT

JoT&#39;~ ot~pav3 c-Tqpiov E{upila-Cet KXEO91.
eKcTeLV, &#39;Ayavlq, Xctpa,~ at 0 0,ao-ro pot
Ka318tov Oirya~c&#39;pci&#39; Tov Peaviav aryco
TOv8&#39; ctq aiyowa /l&#39;,ap, 0&#39; PLK2)&#39;o-t 3&#39; E~ywS97
Ica&#39;I Bpotttos&#39; go-Tat. TaXXa 3 a17-)ro cyf/avct&#39;.
XO. L&#39;TEc Oocd&#39; A z&#39;-0o7&#39; Kvve9 LT c OpOs, o-&#39;rpoiMt.
Octao-ov evO&#39; Eyovot Ka3,t.zov tco&#39;pat,
avotw-rpyo-ra~r vtv
&#39;) 1
E7Trt Tov ev ywvatKo/.Lt/zto~ o-ro~a&#39; 980
Matva3owv * Karato-Kwovo/ Xvo-o0A0y
976. go-rau P: Jo-rrL Wecklein. 9717. X6o-o —q P: Aca
Elms., Dind., Tyrrell, Wecklein.
981. /aCU~cL6WV KaracLOK07rop P: M. 7?JV K. Meinekius. — M. O-KO7r~v
Matthiae. &#39;Kar~doKo7rov fortasse pro OTKO7ro;V ab librario positum- est ex v.
956, tres autem. syllabac vel ante vel post Aawd&#39;c3on&#39; exciderunt&#39; (Dindorf).
brZ r~&#39; Al. o-Kmrnb Xvo-o-W3- Hartung, X. Ka-radOKOTI-oP M. WilamowitzMoellendorif (He&#39;rmes xiv 179). N aoO-OPoK7rYZ Fixius; M. b7ri
KaZrdcTKo7roPv Thompson.

Page  59
BAKXAI. 59.ta7-rr/p 7rpw37-c vtv XCVPal" d7ro&#39; 7rErpaS~ 77
&SKEV&#39;ov7-a, Matva&#39;o-tv (3&#39; a&#39;7v4TVOE
rk~ U(E Ka84~e&#39;WV 985
/Iao-7r7p optc~po&#39;llov
C&#39; 6&#39;po,~ 0 ~p oq Ctt &#39; C"-oXcv, &#39; BacKXat;
Iv apa vtv ce7-Kev
ovyap aLT ylLKOJV ECfW*
Xeat&#39;va,~ 83 Ttv4&#39;~0S 17 Fop y~vwv 990
A/,3vo-o-Ew ye&#39;vosx
Ci-w 81Ka Octvepos&#39;,, LT(I qO o&#39;p o&#39;
Oovcuovo-a Xat~u~v (3tatzwa
v~v i~eov vopkov a&IcOv E CovoI~ 995
TOKOl)?797CYVY
o&#39; d(3iKi) 7vco/tq 7apavo(Lp T- Op7Qa CLVTLOrTPO4-1.
982.?,&#39; CK~reXog Wecklein, curn alioquin GKo6oros per abusione-ni
idem ac Ui&#39;6pov significaret; &#39; o-KcOweXOV iam antea coniecerat Hartung.
EuO-KO7ros Nauck. ann. cr-it.-7wpc3-ra P: an 7rwp&#39;-ca? Thompson.
986. 6ptoapdj-wP P: ou&#39;pto5p6&#39;Itcov ed. Aid.; oi&#39;Ptov, 6p6(ov Matthiae
(Herm., Dind., Paley); &#39;p-yt&#39;wp 5po&#39;,ucp Schoenius, o&#39;pet~pSawv j-caOrip KaS-,uetw~vNauck.annt. cri-.-&#39;an Spt~po&#39;uwp?&#39; (Kirclihofflus et Tyrrellius),quod
verbum, in lexicis nonnullis omissum, a Nonno tamen his saltem (,5,229
et 25, 194) usurpatum esse iam pridem monui. 6pOpc6wv Wecklein collatis SitJ 97,Tro. I 82. EIs… et&#39;s P: C&#39;s.. C&#39;s ed. Aid.
alterum E&#39;s O"pos delere volt Nauckius.
987. i&#39;j(oXEv 9f)oXEP P: semel tantum ed. Aid. (Dind.); 9,oX&#39; g~eoXev
Elms. (Wecklein). 989. 053&#39; 9(pu P: gqov ed. Aid.
99o. 3U rtvog q) P: U -y rtvog ed. Aid. (Elms., Paley); U 5 eov
063&#39;Nauckius;,V -rt&#39;os 563&#39; Herm. (Schoenius, Dind., Tyrrell, Kirchf.2,
Wecklein, sed idem 63&#39; in S,y&#39; mutandum esse conicit).
993, I014. 3alucwv P: Xatjacv Tyrwhitt.
996. -y6,vov P: IrOKOV e V. Ioi6 Elms.
in v. 997 03P-yj et v. 998 verba extrema Nauckio suspecta.

Page  60
6o

ETPIHIzAOT

7~pt o-a) Ba/KXL, opyta /paLpoq -re a-a9
Lave o-a v paw-ert
7rctpaKo~rwj Te x~yLaTt UTrEXEvat, I1000
Ca-au vtlcCTOV (09 Kparlqow0v /3iav.
yvcA1av awcfpov, a OvcLTOFLS &#39; d po~ao-ta-TOt9
/3porcdav T&#39; E&#39;XLV AXVVwO /3109~.
To 0-o00v oi, OV03 I1005
xaipc Onpev&#39;OVa-a T Tepa /LLeya Xa fravep, L&#39;OVT&#39; OEt&#39;
998. 7repI (+ T&&#39; Aid.) f3a&#39;KXt&#39; o&#39;p-ycca gcarp6s re a-&s P: nrapt&#39; (E&#39;rtl
Wilamowitz-Moellendorff) oa-c, BdKXL&#39;, O&#39;p-ytc (i9pya Elms.),icarp6s Ta 0GaS
Scaliger (Tyrrell); 7r. 7-d& 03.`p-yLA-r TEds6EaS cp6s Wecklein;,uarpo&#39;g r-as
Burges; oJp-ytal Ta Marlpos Hartung. &#39;versus corruptissimus&#39; Kirchhoff.
999. Aawcu&#39;aao P: correxit Brodaeus.
i001. TOY&#39; P: -r6v ed. Aid. TcrVIK-qrov Wilamowitz-M. 0a60a post
Kayserum Schoenius. Pig~ P: /3icav coniecerat quondam Dind., retinuit
tamen /3ig. oaa&#39;… Olcu&#39; Thompson. T av…P I KcaL Wecklein.
&#39;Palav? Nauck. ann. crit.
1002. &#39;ycbuv a-cbopova Oclvaeros cL&#39;zpo/ca&#39;-LaT-ros ids7al O& cad (,e&#39; Ta&#39; Te
OGaws Aid.) eqpu P: &#39;,rdiqOpoP&#39; di~ivcarov Matthiae et Tyrrell; o-dpOpoaa
Oscaroai cdrpoppaa-lo-rcos Heath; a&#39; OvccrOFS abrpoocia-aa-ros Herm. (Schoenius, Nauck, Paley). Oscaroia abrpoocalo —rotg dubitanter conieci, quod
Weckleinio quoque placere nuper didici, sed idem maluit yvc6&#39;caav ac&#39;cfpwoa retinere.
&#39;fortasse legendiim -ypcwca o&w&#39;pwp a&#39; OvaLToLI aw7poc/~ca&#39;a-~to-os ets rci.
OeCw; gov I /3po-relcp -y&#39; ciXetp ciXvu7os /iiw&#39; Thompson.
1004. &3oTal&I/3O..a0 P: 8/T3p-jic./icP ed. Aid. (Herm.), &~oTelav…
fOios Elms. (Nauck, Dindf., Paley, Wecklein). j&67rac6z Schoenius.
1005. ri6 0-09O&#39;P P: TO&#39;P aoobiu ed. Aid. p0ooc3 P: eb00vpy ed.
Aid. (r6 a-og~b oui q5O6cpy Elms., Herm., Dind., Paley, Tyrrell).
1007. Tac 6&#39; P: rcli&#39; Heath. O-qpaiouvr&#39; &#39;rpapc (omisso 71 &#39;)
Nauck. &#39;1)clvp& TWp del&#39; (aleai Aid.) P: O/aapeu -r&#39; O&#39;VT&#39; Musgr.
(Schoenius, Nauck), &#39;forsan -ro&#39;p aid&#39; Dobraeus; pcua&#39;p&#39; icyop-r&#39; Fixius et
Wecklein (fragm. 65i), qOavep&#39; L16z&T Thompson. del Jri) &#39;hiatus
vitiosus, nec brevis in fine versus syliaba recte habet&#39; (Dind.).

Page  61
BAKXAJ.

EMT Ta KaXa, /3ov
17.a CV~ VVKTa T evayovVT evaeTE/3Ev,
T7a 3 C&#39;~a, vo/Al/Ja &tKaS&#39; &#39;K/3aOJ&#39;v- 1010
Ta TLFLaI OEovSX~
(Povet&#39;ovo-a ,atpk&^v &tapora
Tc3J aOeo dvov a" (KOP &#39;EXiv&#39; 11
TOKOV 717,yEV77.
abvnO Tapo i)7roXv&#39;icpavo~ izetv fryso&#39;s.
8paKWii i7 7rvptbXc&#39;Ywv
opao-Oa?E&#39;W V
CO&#39;, (&#39; B aKXC, OqIparypEvTa Ba/K%&L&#39;z, I1020
ioo8. &#39;ri Ir& Ka7IT& /3iov post Reiskium. Ierm. e~lan 7ro-rL?
1009. -qlap P: hdpgap post Elmsleium. Dind. EU V&#39;-yovvr&#39; P: eJ)
hi-yov~r ed. Aid. (Schoenius), cv&#39;a-yoi0vr&#39; Herm. 1010. -rd&#39;,r 9w Elms.
1019. n&#39; 1: &#39;fortasse?&#39; Kca&#39; Dind., 717o Hartung, &#39;frou Tyrrell.
1020. Otjpa&#39;ypO&#39;ra (o a correctore) P: O-qpa-ypc&#39;ra ed. Aid., Oqpa-ypl&a
Scaliger, et Musgr. (Elms., Herm.). T&,- 0??pa-yp1&rq IBrunck; O&#39;~
6flpayjp6&r Tyrrell. ro&#39;v O-qpaz-pE&#39;av Matthiae (Paley). O77pa –
-ypcul-a Nauckius (Kirchf.) Olqpa-IpCV7~ receperunt Dind. et Wvecklein.
Oi~p&#39;, d&#39;-ypo3&#39;%ra.-. rcyO&#39;vrc Schoenius. O~p&#39; a&#39;ypEv&#39;rcv mavult Kirchf.

I
I i,

Page  62
62

ETPTHTzAOT

CyeA~rt7po7~ &#39; f repi/3aXe
/3p6o, Oavctijov
ayE&#39;XaV 7TIE0cT7)TL TaP Matvc&#39;3wv.
APIFEAO24.
co&#39; Up&#39;O/ &#39; 7Tpt) WrOT&#39; &#39;I)UTV&#39;XEL9 ai EXXa,8
$&JJPlov 7YePOVTO9~, 0&#39;? TO &#39;Y76E~1025
8paKovTos~ eO-77etp&#39; Okcos&#39; ev ryaita 04p09,
ft) E -C 0TTEva~(, c8ovxos, 0) ~tV, aXX&#39; opLLO.
(Xp&#39;qo7ToF0&#39; 30o13o 0-V1ickpa&#39; Ta" SO7itTwV)
XO. TI 8&#39; C&#39;OwTtV; EK BaicX&&#39;V Trt,LcqVM V EtS;
APP. Ucv0ei,? d"XOX, wa&#39;ts~ &#39;EXIovol? 7raTpos&#39;,. 1030
XO. W&#39;va~ Bp6,ctw- 0609 9$aw&#39;et /pya9~.
APP. v&#39;n-c0s&#39; sb; TtI Trov&#39;T 6"Xe~a% &#39;7r7t To&#39;9 4LotIq
102 -3 T1&#39;x O&#39;qpcryp~,av Iye~c~v-ri 7rpoo-daI-q, 7rcpi&#39;1aclX ~pxo Oarpal ~- ~ &#39; a&#39;7e&#39;Xav7can &#39; IT6TC TCLP MaLLvdLCwv, Hartung. verba &#39;YEXCOVrtL
7rpoo-wrcp quae metro incommoda esse vidit Dindorfius, glossema esse
putat Weckleinius quod vocabulum aliquod rarius e textu extruserit,
verbi causa Xapovc~s vel Xapow~s; locum igitur hunc fere in modumn
restituere conatur, Oapdatuop fppoXxo 7reptjgae -xapowc~ I 6&#39; a-ye&#39;Xcav.7ETO&#39;~TL 2r&v Mau&#39;a~wp. 1022. e1rl Oavaciajpov P: 0. e-i Fixius (Dindf.).
10,23 &#39;fortasseE&#39;s d~y~Xcw Kirchf. lrcodvrca P: 7rco-&rt Scaliger
(Elms., Nauck, Dind., Wecklein).
10&#39;24. EvTUrXo&#39;is P: qu71UvXcL1 Heath (Elms., Dind., Paley, Tyrrell,
Wecklein). 1026. 030&#39;vTos goireyp Elms., &7rlIEp&#39; 66041TWVHartung.
050,EoT P: "ApEog Elms. (Schoenius). " 0q9eop ex Barnesii coniectura
&#39;etsi non habeo aliud exempium huius adiectivi&#39; (Hermann); sed 0595os
non solumn libri (imzmo vero, codex unicus), verum etiamn Gregor. Cor.
P. 402, Theodosius ap. Bekk. Anecdota 981, i3, qui diserte propter
formamn 050os h. 1. landant" (Shilleto ada&#39;.) ev &#39;y&#39;acs Wecklein.
10,28. versurn hunc, utpote a Med. 54 sumPtum, eiciebat Dobraeus
(Kirchf.). sive -ri~ siveran&#39; P: -ra ed. Aid. ex Medl. 1. c.
1031. 0661 cbalv- P KalS a&#39;yp Ocsbs O/alvcs ed. Aid. dwvas Bp6.ate
c66S, 06~ so. As. Herm. (Tyrrell). Oce~ c-6 O.,g~. Schoenius, Kirchf.
0601v q5alvet ivih ~dyca Paley. apcat Zi j&pALt, 0661 Sb. p.. Hartung.

Page  63
BAKXAI.

63

Xatpct(~ KalK0)S~ WpaJolJoo-t 8ec-Worat9, ryvat;
-XO. Ev~a&#39;~o ~6va p-&#39;co-t I3apf3a&#39;povs<
OVKC7-t lyrp &OLLWZV VWO-0 0b/3U) &#39;7r7-1)G-o-W. 13
APPT. 07,&#39;Oaa~ 8&#39; avcPacpovs~ w&#39; 2JYev~*
XO0. 10 A tL01PV(T0S~ 0e ZLopVV70S, 01)RSt
KpaTro9 exova- E/Jkov.
AIPP. o-vyyvw&#39;o-ra&#39; /JzCV VYt 7XIIV E17T3 E Epa0~ElJ0L
KcaKlcYL- Xaipetv, () fyuvatKC9,3 OV KaXOV. I040
XO. ePvete&#39; /Lot, Obpao-ov, T IVLt/ fO&#39;p 9 Ov)7O7C-eL
a~3tKOSq a~L~a&#39; T&#39; CK7T~ptl~O) alfl7&#39;p;
AIPP. IEWve&#39; Oypa&#39;7Tlas&#39; T&#39;o-& E )7/3ai&#39;as xOovP"
Xtro&#39;v-reS&#39; E&#39;~E/&#39;377pLev &#39;Aa-cwroi3 &#39;o
X~wa Kt~ttpvetoi E~YC/aXXOEV1045
7Tpq YTOV~ (L7lJOVL 77Z0O17-I~pOV L&#39;O/ew vaqr09
HEVPOEVTEP IIEVyOVV 7c7T07yPO yap-te ELaro/Lf
Ta T EK 7To8e&#39;S& cTt7y7Xa&#39; Kait ryX(Ooawq 67ro
U(O~0ZJT9, CS~ O~c~oLCL OV pW/teZJOL. 1050
21)v8 al&#39;7QSo, aJl-f&prnt1vov, UXao-t &u4"3po~ov,
7Tevlcat-i, vcxlcKta&#39;ov, &OWa Mlatva&e,
/caO)71Tr e"Xovoat Xet~paL? ev Tcp7rLJotS&#39; 7Tovotq
at yev ryap alTaW Ot&#39;po-ov &#39;E&#39;cXCXot7ro&#39;Ta
1032. 7) Brnk. o37. Azo&#39;piyaoo oul P: Azcb 7rcaZs, o&#39;3 Wec&#39;ki.
1037-8. &#39;versus ex tribus, ut videtur, dochmiis compositus, sic Vel
simili aiiquo modo restituendus, 6&#39; Atz&#39;vuo-os 6&#39; ALt&#39;, Olke&1 Oj~at, Kpdiros
IXova& eA6i&#39; (Dindorf).
1041. gppE7re P (Wecklein): gpEsre Brunck. 7rl&#39;et P: ri-i ed. Aid.
et C&#39;Ar. Pat. 653, y, Lr~ bLot, O~pciooTI1OOK p6;
1043. Oepcisrvas editores priores (Musgr., Elms., Herm.); Oeprpcasra
rectius recentiores. 1044. P&#39;o&,s P: ~o&s ed. Aid.
1048. iz-cspo&#39; P: 7rot-qp65v ed. Aid.; C/zr. Pat. 676, 7rpcZrov ~lfe&#39;sEl
XXoflpbP 4oos 7rov Pdsros. 1049. EK~ro&Jp P: #IK 7ro3&Zv C/zr. Pat. 677.
o505. O&#39;P6.Wcv P: bp~lkeJc1 Musgr. 1053. Ka&#39;077VT&#39; P: KcXOs~vT&#39; Elms.

Page  64
64

64 ~~ETPJIHIAOT

KATC0Y1I K0/~LTnp av&#39;Ots CEveTaTE95ov, I1055
ati Ktroc~at 7ToLKX J nwo &#39;
I3aKXELtov avrEK~a~&#39;ov aIXX jXats&#39; /IE&#39;xo9.
HIEVOE?)9~ T X /U0V OrjXVV OV7X O&#39;&) 0XX0V
EXE~E 7Ota1/S W) 01) Ov /LEV 6"o-al-ev,
OV. E~WLKV0V(Lat& MacU a&#39;C&ov Ot00&#39; Wowan io6o
5 EE/I3cz&#39; i EXT77V v-*favxeiia
`8~ot1i, a&#39;v 6&#39;p~cas Matvc4/wv alt&#39;Xpovpryitv.
T VI)TVOV?7&7 TOD ~E7&#39;pov Tt OV/k OpO)
Xa/30 rya~p ElaT( Ov&#39;pa&#39;VtOV a"Kpov KXal/Sov
Ka~yV 177EV, 177EV ebS~ ILEaVw ov 06
KVKXOVTO- 8&#39; WITCTE TO4~OV 27 1CVPTO9q 7pO0(
TO5pM~ 7pa00111EVOI? 7TEpt~o~pa&#39;v eXtK015pG&#39;p~ow
15.aS7tIs P: ca&#39;Os ed. Aid.
i056. 7roLKI&#39; suspectum Nauckio. inte r eKXL7ro~o-at et rJ-OKLX&#39;
versunm unum, excidisse suspicatur Wecklein. 41irX&Kouoat 7rOLKIX&#39;
Ws ir(Xot ~wya&#39; Madvig.
io6o. S~o-ot v6Owv P: 0&#39;o-ow v6Oc&#39;O Tyrrell. in &#39;veteribus codicibus&#39;
A60owp scriptum fuisse falso affirmavit H Stephanus, cuius mendacio
decepti alii alija coniecerunt, 05iro4 ui6Owp Musgr. (Paiey), So0-crols pU6aop
Heath (Schoenius), C&#39;owi&v jucLEiv Reiskius; So-oz&#39; wo~o Elms., 060oLoS
ocrov Herm., 0"co-ots 06xXox, Middendorf. Weckleinius, cui quondam v~oTov,aazOev arriserat, nunc in scriptura codicis 0SoL vp6Owxp verbum ot&#39;o-rpr,.dvco
(sc. &#39;a-orpn4dvwv) latere suspicatur. IJ-oOetv&r dv Metzger.
io6i. b&#39;xOwv 5&#39;.IE&#39;r&#39; 4s/3&s P: 5&#39;x6ov 5&#39; C&#39;e3asr ed. Aid. ELS
4FXUc-rtqv P:?V &#39;Xcrrn&#39; Tyrwhittus (Elms., Dind., Paley, Tyrrell); X, q
Schoenius (Kirchf., Nauck, Wecklein); &#39;Es Adcrn,~i Herm.
1063. rov&#39;Ov6~ve 5&#39; `63v scribendum videtur Kirchhoffio. t~voL
Oai 0&#39; p6.i P, &#39;-rL a correctore inserto: Oavgtdcr&#39; 6&#39;p6. Nauckius (Kirchf.,
Tyrreli). 0E&#39;a/,4 6pdo Wecklein.
io66. KVKXOVTat P: KVKX00Y-o ed. Aid. &#39;fortasse KViKXW, S&#39; CLp&#39;
Kirchf.
so67. rep1950paV E&#39;XKEL (f~C&#39;AK mnanu sec.) 5p0&#39;,U0w P: 7f-ptL 00pch VXK-;7
6p6Atov ed. Aid.: AXLK0opp6,uov Reiskius (Dind., Wecklein); AXKIEp6liop
Scalig,,er (Tyrrell).

Page  65
BAKXAI.

65

C01 KXCO3)&#39; &#39;P EtOV&#39; 4e&#39;vos~ Xcpotv a&#39;yaw
etcal/J7TTEv eki ry?7v, cpry/laT ov~yt OVn7Tai pwz&#39;V.
llevt~c&#39;a 3&#39; i3ptoasq EX ariMVo 05&#39;OV 637fl, 1070
OpO(&#39;V pLEOIeL 8t&#39; XEPWV I3Xc0-7o7 dvo
&&#39;zpe&#39;,a, fvXaco-oowv pa) avcayaMri-E4 vtw.
3pO77 3 C9 O&#39;pOoP aI6E&#39;p &#39;O-Tflpt~&#39;EITO
e&#39;yovc- coT P0)709 C77707T)V E(,b771EZJOV.
&e ad&#39;XXov i&#39; KaTELi3E Matv~ay 1075
oro-z ryap Ogj7ra, 3&#39;XOq IV &0-GYIV ava,
Kat 707) ~CVOV /.LCN OVCE&#39;T&#39; ElioopaPv 77Tap)7P,
EKc 3&#39; atiO6pa? sbov i -rv, co&#39;, puEv EIIdcaat
AI6wva-oo, avE/3OflOEv&#39; co veavt3E9,
/(i) Tov vpa,& KaILE Tapac opyIta 1080
ryE&#39;Xaw TtJ&#39;IIevoir axa Tt/A4OP~tW-OE ~
Kcat &#39;-TavO ~ &#39;q0pEV6 Kct& 7rpo09 ovpavov
UtrylcTe 3 atOhip, o0tya 3&#39; ev"Xet/109 va&#39;7r
Obt&#39;xxELEx, Onp(Ov 3&#39; 0v1K av y71olva-a9~ Idoi7. 1085
al &#39; &#39;ccv &#39;x o-&#39; afr s We3yjue&#39;vat
eo-T7o7-av opOclt Kabt 8ct?7IyKav K~pas.
6&#39; 3&#39; ai30g E&#39;7TcEK&#39;XcvOrEvY (09 3 e&#39;ywb&#39;pto-aP
oacf" KEXEVUJJOPv BaKcXiov Ka&#39;8,av xccSpat,
7y1&#39;av 7TeXet&#39;ag (OKv&#39;TT&#39; 0v&#39;X;rnJc0 9 1090
io68, 1073, interpolatos esse censet Herwerden; satis defendit Chr.
Pa t. 6 62-31, 6&#39;p6s 3&#39; C&#39; 460pf6 atWtp&#39; E&#39;o-r77pl~ETo. 19 KX Co va 5&#39;.
io68. W&#39;s P (Tyrrell): c~s post Barnesium fere omnes.
107 2. /07 dh&#39;cXacriCLaEs P: AbhaXavriaEae Dind.
1083. &#39;o-rT&#39;ipt~e P: t9OT7-1PL~ ed. Aid. et Chr. Pat. 12259, Kccd yaiav
far&#39;~pt~e 0. a-. 7. &#39;yalqOcv &#39;oT-r&#39;pL~c scribendum. videbatur Kirchhoffio.
1084. IEUXEL/101 P: d`Xtgos Chr. Pat. 2260 (quod Dind. solus reeepit).
i087. 6p~al P: O&#39;P0a Wecklein (sc. -ra Wrca, coil. Soph. El. z27).
1090. ~qrovovs P: "oa-cova Heath (Elms., KirchlfA).
S. B.5

Page  66
66

ETP1fl-z1AOT

7,r0o~v c,,ovcacu cvv-rovovtS&#39; oi
I ~yp &#39;A ya &#39;7 -&#39;,yryo voi 0&#39; &#39;6o- wop
IZ7Tq nt U t f 07~
rac~aL Te BaK)~ac ota&#39; Xctyaippov vawl,9z
ay -) It I7T&#39;)& v Oeol) 7 wvo a wC7t v E&#39; Il&#39;E 9
~ EI SOV e ~ a y & o w o ~ jv 4hz EP O P, 1 0 9 5
7Fp 6)Tov I(tE&#39; alvTOl) XEp/~ta&#39;~a9 Kpa7-at/3o"Xov9
eppm&#39;-rov, ai)7-7r vpy ov C&#39;77-/aco-at wre&#39;Tpav,
~O t0L0 7 EXa-&#39;TLVOtcY-l) 77KCOV ~Eroa`XXac 8&#39; OtcY &#39;c-av Ut ac&#39;OEpoS
IIEVOE&)S, YTO&#39;XOV) 8vUoT7vov- aX vK qvvrov. I 100
KpE &#39; &#39;o*y p ntOS -799 7rpOOV jLt a&#39; Ex )1
KaO &#39;0Y7O TXS7/.LCAW, a W7op~t XE~ /(EvoQ.
TEXOS&#39; 8E ipvtv4ovs awyVKepaLVvoV-aL t aO
E7TL I.LzXOc6l) T~p jiaT O&#39;IK &#39;?7VVTOV, 1105
gxe~ &#39;Ayau&#39;,y 0bepe, 7repc-Ta-aL KcvKcxo
7J-ToOPol Xa/S3eo-OE, Matva&#39;&,~, Toll a/u/3a&#39;T?7ll
099&#39; &J &#39; EX cO(LE, p qY3 a&#39;77a y yctlX y OC l
XopoV9 1Kpv~aiiovsx at E tpaV XEpa
1091. 9xovo-at P: Tpc&#39;XouocaU (Schoenius) vel 5pago~Oca Hartung
collato Ckr. Pal. 201 i5 (in corornentario exscripto).- versum. interpolatum.
esse suspicatur Wecklein quod Paleio, quoque in mentemn venerat.
1096. Kpa-rca/36ovs P: correctum. e C/zr. Pat. 667, KaXacl/.W/ KpaL-at36 -NYp l3caXXOP, dlVTi71rlYpOV EFIT/IcLVTES 7w~r~pv.
io98. 6&#39; P: r&#39; post Hermannumn onines.
io99. UAXot P: d"XXcaL Brodaeus.
jioo. -r&#39; d&#39;Xop&#39; P: o-70&#39;Xop Reiskius. ov6X j&#39;vvrov Elms., auctore Porsono ad Phoen. 463.
11I02. TXo~YOV P: TX75wv ed. Aid. 0a9e0&#39;3&#39; TX&#39; wyo Brunck
(quod mavult Tyrrell). XFX-qo-/d1&#39;vo3 P: XcXqjpue&#39;Po5 Mfusgr.
I 03 puVoS O-V-yKepaVvvovo-a (corruptum Nauckio) KXCafovV P:
oU&#39;yKpa~cawf~ovoktc vel awrl&#39;ptawuoucocat Piersonus, 3pvtvotg Tv&#39;-rptaw&#39;oucaL
KCXc 0ot Hartung (Wecklein).

Page  67
BAKXAJ. 67
~77poo-Oc-a 1 q K a10&#39;7TaoaZ) yOovo"s&#39; 1110I
i5&#39;*ov3 8c&#39; O4aa~ctwv i-&#39;frOeOv Xajiatme-T&#39;
7Ti77TEL 7wp9 oi 0 `al 1/Lvp&#39;ovols u&#39;11kc
llEVOEVt~ KaLKQV yap EyyiN (01 EluavOavc&#39;.
7rp()JT&#39;q (3Z f1&#39;T&#39;qp?)P~EV iEpia f0&#39;vov
Kat 77TP~O-77tITVEL Vtv* 6 (3E /JLpav KO/JA7S~ awe7II 1
fppt*rcv, c&#39;w vtv yvw plo-ac-a /at) icK-cvot
i-rX&#39;Iawv &#39;Ayaz~q, Kat Xe7et wrap 18os&#39;
#a0V&#39;Av E7&ft Totz /T6P, EL/LL 7raL9 (TeOel
HEVOEVS-, 01) ETEKES?&#39;v 80 36,ov? &#39;Ext&#39;o~
oLKTEetpe (3&#39;t co /L&#39;"-Epz /17(3e Tav 4state 11210
4apapriatw- wrata o-o&#39;V KaTalc-avpsx.
17&#39; (3 atbpo~v e~/tet&#39;a Kat (LaO-TPO&#39;fOovS
Kopa~ ~taovov-&#39;, ot f povovc&#39; a&#39; Xp~ fpove-v
(2K Bacxi&#39;OV KaIreiXETr, oV&#39; EW7LOE liY.
Xa/3ov~o-a &#39;(3 E&#39;Xava apto-Tpauv Xepa, 12
7-XcvpaF-tv dvzroi-t3o-a TOD (3vc-al/lovo9?
awCOa7rapa~ev (OLLov, ov&#39;X VW7O tOeIOV93,
ax-x&#39; 6 OcoS&#39;? ev.la&#39;pectav C&#39;77Te(3lov Xepot-V.
luvcy 8e Ta&#39;vt Oa&#39;,ep&#39; JEtplya!TETOI
p?7fl/vvoE o-aplca9, AOTOZJo q &#39;77&#39; o` &#39;o7-re va-as&#39; 1130
Ir13 spurium esse censet Nauckius probante Weckleinio.I
I14. epeia P: ispicccorrexerunt Dobraeus et Elms.
ii6. K7 &#39;P-i P: KTpot Brunck (Nauck, Kirchf., Dind., Paley,
Tyrrell, Wecklein). i111i9. &#39;fortasse &#39;Ext6&#39;vt Wecklein.
I1121. cr~pua o-6vp Wecklein, qui ad locum Med. 816 provocat ubi
P C cotv uaw~plw, ceteri codices ocw&#39; rai~e vel (uti hic P et C) o-6&#39;v i7rai3r
habent.
1123. Xp&#39;j P (Nauck, Kircb f. 2, Wecklein):- Xp&#39;~ ceteri omnesI
Brunckium secuti. I 1 24. fOaKXe1ou P: fPaKXL&#39;OV ed. Ald.
11i2 5. &#39;an WAIX&#39;os?&#39; Kirchf. W&#39;el&#39;ato- XEIp&#39; daL-,pdTEP& liothius,
9P d)1XVpats S dprc~pdOTpc&#39; Xe~pa Mekler.

5-2

Page  68
68

ETPIHIzAOT

EWELXE BaKXU"P &#39;v &e 7Wao"&#39; O&#39;joi3 flor
O /ePtTza)V OJOP aETv yv~)7rvEOv
al(&#39; i)&#39;XaXa~&#39;ov. Oe4pe (3&#39; 71 aEv CAX&&#39;7v,
&#39;-XEvpatt o-7vapayLov 7&#39;n-&a (3&#39;yzaTWoLEv&#39;7 I113 5
X 8~% (teca4&#39;ip teC apKa IIeVO&#39;o
/CELTaL 6 Xw~pt, oCopi~a, TO&#39; /L&#39;v V77O&#39; OTLNOXOtl
ETpatS, TO (3 f5y C Uv/av5~s4y
Otv pa&tOi ~~Tq/FLCL Kpa"Ta (3 dOXtov,
37rep Xct/3ovo-ct TvryXapet /In2T?7p XEPOtW, I1140
7T?7aO 6W a pV vpv(0 O E7T OV
cOEpfl, XcoV~Tos~ (3tc Kt~atp63"voq p.~o-ov,
Xt7rofi-C&#39; a(3EXoa9 ev Xopota-t Matva&#39;ewv.
Xwpel E3 O1?P2 63VTWOT/Lro yavpovp.kcvij
TEtXEOW e(WTOWP8&#39;1(, avPaKaXovcr-a Ba&#39;KXtov I I45
TOlJ ~v7Kv&#39;va-ov, TOP ~VV~prya&#39;TfV alIypas&#39;
TO KXXL&#39;VtKOV, p&#39; 8a&#39;KpvacL CtccOE.
C- L4EV OL&#39;V Ty(3 EKWrO~oeW Ty ~V/tqJ0paL
a7etELF, &#39;Aryativ 7Wptv yLoXE- 7rpoq 8w/S1Lara.
TO ~oxfpoiew- 86 icat 0cTE/3ELV Ta&#39; TWoV Occ&#39;v 1150
11r3,2. o-ruvyva&#39;&~wv P: o-rev&#39;ciwv ed. Aid. e1vyXaVe 7rvewv
(~rX~wi a manu prima) P: 6&#39;r6-,yXap&#39; f&#39;1-tve~wv post Reiskium Dind., quo
recepto etiam "o-ol, uti monuit Weckleinius, in monosyllabon Cews corrigere necessarium fuisset. 4E&#39;rvSyXaVEV 7r1&#39;4)v ceteri omnes.
i 1 33. dv~pepe P: 9qpepe Duportus. d&ye, 0b&#39;p&#39; -q) jubv Herm.
AIE&#39;t-qv P: c3Xc&#39;v-qv ed. Aid.
1134. yvjbWo 1/IL U 7rXcv~pcL Piersonus et Porsonus; 7vwoi-re 6U 7Xevpcis Herm. (ii36. &eo-oe&#39;ptce oa&#39;pxa P: 8&Eo-apcupe Gczp~as ed. Aid.
11 37. rv4/Aots P: o-ri Xots Barnes. i i38. p6&#39;3w, correctum in 06-O P.
140. 6,virep? Shilieto. 1141. 7rTRaco-&#39; P: r&#39;~ao-&#39; Brodaeus.
1147. &#39;scribendum aut (cum Heathio) j (Sch., Wecki.), aut quod
verum puto, "~ Kirchf.&#39; 4 Reiskius. vLK-rj5opE7 P: VLK /oepet Hartung.
1148. Tjja&#39; addidit Reiskins.

Page  69

BAKXAI. 69
KdX-XtoTTov otaat avTo&#39; Ka&#39;t o-4O)&#39;TaTOV
OVflTOWW tv Vat Xpi-&#39;u TQOLCXC1.60
DANS
XO. av~aXopevcwo)/Ev BaTKXtOV,
dvafloaozxwbtev 4,bpav
7T6V TOV 8pa&#39;KOVT03 ElcyCLe&#39;Era IIEVOE09&#39;fs, I1155
01 raz, 6qXvyein o-rToVXv
a&#39;p 0JK a&#39; r r~ l t&#39;At~av
EAa/3ev Ev"Ovpuova,
1151. -y&#39;cat5Tc6 P: 5&#39; aiir6 Chkr. Pat. 1146 et Orion Ant/h 4 P. 55;
Tc,3T a rReiskius.
1152. Xp-qca P et C/zr. Pat. 1147: KT~/Ua1 Orion uz. s. (Kirchf.,
Nauckc, Wecklein).
1153. f~aKXcLWv P: faK~(eLov ed. Aid., IC&#39;CKXLOV post Hermannum
omnes. i115 5. llevOgws P: ToOi H. ed. Aid.
1157. -re w7to-,rov &#39;At~av P: -re, mo —roep &#39;At5-rai~pov Herm.
Bto-rovl~wv Tyrwhitt, r&#39; b&#39;ri ar7ovaXa2Ts? Kirchf. KL0O-cXalTCav collato
10o55 Ingram, E&#39;lra~roe&#39;vAt~av Tyrrell. forsan aut Irpoir-rop &#39;At~av nut /3aKrpov Vel K&VTPOV ALtc. 7rwOT6e &#39;At5ce(pignus vel omen mortis)?J SReid.

Page  70
/O

70 E~~TPITlTTAOT

Tav~pop 77TporyqJT?7pa O-v)aqopa~q e"Xo
B&#39;K~at Ka8~ztat) i i6o
TOV KcLXXt1JLKOV KXELVOV E&#39;~%)Tpa&#39;caTE
ft;700V, EtlS &t&#39;lplva.
KcaXo, ayco&#39;v, e&#39;v atart c vaaOvcc
XEPLL 7WeptIaXeLV TEK/VOU.
aixX EtcO~poJ yap cv~ &6,ovs op uwyo)9v i i65
IIevOE&#39;W &#39;AryaiV~q /LTEp E&#39;v tGT&#39;0t
ocTOOLS,~, ExEo-OE KO)JiLOZ EVLO1J Ocoi3.
AI7ATH. a-pocfij
&#39;Ao-ta&#39;8e9 Ba&#39;KXa,) XO. Tb&#39; L O&#39;POOUVeU, d);
AF. oEPoFl-eP E~ OpeosEXtKa veo&#39;TO/.lo E&#39;7rt pEXaOpa, I I70
i 6i. 4erpd~aro P: E&#39;,&#39;e~rpct&#39;care Scaliger.
1 i62. El&#39;s &#39;y6sov P: correxit Canter.
11i64. Xe&#39;pcL 7repqtLXcLV T&KZOP P: &#39;scribendum Xjepa f~aXeLV re&Kvy
Kirchf.; (omisso X~pa) wreptpctXEv -rIKVOV J F Davies, ir. Xjpci. (omisso
TeKIVOJ Vel T4K;vo) Tyrrell. X~pc j~aXcE& &#39;rei&#39;KOV? Wecklein.
hi65. 3p6&#39;yovs P: 361ous H Stephanus. 1i s6. e6top Herm.
ji68. -yvn&#39;s P: etyai-q ed. Aid. t7i 11 (lij addit ed. Aid.) 6p6E7s
(6&#39;p~oos H Stephanus, Nauckius) c3 P: rti /15 iterare vult Nauck-ius;
rI &#39;&#39; 6cO6z&#39;e~s c3 Herm. (Paley, Wecklein); &#39;vis Opoeds (Scaliger) a&&#39;U
Hartung; ri fIe Opoeds -rdl co&#39; Fixius; -ri&#39; /15~jc &3qpo-etq &ci Schoenius.
i169. cipeg&jv P: iipeog Plutarch. v. Crassi 33, Polyaenus 7, 41 (Herm.,
Schoenius, Nauck, Kirelif., Wecklein).

Page  71
BAKXAIL

&#39;7&#39;,LtaKczptov O)&#39;pczv.
XO. O&#39;pco Kat&#39; cc &~o/ftat OVfyK(O6/LOv.
Ar. " ~ap~a TOUp8 a"Pvu /3p6&#39;x0l
XEov7-OI &#39;~ – PEOP LVLV,
Co5st opav &#39;7rapa. 115
XO. -7T00cEv cpqlIka,;
Ar&#39;. KtOatpo&#39;v XO. T1 KtOatpcoSv;
Ar&#39;. KaTe~o&#39;evccvo-&#39; VI.
XO. T&#39;rs a&#39; /3aXovioa 7rpw-ra; ATr. CPV TO yepaq.
XO. pabat&#39; &#39;Ayav&#39;i Ar&#39;. KXyT&#39;) EO avOc~ovoi. I o
XO. TIS&#39;, a"XXa; Ar&#39;. a&#39;-~ Kac~Iov XO. TI&#39; Kad8/zov;
Al&#39;. ryE&#39;veO~a.LTELLET ET ELE ToV~
g~t&#39;ye Onqp. Ev&#39;TVXI~ 7&#39; a /a-pa
CLVTLOTpocf(J
/.LETEXE vv1J Ootiias. XO. Trt ILL7eTX~o Tta&#39;luv;
Ar&#39;. vco9 6, k6oyo,~ ap- 18
Tt 7YEVVV V7TO KOPVO&#39; a&#39;WaX6&#39;TptXa
(171. /uaKdpLOP Oipacjc~ P et Plutarch. mor-. p. 501 b; /JtaKatp~lal
G1&#39;pap Plutarch. zv. C&#39;rassi 33 (Elms., Dind., Paley, Tyrrell); uLaKU&#39;pLov
6&#39;pa~v Polyaenus it. s. (Herm., Sch., Kirchf., Nauck, Wecklein). Cf. 868.
11I72.- ip~ CC76… 0V6YKWI.409, cWS Herm. &#39;ye et cW) addidit Aid., om. P.
I1I73. &#39;lacunarn post /3po&#39;Xw indicavit Canterus&#39; (Dind.).
I 174. (&#39;U&#39; P: XFP Stephanus,- rectius MPi- Brunck. quem secuti sunt
omnes praeter Weckleinium, qui coniecit Vtoz&#39;roi – — vov TvAP
colao h5. T.,2.39 ubi /Je&#39;el Pi&#39; corruptum est e fripe T&#39; Tvu&#39;.
11(79. 7Ip~$Tca P: 7rpword -ye Aid.; zrpcWTa post Herm. omnes, praeter
Schoenium qui irp~vrcd 7&#39; egov i-ro yeipaz Agavae tribuit. E/sh0 V 1-0,v P:,Eu~v semel Plut. Crass. 33 (queni secuti sunt omnes).
ii8i. APA. ante ra&#39; Ka63/uov prirnus addidit Heathius.,ybcOXa bis P: correxit Hleathius.
1 s 83. dlhUXiJI (cihuXeis a correctore) 7-&#39;,-i&#39; a"-ypc P: XO. elv1TuXEts 7-qt
a2ypiq ed. Aid. (Elms., Herm., Wecklein, AP… Sch.); E17vX&#39;JI y&#39; a&T "-p
Nauck (Kirchf. 2, Din4., Paley, XO. Tyrrell). II 84. rTXicos&#39; Hartung.

Page  72
72

ETPIllIzOT

KaTaKOJLOV Oa~Xet.
XO. WrpeWret 7Y (O0C7TE Oq7 a"ypctvxov cf0fay.
Al?. 6e BalKXtoS&#39; Kvvaye-ras~
Uocf&#39;s~ 0-o/x&#39;jq a&#39;vc&#39;7FX&#39; 67&#39; Obpa 1190,rov-3e Matva&#39;8as~.
XO. of yap dlva~ dy7pecl.
Al?. 6ratwevs; XO. Tt&#39; 8&#39; E7TatlJw;
Al?. TaXa 8E Ka8/LetEoL
XO. Ka&#39;t -7rat&#39;s 7e HevOEV&#39;, /LzaTJp Al?. 6wanmco-erat,
XO. &#39;Xa,/3oicav d"ypcw Al?. Ta(SvE XVozrockvi 1196
XO. v-eptacv -Al?. WeptucTO. XO. a&#39;ya&#39;XXc; Al?.
/.Lcryca~ /JIEIyaa Ka&#39;t
c0avepaN ra8T adypt KcartEpylaolieva.
XO. ME~VP VVV, (A TcLXaU&#39;a, (77)V W~K,7(OpOV 1200
aoToia-14?a7pav i"v O&#39;pou& E&#39;Xr7&#39;XvOa,?.
1187. f~cXXet P: OaX~c, Miusgr. (Schoenius, Kirchf. 2, Nauck,
Dindf., Tyrreli, Wecklein).
i i88. XO. prirnus addidit Tyrwhitt. 7rp~r-et -yup WCoreOTE o&#39;
&ypa~ ov~ 6/ cp ( 6j3 I~ odae s, 0j3 alii) P: 7rpbret -y&#39; WOT~e Oip c-ypavXos
00&#39;6fz Kirchf. (Tyrrell, Vecklein). i189. PaKoXdEOS P: correx&#39;it Aid.
1190o. uoq~6s Too~bI P: cTo1/pI o-oo(~ post Brunckium. omnes.
dvc&#39;wqXev P: civrwqX&#39; Dind. (Tyrrell, Wecklein). O&#39;4pa
Trov~e P: O~pa r6v~c (Elms., Paley); Oijpq~ -rOa~e Herm. (Schoenius, Nauck,
Kirchf. 2, Dind., Tyrrell, Wecklein). i 9i2. &#39; qu. ~a-yp E V&#39; Dobraeus.
1193. Tri 3&#39; addidit ed. Aid.; omiserat P: &#39;vel sic vel i-rt a-&#39; biratvCu
legendum videtur&#39; Kirchf. 1194. U Kcd&#39; P: 3U Aid.
1195. &#39;Katl raig-repta-a-g choro, a&#39;yadXX, Agavae, reliqua choro
tribuit P: correxit Herm., partim aliis praeeuntibus&#39; (Dindf.). e~ratvclia-eraL P: correxit Ald, 1196. XCovTOfV7) P: -j. Dind. (Tyrrell).
1197. 1-7eptoo-a-&1 P: -7repllocr& Brodaeus.
1199. TMWI gp-ya. P: Talp-y&#39; c&#39;yw Herm.; Tri&l -ya L Dindorfius (G
Dind., Schoenius, Paley, Wecklein): Tr~V&#39; iypq, Nauck, Tyrreli.
AF. -yby?-Oc-r/xaPep& TqIE XO. &#39;Yj KacrTEp-yaL1AIe&#39; va Kirchf.1; XO. post.)Y
transtulit XWecklein. i2o0. cv,&#39; P: vvp ed. Aid.

Page  73
BAKXAI. 7

73

AF. a&#39;" xaXXiwpo hw Oflaa&#39;xoo
vatov7-E9, XO&#39;EO&#39; a), t8?pTE 7&#39;-iV8&#39; &#39;a"typav,
Ka&#39;8/ptov OVyaT-cpE9~ O 0~pS?)?p/Wa/J&v
OvIc ayKvXwTotS~ EOcacaX6)w a-oXactao-tv, 1205
OiV /tK7V&#39;OctIPt, aXXa&#39; XEVKOW&#39;7JyET&C
Xetpcov aKcpa~tc. iccTra Ko/I47raE XtvPEo
Kat &#39;YXoQro(A o&#39;pyava KTaJOat 1Lc727v
7~/.Let~ 8SE/ Cy av"r ^ Xetpt T-0lv3E 0&#39; ELtXO/IeI
XpTe O~ipos~ a&#39;pOpc t eboop?7OcafLev. 1210
7t&#39;Ov flot 7raT?7p 0 77-pE&#39;G-/3V9; E&#39;XOC~(A wEXa,~.
Hcve&#39;vO&#39;t, 7&#39; 4t.L&#39;, 7wa&#39; 7rov "a7tv; alpEW~ Xa/3w1&#39;V
1203. f&7re P: Mq-re ed. Aid.
1&#39;205. a&#39;yKVXCOTOFS P: ad-YKvXqp-o?? Nauck. ann. cri1. (Dind., Tyrrell,
Wecki.).
27.Kq~Ta Ko/L&#39;rcitv P et editores omnes: maliM K&#39;~T&#39; aKOVT&#39;L6Ew.
Xpgw~v…/J4TqV P: transponit Nauck (Wecklein).
1208. spy&#39; cdvapTcw-Oa1 J Hilberg.
1209. & Tcal7T- P: 4 -y&#39; av&#39;T-fl Kirchf.2 (Wecklein). r6&e P: ro&#39;v6e
ed. Aid.
1210. XWOPIS 7re O7p69 P: XC&#39;OPI CTO &#39;pO) T&#39; Pierson; xc&#39;.pis -r4 y&#39; dOe&#39;pos
(praeeunte Ruhnkenio qui Xwpt&#39;s &Onpos coniecerat) Wecklein (SO-q5p- brOiopaTIS, d&#39;KLI, 30piS); Xwpis re 3opi~os Wilarnowitz-Moellendorff.
1212. atp aOw P: a&#39;p~o-Ow Portus.

Page  74
7 4

ETPInIAzOT

7T17KT&W 7Tp it OLOSKIaKWp 7rpoo al4aets,,
wos, 7Trao —acty Kcpa7a TptyXvcJt 6
Xc&#39;ovTos~ ovp 77rapEL/Lt O?)pafcao&#39;E- W. 1215
KAAMO~~.
gwreaO-c tiot O/JOpTe&#39;? aWOXtov /Sc&#39;po,~
HeVOE&#39;UK, E&#39;76EOOE, 7rpO&#39;C7O-2TX~t, 04L (A)V 7rapos~,
oi5 o64La IzoXIO(Z JZVPIOts ~&#39;Tq&#39;~act
0f"pw &#39;-r6(&#39; cv&#39;pwov ev KtOatpw3vos? -ir-vXav~
f8tao-7TapaK~rozJ, KcoU3v e&#39; Trat-r~o) 77-3(0 1220
XaI8 &#39;w, &#39;v "SXy KeLEoV 3vo-evpE-rp.?K/ovcra7a p 70o) Ovyaepcov ToX/(Lcva-ra,
T&#39;V jr 7eporTL TetpeU-I&#39; BaKX(ZV 7ita&#39;pa
wa7 v (3 aLct PE OoS&#39;?l Kopu ofat 1225
707) KaTOCapoVTCa 77aZta Matpa&#39;&ov V&#39;7o.
icat T7?l /-E&#39; &#39;AKcTat&#39;wv&#39; &#39;Ap~tOTao 77rOTIE
TE Vl7^ ELo3 AL3Top&#39;7X 1 7V I 0 a4ta
eT au/L# (pvpoto&#39;~ oi~t&#39;GpowX —yas&#39; dOXIa(~,
i121i3. AEXKTWOV P: 7r&#39;KrW^ eX Ph&#39;oen. 491 Barnesius, quod confirmat (Chr. Pat. 1 263, 7r-q7KT6S KVibuaKas. 7rpog o&#39;1&#39;Kwp Scaliger, rp6&#39;s otKOLS
Barnes.
124 VpywOO11 Ka&#39;pa -r36& Shilleto (in Thuc. i 1 ~ 4).
12 i6. cWAtov 69/1a111? Nauck. ann. cr11.l
121 i7. 664mwv 7r1as dubitanter conicit WNecklein collato H. F. 139.
1218. jkoXO6jav vulgo: ju6&#39;Owv Wecklein. 1219. KtOePCVwos P.
12 20. &#39;lege Weo-1&#39;p cum Reiskio,&#39; Dobraeus.
122 1. vo-evpb-cg P: 3uo-uEVpcrol&#39; Reiskius, 3&OeVP~Ce7W Dobraeus eiL
Hlermannus. versus Nauckio et Weckleinio suspectus.
1&#39;223. go-w P: s&#39;1oi&. Dind. 12 24. ~re&#39;p P: wcipa Musgr.
(in textum receperunt editores recentiores praeter Tyrrellium omnes).
1227. adK&#39;Ta11Wv&#39; P: &#39;AKTELwv&#39; Dind. (Tyrrell). dipto-ra P: &#39;Apto-71~
L Dindorfius (Kirchf.&#39;, Nauck, Dm4.l, PaleyTyrrell); &#39;Aptoracdov Miltonus,
&#39;Apio-ratfp Heath (Elms., Paley, Herm., Schoenius, Kirchf.2, Wecklein).

Page  75
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75

712) 3&#39; JtWE -tL? (LOt 3EDpo /accloyI 7ro& I230
OtEXEJ &#39;Ayar&#39;7v, oii3&#39; ~pw&#39;1K00cLEZ
Xvcv-o a, ~p av7-?7v, OfrV O3Vc EV&#39;ai/~zo1)a.
AT. 77-aTp (re t~T Ko(u71&#39;c-at 77-por -t
7-aVl-OP apitYras&#39; OvyaTepas&#39; -72-etpat I-LaKpcOD
7rpoV 4a&#39;aa9 ELTov, E &#39;~6 123,qTa9 7-ap&#39; LCY0TSV~ KX/Tt-rov&#39;ca KcpKld&#39;aS
CL~ /1EL4&#39;O (A)K, Opas aypcv~ xEpotv.
4e&#39;pco 3 El) coXcpa~totv, (0 op a,~ ac3
Xa/3ovo-a ra&#39;ptc-rnta, uo-oWt 7wpOI 36ocst
yavpov/LEvoq 8c TOtS~ c/-Ltot aypcv.LaoL
/,Ca&#39;Xet 01`Xovs~ ctS~ 8aLt^a* pLaKapto9~ yap et,
/.Lal ptoq,?7/.LOV 7ota3EEpa7V(.
KA. (O 77-E&#39;vOa~os&#39;0) /LET(Y7TOP OV3 OL&#39;O&#39;) T tE18d,
4)6vov 7raXaivats&#39; Xepo-tv E~etpyaoy-tevctv. 1245
KaXolv 70o Ov)/Ia Kara/3aXovo-a 8a(lloo-v
c~r aa e1)39To-E/4 7rapa/cte.
Otl/oL Kca&wv -Lev) 7rpwj7ca (70), EWELT E/1CO)1
(09 00E09 7/La LE~K(S ((El) axx ayav
Bp(4os&#39;pt ava~ adw&&#39;XEO-&#39; oLKELO9 7E7w. 1250
1230. 7- 5v3&#39; P: r~&#39; 6&#39; Barnes.
i523,2. aL6T7JI P (Matthiae, Kirchf.1, Tyrrell); azVAj,r-&#39; Scaliger,
Kirchf.2, ceteri. Elmsleio &#39;parum referre&#39; videtur.
12 37. jiet~bp P et Chr. Pat. i63, et&#39;s /AEL~op `)~: gclEoli&#39; ed. Aid.
(Elms., Paley).
a20 pst Kpe/1aoTO- P: cryKpe/iaso6O- Herm. (Dind.).
1241. fuis P: ggo~s ed. Aid.
1245. E~ap-yad-dt&#39;wv, littera co duobus punctis notata, P: -pu&#39;op Ald.
versum interpolatum esse existimat Middendorf, probante Weckleinio.
1246. KcLXo&#39;V 7rp66v/5ca? Wecklein.

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ETPITIzAOT

eV 7r otyaco-t o-KvOpWonOV. tO 7atJLq
EVO IP&#39; et?7, W~)7Tp kS eLm a0 OeLS 7 07
0 veapiata-,Oa&#39;o, &#39;t
0,qpw&#39;0v 0&#39;ptyv(0&#39;. a&#39;XXa Oeolza~ew&#39; aLO&#39;VOV 125 5
Ol0L 7I EKCLV09. VOVOET?)TeoS~, 7TLLTep,,OVaT~tV. TLS; cTv&#39;ov ev~p, aiP oNPLv cte f, 7
KcaX TE L-Ete, W 9 3p /V T?7 ci 3a o
KA. Oci3 fci` ~pov?&#39;o-aaat pev oi &Spaoarc,
a 77 T r o 3 v ir t 3 3 a 7 X OV&#39;;&#39; 1260
eV T /1aEV CT E W EO0aTe,
OVIC eVTVxOVG-at 86~er&#39; ov&#39; C~3v7Xet&#39;v.
Al?. TL&#39;8 01) KcaX(OS T(4V3?7 T Xv wrnpW4 6cx ci
KA. 7~p(r)OV I-Le ekq TOW3 a"Oelp&#39; o6&#39;-qta ocov,u~Oc9.
AP?. 18oi` rtI p-4ot – TOP38&#39;E&#39; vWreF7r-aS dopalv; 1265
KA. EO avrT k 0 /~Ta/3Xa&#39;le EtvW &SKet
AR&#39; Xa/L7-p6T7cpo9?? 77TptV Kat LwreTeC-TTeP0I.
KA. TO 08e 7rT0?)OE) 703&#39; eTL cj3 *4VX,i3 77pa;
ATl&#39;. ovKl o&#39;tca TOV"7T0S 70OVT0, yL7volat ew
evvovq /JLeTao-TaOeW-ta TOW 7ra&#39;po&#39;? Opevw-v. 1270
K A.,cXv&#39;ov&#39; ap ovil Tt KawToI~ptv~at a&#39;p o7aan3;
125 2. a-KUOpw07r6 P: a-KVOPw070&#39;1 ed. Aid. el&#39; & P: E!We ed. Aid.
1&#39;254. OT&#39; E&#39;v P: 6rcas? Wecklein. a&#39;,euaP: &#39;probabilius Oa~ua"(IDindorf).
1257. aaL T&#39; EaT7IZ. Tris P: aoworli&#39;. Tris Kirchhoffius et Nauckius
(Dind., W ecklein); aOlO &#39;a-TO&#39;V Til Paley; a4o T-&#39; eaTT Ka&#39;gLa&#39; A-q a-0OFo
XaLpEtV KaIKOFS. urob &#39;o-tv. rls ed. Aid., quam Tyrreilius solus inter recentiores secutus est. &#39;ilcumn Musuri (editoris Aidini) libidine turpiter
interpolatuin primus me anctore in integrum restituit Nauckius eiectis
ineptis illis additamentis &#39; (Kirchhoff).
1 265. rn~&#39; 6&#39; P: r6v3&#39; H Stephanus.
1,268. -r63E -tI P: Tr66 Drt ed. Aid.
i1269-70. unum inter hos duo versus Cadmi versumn excidisse, interrupto Agavae sermone, coniecit Nauckius. deleto proximo versu, -ytyV4W5TKW u rws Kirchhoffius, KLOOU/ia1 &4 7rws S Alien (ap. Tyrrell.).
1&#39;271. a-oq5(w P: oaoaos Reiskius.

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77

Al&#39;. O&#39; n eXEkicottat &#39;y&#39; a` wapoq ecVOL7T/EV, 77rca-cp.
KA. Cls~ wo0-ov 3OE9~ 0KOl) V/1-tevac(7i(0l) /7a~
Al?. o-wapr 11W&#39;y&#39; C`wlca&#39;;, W, XI&#39;yovo-&#39;, &#39;Exi&#39;oVL.
KA. Trt l 3&#39; l OV volcot9 7Tav9 Ey7CVTo JO) 7roo-eL 1275
Al?. H7Ev659&#39;,, eikp Tr KCaL?JTPGI KOUl)&wia.
NA. TtLVOSq?7rpO(70)7TOl 8?7&#39; El a&#39;yKa&#39;Xav9 eXEtq
Al?.?XEOVT0S&#39;, W~ y&#39; ekfaovov at&#39; O?7pWAkevat.
KA. o-Kc&#39;4at vvv OpOWc39, flpa~v&#39;, 6&#39; /i&#39;Xo ELOLut&Z
Al&#39;. e~a, TI XEV&#39;G-70); TI cOEPOI-at T068 ev XEPOW; 1280
NA. daOplJYov LV&#39;TO Kcat cac/eO-TCPov /claOe.
Al?. O&#39;PO) /eLE7U7TOv aXyoq &#39; -raXatw 6&#39;Yc&#39;
KA.,uIZV o-ot X&#39;OPTt fat&#39;VETat 7TpoGJEIKevaL;
Al?. oi"&#39;i aiXXa llCVO&0s~ 77 Ta&#39;Aatv e&#39;XC) Kapa.
KA. Woyw-1kVOV rye 7rpoaOEl) 7, o- ryvwpt&#39;oat. I285
Al?. Tt EK-1avel) lvtl; 7Tow; 9 4 q9 )XOel xlpa9~;
KA. 8VJGT?)V) aX?7&#39;0IEL, (()9 el) oJ xatpW ra&#39;pet.
Al?. Xly&#39;, We,; To /LEXXOl) Kap~ta 7r&#39;,u e&#39;xe.
KA. o-V VtLV KaTEKCTaL9 Kat Kao-tywip-at ccEQEY.
1,272. &#39;VXqc?7ajt P: &#39;KXeX-qaT/cat ed. Aid.
12 73. V/LEvaI&#39;wv P: V(d1JaLwp Scaliger.
1275. &#39;fortasse 06s 7r00ELc&#39; Kirchf.
1276. 4~ol P: 7 ed. Aid.,..KOtWV,.~a Harturig.
1279. 11&#39; P vvv (&#39;nescio an praestet vur&#39;), Elmns.
1,280. O&#39;po~iat P: c/JLpofLev Elms.
1281. arxirur Reiskius: arWOts vel aO-Te Dobraeus.
1283. 7pooeCOurKeaL P: Wpoo-ELKE&#39;VcU Brunch.
1,285. olikw-yluvoz&#39; P (Kirchf.&#39;): wyp.dvor&#39; post Elms. Dind., Paley,
Tyrrell; 73Aay/ievov Musgr. (Herm., Nauck, Kirchf. 2, Wecklein).
1i286. W7Xes P: &#39;XO&#39; cis (vel C&#39;s) X&#39;pas ed. Aid. &#39;non dubitarem.
reponere 9XOev, si certum. esset praepositionem. recte abesse posse
Elms. &#39;XOcv (Herm., Nauck, Kirchf.2, Dind., Weckl.). 4f&#39;/.X~cv C&#39;s
XEpas Tyrrell.
12-89. Kaolil&#39;?7r7ot P: Kao-vyl&#39;7la Barnes, Ka0i-ylrTat Markiand quod
onmnes receperunt.

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78

ETPIUIIzOT

Al?. zroD&#39; 8&#39; Cv`XcT&#39;; 3 IcaTr&#39; o`KOY; V&#39; oiots&#39; TwotIS&#39;; 1290
KA. ov&#39;vep wptv &#39;AK-raiw6va &E&#39;XaXov&#39; KV&#39;VES*.
Al?. Ti 8&#39; ek, KtOatp(O3v&#39; XOE 8vo-8allukcw 68e;
KA. iicepTro/Jtc OCoPv -a&#39;9 Tre flacXetaq,UoXW&#39;.
All&#39;. y 8rEL (SeKe-tJE -tL7) Trpo7T( Kar77pa-LLet;
KA. elLaZYI7TE, 7Tao-a -r J~E/3aKcXeU&#39;Oq rO&#39;Xv9. 1295
Al?. At&#39;u o&#39;?F~9CXEJ-, apt aOv.
KA. iV&#39;3ptw y&#39; Vpto-Oei` Oe(Sv ya&#39;p ovD%?77yELTOe vLV.
Al?. -ro 4t4X-a-ov 8c&#39; o-w4ta wiov rrat(S6,, wciTcp;
KA. eyco po&#39;Xv&#39; -r6(&#39; e~cpcvv &#39;cas&#39; Ofepw.
Al?. )&#39; -iT&#39;v &#39;v YpOpoiv9 o-vyKEKcXy &#39;vov KaX;W 1300
Al?. UEVcOE-t 8c&#39; -Tl /Jepo9~ adbpoUVV717 7TpOOJ1K E/11?7q;
KA. tVc/ e-1eVEO&#39; O/`LtO9, OVl 0-E/3C01 OeOlJ.
a/cV&#39; TETO(S 6 7O)OTaE (SLOXEOat i) /LV
c, ^ rI
KaL, OCYTtl9 aTEKVO9~ apo-emvo 77aA-Saw 7E7&)9~ 1305)
T17 017 TWt Ep)0, 0) Ta&#39;Xatva, lNJ&)0
at&#39;o-XLo-Ta KaL KaKLtGTa KaTOaV&#39;OV O 6pc~
co &O/j (LVaE/8XE(/, 09~ (7VvctelXE9 CR TEKVOV,
Tov/LV p~ea~pov, vat~to e pa yeyws&#39;,
7TOXLT Tp/O 277O TO- epoirt e 1310
1290. &#39; `v 7woiotg rowots coniecit Wecklein.
1291. diKrtcdwvc P: &#39;AKTE&#39;wpa Dind. (Tyrrell).
I 297. i3pcv 1": -y&#39; addiderunt Heathius et Dobraeus (Elms., Schoenius, Kirchf., Dind., Paley, Tyrrell, Wecklein); i43p111 Brunck, &#39;fortasse
i/,3pLo-d, Paley; ibJz&#39;t praeeunte Hermanno Nauckius.
1300. -V&#39;yKIEKXqUJ&#39;vov a prima manu P: O-V7KEKEKXq-omeprtr
Dind. qui ~u-y- praetullit: G-V&#39;YKCKXEt1f4E&#39;vov ed. Aid. lacunarn post
hunc versum indicavit Mfattlriae, praeiverat Victorins.
1308. W,3) 8vx superscriptumn in P. iv43Xewrev P: ch4/3Xub&#39;
Dobraeus et Elinsleius.

Page  79
BAKXAJ.

79

ov1SEv~ V/3pL&#39;eLv q`OEX&#39; ElJOp(o)V To 0 o
Kapc7 &1KJv fya~p a4~tav eXa/~L/3avc~.
VD1 71 EKc 30/V0 alTqL/o, eK/3E/3Xq)co/o1Lat
6c KaC8-mLOS o pias&#39; TO rO q,/aiwv rye~vol
Ecr1 pa a uJ7JA7a Ka&#39;XIXLtaov Oc&#39;po~. 11
dO (f)LX7-aT av8P(ZV, Ka~t ryap 011CIE7 &NV os&#39;.L
T(0)V (f)Ta&#39;T(O c/JlOLoy&#39; a&#39;ptOpajG-,Et, TE&#39;KLOV,
OVKETL -1EVELtl) TOV&#39; ~ OYavo)7 XePt
701) /dajqTpoS avi8l)v 77TaTepa 77rpoUWTvrfvEt, TefK71OV
-X&Yan Tt(,~ aKET 0 a t~~EyPOV; 1320
7T9 OT?7V Tapao-O-E Kap~taicV XV7ri7pos ~ &#39;) o
E a) KOXtaO) T707&#39; (SK0VVTt 0 r, `3(Y) 7TCLTEP.
zii~v 8&#39; aO~oxts LEv &#39;EL/ y0, LoWv8 (TV,
OLK~pa &E /Ia)T?7p, TX 7fLOVCS- 8 6&#39; 0-yyo1vot.
Elftl T0VJ aaix&#39;OvaTov r~ye&#39;YOa) OEOVSX.
XO. 70 ALV 071 ( caXy, K &#39;ae- uT0S~ 8&#39; `XEL 8LK97V
77-ats&#39; vatics~ ac~av PLev, a&#39;Xyctv v8 (Tot.
AF. (&#39;0 7ra&#39;TEp, 6&#39;pa&#39;ts yjap Talk 0O05) (LCE7E(Tpacfq
131..zbL3uvev P: MXclLacnET IHermannus ad Or. p. 65 (Weeklein); Ad&#39;Ajm"av&#39;dl Heathius; &#39;I &#39;v AaXcps ai&#39;, Elms. Mfed. p. i 5o, ipse cogitabam de -y&#39; ai&#39;, vel potius i-rap&#39; (Dobraeus).
1317. r~KV&WV P: r&EVOp Reiskius.
131i8. Ory-ydz&#39;o P: Otyybcii&#39;v Brodacus.
1320. Ti -is 0&#39; WKCE P: T&#39;s aLKIEZ Barnes.
i329. post hunc versunm lacunarn verstium hand pancorum primus
indlicavit TIyrwhittus qui versurn unurn e schol. in Ar. Plitt. 907 Euripidi
reddidit, EI (knj ya&#39;p O&#39;Sov C&#39;Xa/3op ELI Xcpa g&#39;o-og; Agavae orationem.
nobis deperditam commenioravit Apsines rhetor a Musgravio primum
laudatus (ed. Walz ix 587, 590); integrum. codicem. usurpavit Christi
Patienfis auctor, qui e numero versuum deperditorum complures in usus

Page  80
Alors

ETPIHIzAOT

Luciani Pis- XaictO-7O&#39; E&#39;V ME&#39;rpaw-wv EJpE&#39;oOat Io&#39;pov.
cator ~2. * * * * * * *
C. P. 1312 ITO2C Kal vtv) &#39;1 (3U0T?7vog fvaajov/i&#39;Ev?7
I313 7rpo&#39; o-r-E&#39;PY OCi)FaCU; rTwa (U) epiqV40ooi Tpo7roP
Schol. in Ar. Et&#39; /11 yIatp l&ov r&#39;Xa/ov el X"lpa,wv&#39;(oo
PlUlzuM 907- * * * * * 1
C. P. I256 Kaar~aow&#39;aaOaL lI))bLaXv -E –
I257 KVVO&#39;ova O-a&#39;pKav aUTVIEP E&#39;6EOPIE~tdi/7v.
1466 (j)E&#39;p, C) -yEpaLE&#39;, Kpa~a TO)) TpLtqaOL&#39;oV2
1 467 o&#39;p6.9 7rpoo-ap~to&#39;(OOwEV EUTovov (?) 8E 7~
1468 o~tJ E&#39;6aKpq3CO)ZTW.LE)) IELT 000-v I7pa.
1469 c~ C5 LXaTOV7Tp0(TCji)7T0V, Ci) Ya
1470 L&#39;80V&#39; KaXUITr-pa -jL TE Ut))) KpVIrTC) Ka&#39;pa4
1471 Ta&#39; 8 aLMpOc/~vpra Kal KaT7-XOKLOTFLE&#39;a1
1472 MEXZ1,NIONYCOC.
1 664 EtLv &atota&#39; r&#39;?)XOE Kall Xo&#39;ycov v/3plcTpa~a.6
1663 To1&#39;yap T-EOdVTKEV Ca))) IXP7V 77KWO- VI7TO.
1 667 Kal 7Ta ra li 7TE&#39;lToOl&#39;ev oi&#39;;rov (f&#39;V8LKwr.7).
i 668 a&#39; 8&#39; av&#39; wraOfi &3E Xaoi&#39;v (?) ov&#39; Xcpd+O. Ka~a&#39;.
1674 XLIT7V lr5Xt a &#39;OLOV jitatr/tarot&#39;
1675 (ocriav) 7-LVOV&#39;oat&#39; 7 0))O&#39; &7eKtELav &LKn71
i1676 KalZ /.L7KETlr EOaELV9 7rarpLl3" 07) ylap evlJoE/3.
1690 av&#39;T-o&#39; a&#39; &#39;a/e&#39;XXELC&#39;0 7rqifaT cKIIX&#39;T7ZELV, c/pa&#39;OCo.
suos convertit, quorum duo indicavit Porsonus 7r~t1 Kai vv &#39; 6o-r77vos
E6Xaf~ovupE7v 7rp61S o-,repvaL Owfp; -riva (&e) Op-qv&#39;5aW Tp6lrov; plures eruere
conatus est Kircbbofflus in Pizilologo viii 78, quos, habito tamen delectu
quodam, Weckleinius in contextume revocavit.
Auctor 0/iristiPatien/is more suo scripserat owtzJT KaTaolraeaatAi, (sic)
xala rF&#39;-av 1eXos (cf.ib. 1315), correxit Wecklein. 2 0 Tpo~0vaco
C.P. (correxit Burges). vv. 1466-8,-o, Weckleinius consulto(ut videtur)

Page  81
BAKXAL

8 I

3paKWPv 7EV277Yet /LEra/3aXCOW, &t/ictp TE 0- q 1330
EKO?7ptOJO`L 6Oreo9~ a~xxaL~C T&#39;VvOp,
13V "A pco9~ e(77X?&#39; ApFLoitap) OP?7TO"3 7E7Sw"~
aX2 /.ET aXoXov, /3ap/3a&#39;pcv?J7oV(EV
"TOXXai9 8c&#39; 7We&#39;peL9 apaitOtuo o-7parEL41LaTL I335
77-XEL9 &#39;Trav & Ao~iV &#39;r p v
8tapwcroa-aa), 6OCTOv a"OXtwV 7TaXLv
ox~-ov-c -~8&#39; "Apq, eAppovlav 7TeplaEa
/LaKap6OV T &#39;qaa O Kautupv0-et &O.
TavT OyXt Owq-Toi&#39; 7aTpO9&#39; CK7E7(09q XE"y&, 1340
Atovvo-o9, AXM&#39; Znjv6( &#39;Et, &E 0-OcfrpOetz-V
EyVWAO, OTW 03~K 7O&#39;XIETe, TOP&#39; At09~ IyOz&#39;Voi
eV&#39;8at/LzopoZT&#39; iv cvp iqLayoV KEKT&#39;?7/Jk6P0t.
Omnisit. 3 1IalUit Weckleinius, versibus duobus (1469 et 9,21) in
unurn conflatis, ex altero loco cJ OA/rdXT- T7rwp~o&#39;oi/s adsumere, quae verba
etiamn in Ifel. 636 leguntur. 4 Auctor Chir. Pat. CrIV…Kcipa~v (initio
versus 7 waZ scripsit IBurges). Eur. Szit/.P 86 Ka (V6ve
7&#39;,Xox&#39;0iy.kc6. 6Auctor C/hi. Pazt. X6-yovs ~ew1z~at-yudrwY (mutavit Wecklein); etiamn in v. 446 Els 6eop.&a -r&#39; I&#39;XOes. 7idemn o6,K d~ et LSELWv
(utrumque correxit Kirchhoff). 9Auctor 0/zr. Pat. 8IKIrV TtpoVTas
rc&#39; S Kr-eLaiv &#39;Ov w (O&#39;Luts Burges): 8iK-qV transposui et 6o-&#39;ap scripsi,
quad confirmant Tr-o. 1 31i5, Sklop aVQooLot3 TOayatZ-Lw et Or-. 500, duALaTOT.
3&&#39;Kp&#39;P 0011ap &W&#39;KOVT-. 10 idem OU&#39;TOS 6&#39; a&#39; 1.dXEr: correxit Kirchhoff.
1330. versum hunc Euripidi prirnus restituit Matthiae e schol. in
Dionysium Perieg. v. 395, ubi cum sequentibus duobus citatur.
i33i-,2 inter se transponit Wecklein, praeeunte Schoenio.
1332. ap/uovtas: correxit Aid. J333* OxwP P: correxit Aid.
1339. 4-yKa p6tap)0E Burges (0/zr. Pat.I 1754). f3Lol P ja
coniecit Nauckius.
134&#39;2. Si&#39; P: &#39;iv Nauck. ann. criti.
I 343. eatzgaovor&#39; h&#39;v P (Elms., Kirchf., Nauck, Wecklein):-V5E
/.oveLtr avz Mlusgr. (Dind., El- Herm., Schoenius, Paley, Tyrrell).
S. D~. 6

Page  82
82

ETPIHIAOT

A FP. AtL&#39;vv0e, Xtao-/Lcc-Oad a&#39;, 9?7&K2C7,Kay/IE.
Al. o*j e/JaLOO q7lka%~ oTe 8 EXp JOVK y1 TE 14
AIF. EyYCo)Ka/Lev Tavr&#39; daXX7 6E7-E~EPXEt Xiav.
Al. KaC ya&#39;p wpo"; z&#39;.LO&#39;v Oce, YE&#39;Yon z513pt~ofv.
AFP. o&#39;pyc4 7Tpe77TEt Oeoi)~ OX Olotov-oOat f3poToZs~.
Al. 7waXat T6& Zez)s~ ovLfLOS E7TEPEV-ev 7waryp.
AFP. alat-,.83E80KTat, 7TpE&#39;cT/V, TX?7&#39;/_LVCE~ Ovyai. I350
Al. Tb&#39; &77Ta /JAXXeO&#39; a/77ep avayKatws eXet;
KA. co9 TEKZ&#39;Ol, (O&#39;rl ElS~ &tVO&#39;V q"XOO(LEV Kaict&#39;v,
GY 0&#39; 17 TaLXatla o-V&#39;yy000I TE o-aC (OiXat),
C&#39;( 0&#39; O&#39;T rxlUOv /ap/3a&#39;povs,~ a&#39;ot&#39;iam
lyfpCOV /IETOLKOS~ ETC 84LLOVO T&#39;OE&#39;o-aTov I135 5
ei c E X Xa &#39;5 a)ya yetv aty c a / o p 3a o 7 p ~ l
Kat T171) ApErns?raE8&#39; &#39;Appovi&#39;av &q&#39;/_apT&#39;L
1344. Xtao6/LeOa P et Chi-. Pat. &#39;25.57 ubi trium. codicum scripturam
in Xioacro&#39;/s4o-Or correxit Duebnerus: XtGocro/LsoGOa ed. Aid.
1344, 6, 8. Agavac restituit Elms., Cadmo dederat P.
1345. Ig~de6&#39;…Ei&#39;3CTE P: ELa&#39;OeO&#39;…7` Tce ed. A id. &#39;58sre (in
codice 278 TrL scriptum) ex hoc versu attulit Antiatt. B~ekkeri p. 98&#39; (Dind.).
8&#39; C&#39;xp~ P: 86&#39; xp~v W~ecklein (ut antea, 26).
J2347. &#39;Oebdox P; 141c35 Victorius.
1349. -rayS P: Tda& ed. Aid. er?5Vec-ev P a manu prima, inde
q416 EITr1VecoEP Nauckius in ann. crit.; 6rlsvcv-Ev P correctus, quod oml-nes
in textum admiiserunt.
2350. 7-l)X(Loves P: correxit Aid.
1351 per incuriam omisit ed. Aid., e codice primlus revocavit
Elms.
1353. re ocal P: Tre cal Pd~at ed. Aid., -re Tas-e oabE Hlartung
(Dind.); 7raZE Te adyyovol re cal Herm.; o —y-yov&#39;ot 0&#39; bjuo&#39;0-7wopot Wecklein, praeeunte Fixio. versum ipsum spurium esse censet Paleius; to post
versum. lacunam suspicatur Wecklein.
1355. rwtL T6 P: f106&#39;0T Ilaupt (Dind., Kirchf.2, Wecklicin).
ITo-r -yap ro6 WO~caToP Chi%. Pat. 167o.

Page  83
BAKXAT. 8
t~aKO) tp~av o77 ekvo-av aypias?
al(i) w&r /3wwFLOV ca&#39;t Taifov; CEXqvIthKoZ9,,
27yOV/.LV XYaLV oS 7ac /tt 136
KaKOtW 0 X?~wOV8~E TOP KaTaL/aT70P
&#39;)AXe/poL&#39;a 7rXE1voas? 7&#39;o0uyos&#39; yEP77coytO/f.
AP. o&#39;5 7aTe-p, Cb/a0 &e CO-D o-7-epeto-a Ofev&#39;0/jzat.
KA. TI 4tt&#39; dXbIa&#39;Xt epuiv, a3 TaXatva 7a&#39;U,
OP~vS OVtOJ K1)fJ7l7Pa 7rot0&#39;XtOpOC KVJCV04; 1365
AP. vnot&#39; yap rpalw-oLait 7narpi&#39;80s EK/C,8/3XflfqeI q
KA. oU/C o7Sa, Tre&#39;Kvo0-&#39; litlcpOs E6riKovpO9~ 7aTa71p.
AF. Xa-tp&#39;, 603,ji&#39;Xa~pov, Xa&#39;tp&#39;, W3 7raTptia
wo0 c E/CX rW) 0- C as
bvry? e&#39;x 0i Oa Xa&#39;,tzm v. 1370
KA. cTctEX6E Z&#39;L, 0) 7rat, Topl &#39;Apto-raiov
AP. 0rTc&#39;vo/alL CTe vZaTep. KA. Kca&#39;yw 0-C, TE&#39;KVOV,
1358. /novw- g~ovoav ciyplav ed. Aid.; 0b6o-i om. P: diyplas maluit
Dobracus collato Ion, 992; o-X/IA&#39; 9Xovo-av aiypfrzs Nauckius ann. crit.,
quod in textum admisit Wecklein collato Med. 1343.
1363. 0-7-Ep77loeta P: or7epeto-a Barnes.
1i365. 3 pts…7roXt16XpwS KUKros P (Elms., Ilerm., Schoenius, Kirchf.,
Nauck, Tyrrell): 6ppt6&#39;.. 7roXc6Xpoa K6&#39;KVGP Heath. &#39;si vero sententiae
convenientior videtur accusativus, nescio an potius scribendum "ppip&#39;
(Elms.); 0opv11… 7r0oXp6Xl1&#39; K6KV&#39;OS Musgr. (Dind.); 0"pviv… roXi6Xpws K6KYOS
Paley; 0`pviw… 7roXz6XpwP KV&#39;KVOV Wecklein. scripserim libentiUS 7rrEPO~L
57rwS Klq~jJ7pa 7ro161JpwP K6KJOS.
1367. 0711KPO&#39;T Elms. 1368. 7wa-p &#39;ac P: 7ra~pta Elms,
1371. vih&#39; P. post hunc versum lacunam indicavit Hermannus.
1371-i392. &#39;ab Euripide alienos esse argumentis docemur certis et
indubiis&#39; Nauck.
1372. oTepo/~at P: OTrevopjca Elms.; a~ post Kcd-y1(), addidit Barnes.
6-2

Page  84
84

ETPJIHIAOT

Kat& O-as~ e~aKpvOY Kadr-Jylf7Tasx.
Al. &Lvs yap * a3 autav
A~to&#39;vvaol~ ava4~ 1375
* &#39;1
TOVS&#39; Uovl)S et(? OtKOVS eoeppev.
A. Kat ryap E~wao-Xov (3etz&#39;, wpo,~ V/Z05c1o&#39;
AF. Xa-pE, wa&#39;Tep,,.tot. KA. xaFP&#39;, Co PLeX~a
OvycTEp., xaE7-&#39; 8 EllS&#39; 70( AllI~K1~ 1380
Al. aye c 7TolLWot (Le, /Kav-7tP21Tas~
fL/ 16wv;ias Xqpt0/.EO&#39; o&#39;KTpa&#39;;.;ExVot(LL (3 &#39;O7OV,W13T7E KtOatPo~v e1LL l(30L ttapapo
fA)Te KtOatp(~3v&#39; 05-oto-ow- Ey6O, 8
(L? et oOt OfcO /JJJ j( &#39;VaKEtTat&#39;
Ba/KXat~ (3 aXXatct /PEXovev.
XO. 7ToXXait ~Lopcfa~t Tall! &La/Iov~Aw),
I373. Kaa-vyv&#39;JTovs P: -rag Brunck.
1374. 3etvc1 -yap rd&#39;v5&#39; ateiav P Trot inseruit Herm.; 3ewLCOS -yap
5ctv&,s rciv&#39; alKlav ed. Aid. &etw2~ 6uww~ rabv3&#39; aliKiav Brunck. aucu&#39;v3
-yap beVw&#39;s altKL&#39;av A. &#39;a. -rozs aooP ra&#39;vb&#39; et&#39;s Schoenius. 3etu&#39;Ls Utvav rCv&#39;L5
at&#39;Ktapl Weckleinio praestare videtur. &#39;locus corruptissimus&#39; Kirchf.
137,;. 7-ovs cooo Et&#39;s oiKovs P w 7rur-p inseruit Hierm. (Dind.).
1377. Al. 97ruoXov P KA. 917ao-Xe I-erm,
1378. a&#39;ye&#39;paTov P: -ac —rop Barnes. opoy,&#39;e~v P: transposuit ed -Alcd.
137j9. wc7rep P: Ira&#39;rep ed. Aldina.
i1380. 1&#39; addidit Reiskius.
1382. l/&#39;4e&#39; P: correxit Elms.
1384. KtOayp&#39;v jccapo&#39;s P: ~t&#39; C&#39;o-iOe in fine addidit Musgr. (Elms.,
Ilerm., Dind.), medium inserit Wecklein; elj&#39; &#39;i&#39;3o 1uapo&#39;s mavult
Kirchhoffius, monente Schoenio (qui ipse 9cc&#39; 6pd inseruit) antithesin
pronomini e&#39;YKXLTIKqJ repugnare; etiam TIyrrellius 9,u&#39; O&#39;P~ (modo indicat Ivo).
1387. fociKXato- P: IacKXat ed. Aid. eteditores omnes, IdK~(at Madvig.
1388-139,2 uncinis inclusit Wecklein.

Page  85
BAKXA1.

5

7roXXa&#39; 8&#39; a&#39;AXWTOJ KcpadVovOL OEQU&#39;
Kal Ta ~OyEV OVK6 1390
TOW 8&#39; a&#39;80K 7TCOV &#39;7rO&#39;p01 Vf OEOSX &01
&#39;roLV8&#39; a&#39;7-e&#39;/8q TO&#39;C 7rp%&#39;(L.a.
1391. 2flhpwv P: correxit ed. Aldina. ev&#39;pc P: -q&#39;pe (Elms., Dind.,
IPaley, Tyrrell, Wecklein); cf. I25, &#39;279, 683, 1024.

LAS-RELIEF IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

Page  86
86

86 ~ETPIHIzAOT BAKXAI.

%AKXH XIMAIPO(~ONOC.
(BAS-RELIEF IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.)

Page  87
NOTES.
In Euripfidis Bacchabus superest, nisi fallor, non sfiicilegiumn,
sed uberrima messis observationum.
After BERNHARDY, Theologumnena
Graeca, in p. I.
1. TJKO) is also the first word in the Troades and Hecuba.
ALOs wrais) These words in their emphatic position in the
opening line strike the key-note of the prologue and indeed of
the whole play. The divinity of Dionysus is denied in the very
land of his birth, but that land must learn to own him as the
true son of Zeus. The object of the prologue in Poetry, as of the
exordium in Rhetoric, is as Aristotle says, to &#39;pave the way for
the sequel&#39; (otov o8oorfro;-LS rT E&#39;ILOvrT), and in both, the special
aim of the opening words should be to put the audience at the
very outset in possession of a ready clue to the whole of the
argument (o aovs OcrToep els r7iv XeTpa TrjV adpXjv 7rOLE XOieFYvov
dKOXovBeZv rTi Xoyw, Ar. Rhet. II 14 ~ 6). In the case of Euripides in particular, this object is usually attained by means of
an uninterrupted monologue in which the plot of the play is
unfolded with more or less fulness. In the present instance it
will be observed that the prologue gives no hint of the final
catastrophe.
2. ov TrKTI-r.L ro0…&#39; XoXEv0Eta) The descriptive or, as it is
usually termed, the &#39;historic&#39; present is here used to give a
more vivid statement of the past event than could have been
expressed by the ordinary aorist, e.g. by the words ov ror&#39; rEKErV
i7 Kadiov KoprI. The aorist XoXevOca-a, as well as the particle
7fore, indicates the past time to which the present riKTrf refers
emphatically as the moment of the event described. Cf. Eur.
SZ&#39;ufl. 640, Ka7ravcwS yap 7v XarpiL, ov, ZeVs Kepavvp rrvp7r6T a
xaratOoXoi (Donaldson Gk. Gr. ~ 423 aa). So also in Herc. Fur.
252, S &#39;yrs XoXExvcaO&#39; ou" &#39;Aprjs o(rripet trort. Cf. the use in Greek
tragedy of 7j rlKrovo-a for &#39;the mother&#39; (Soph. O. T. 1247 and
EZl 342).

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3. XoXev9et&#39; d rTpawtrq06p irvpC) Bore &#39;by the midwifery of
lightning fire&#39; (inf. 88). 7rvpl is equivalent to VrO 7rrvpov, as in Ion
455, IlpolaOSei XoXeveOeLaav, infra I I9, oLrcrpriOE&#39;L AIOVvCTp. do-rpa7r?fopov 7rvp=T7rp V7r&#39; dao-pa7rs fr) EpoJEvov, flame sped by lightning.
For the mythological reference to the story of Semele, compare
A4nthol. Palatina 11 I, ravve AtOSg 81LaOlcrav Ev SOI&v(crTL Kepavvp
| KaXXLKo/Lov Kaiuov 7ral8a Kal &#39;ApovIrIS, I /iarTepa Ovproxap)sr
avdayet yovos- e &#39;Axpovros I Tav aOeov IIEPeEvs vl&#39;3pv adhvvdo&#39;pvoV.
This is the first of a series of epigrams describing the sculptures
in the temple erected at Cyzicus by Attalus II and Eumenes in
honour of their mother. The first birth of Dionysus is represented in a wall-painting copied in Miiller and Wieseler&#39;s
Denkrnaler der allen Kzunst II xxxiv 391; on the right is
the lifeless body of Semele lying prostrate after the untimely
birth of the babe whose diminutive form is seen above the
mother&#39;s body; to the left is a lustral vessel with a napkin
and a laurel branch, and above these is Zeus, seated on the
clouds, with his eagle beside him, with a glowing nimbus round
his head, and with one hand armed with the flaming thunderbolt,
while the other is stretched towards the newborn babe (the same
picture is copied in Lenormant&#39;s article on Bacchus in the Didt.
des Antiquit&s, fig. 677, where it is stated that although doubts
as to its authenticity had been recently raised by Overbeck, Gr.
Kunstmzyth. I 418, it had been accepted without suspicion by
Gerhard, Hyperb. o&#39;mi. Studien p. 105). No. 392 in MullerWieseler u. s. (fig. 679 in Lenormant&#39;s article), shews a relief
in three compartments; on the right, Semele resting on a couch
and in the back-ground Zeus with his thunder-bolt; on the left,
Zeus and Eileithyia, a scene intended to indicate the second
birth of Dionysus; in the centre, separated by a Hermes-bust
on each side from the other two compartments, is the god
Hermes carrying off the infant in the folds of his chlamys, while
in the back-ground lies a prostrate figure that may represent
either Semele or Mother Earth. The most notable description
of any pictorial representation of the subject is, however, that
given by Philostratus, whose account may here be quoted at
length, as several of his touches are probably suggested by this

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2VO TE S.

89

play, and therefore serve in their turn as illustrations of it
(EL"&#39; 5VE E, I~14, P. 785):
Bpovri E&#39; eP COCL T7KX-7pWt Kal &#39;Aoparpcsw Ol~aS &#39;Kc -rLv OOq5aX/,)iwv tetoct
irp -re jcTykcZov ot&#39;pavoO 7UpalvvLKTS oIKdac MEWELX,214LVOP XQ&#39;yoV TGLOO6IE, EL
fcazocE7rTe7at 7Wvpbs veptE-X? IrepLtaXoVa 7&#39;rs O&#39;t5/as C&#39;s -&#39; 701) Kal6-,tOUu GTEyqJl p~iy&#39;urcYPV- Kcfldo-avTrog ~71 T?7V ~2Ef1LO7Th&#39; ALO &#39;S~, KalL dLbro6XXUtC
/1EV, LVI 6OK00,UCV, &#39;J 11ECe&#39;Xfl, TLKTeTat R Ato6vuos, olicuc, V-q AXia, rpo&#39;s 7r6
7r~p, Kai~ TO&#39; AL& 777s Y~euLLOqs Eaos Ud/IVlpO&#39;P 6LFKEJatLvE-atL loVU1T-q C&#39;s ov&#39;paoJ&#39;v,
Kait at&#39; Mo~o-at av&#39;77P? kdce 1~O-OPTaL, 6&#39; & AL6,VVOo0 T7 /E1&#39; /JqTP6 6EKOpicOPac XyELo-q7`S P~ -yac-ipa, 6 U 7rip aXXvwc3 ep t &#39;fycE7-aL (Pattpoi ai~T6&#39;
0LOY aCT77?p rLS, acfT7pa7TTWP. 8tLTXVI & 17 l/A- ELvrpov 7t T11 ALOP60L1)
cwta-cypa9/JE rWvTo&#39;s ijlozi &#39;A~o-vpLov Tre K1Li Awiov, LKE&#39;S TIE a&#39;yP 7ePI
auro TIE017Xao0 Kaic At7TTl K&#39;O/3L)L/3L Kai 7)675q KaLL cL`LkrFXo& Kac O&#39;po-ov Uvapcz
OL)TWL TL CKOOt-iqjtcaPaF~XO&#39;Vl- 7771 -y7S, W&#39;S KaVl 7(1 W, V/J eba&#39;tL &LC. Kad oz) Xp,
OaLv/Ld4~Etl&#39;, el&#39; a7TcqavoFTo Op7EVI E7J T7q) ALOl&#39;V9(Tq) 7 &#39;Y?7, 2q76 Kyai o-v/Lf8aKX1EUaeL av-rq, Kal7 OLLOV CL(/)LNTOELVL (EK 7ry7y( Wl&#39;actWOyL &#39;ycXc Te oiLot dwr6 Aac~hE
70K51 o /LI& E&#39;K /IwAOV, TO&#39; E K lre&#39;pas. ILKOVC TOj HaVA)0, W&#39;S 701&#39;
A1coyUO-Or 7EtL&#39; g"oLKEP El Kopv)(/C1L 70o) Kt~aLpL-vOS, VTrOTKLp7&fl&#39; MEVI. 0
KtOatp1&#39;P &&#39; 6XoO~pcrct el&#39; enIet d~&#39;6pLPW7EO 7a6 (LKPOV VO-TEPOV EV ((OTWp ciX-q
KULL KOT7-00 IpE&#39;tE aTT&JJLZOV a&#39;71OKXL&#39;VOPTaL 7r) KE(/JCX?7L, -r(paC/)pOVrtLL &#39;yCL/
Bq&#39; avT7-p LTL/16paL CKWV, AdcT7) -re avryL1 Tcapca4L)TfvU ME&#39;YaLtpc KaiL lr?77)yi1
avaa~aivuE VL~caTos E&#39;rt rp &#39;AKcaiwv&#39;og, LL1LLat, Kial llelGeWos acL&#39;1b4CLrt.
The death of Semele is the subject of the gem placed at the
head of the prologue in this edition.
4. JLOPcfflV d(LE4JcLS….PpOTroLcwLV So in 1. 53, El13ov Ovq&#39;17T0 XXci~ag. In the sense of &#39;ta/inug in change,&#39; the middle is more
common. The ambiguous uses of aLLed/3ELv as well as daXdaTTELI
may be paralleled by similar ambiguities in the meaning of
5. &#39;ldPcLpJqU) from e&#39;d,U sum. The sense of motion is here conveyed by the preposition and not by the simple verb. For
7rapeivat with the accusative compare Cyclotis 95, 70OEV ira&#39;peFOto
2LKXO&#39;v Atlrvaiov 7raiyov, and io,6, 7r1OOev &MLE~av riv,1&#39;E vavo-roXcolv
7rapet; Electra 1278, NavnrXi&#39;av 7rapcol&#39; (=tO&#39;X &#39;V).-A(pKc&#39;qS V4aL&#39;p~.
&#39;Io-jrqvoii 0&#39; i"Scap) From these two streams the name of &7ro raho rXisc is given to-Thebes (Su/pz5 62) f Pon 25,)LEOV 7EOTafLC~ 7V~pol&#39; a!L~qjJL Phe`OPO AL&#39;pKav, QX.oeporp~oo/ a&#39; 71E&01&#39;
7rp(T1-ap &#39;IT-/L77VO~ Ka7-a8,EvEL, and Herc. Fuer. 572, VEKpCOV airavr&#39;
&#39;IGtiLt~V&#39;V E/7TX171TO(~) 4VOV, AL&#39;pK1E Te va/La, XcVKo&#39;v a/l,~ax0?,ocale. the
Ismenus, was the eastern of the two streams, and the waters of
Dirce fall into the formner north of the town (Leake&#39;s Northern

Page  90
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BA CCHAE.

(I

Greece, II 237). For Dirce cf. 519-536 infra, and Pindar,
Ist/hn. vi = v UtlT., Trlrl&#39;) (Of AipKas ayvov v&op, rT j3aOviovoL Kopat
XpvOro7re7rXov Mvapooa-vas advereLXav 7rap&#39; EUrEFtXiet Ka8tov 7ruXats.
6. uy&#39;rpos IvTljca) &#39; My mother&#39;s monument, the thunderslain.&#39; This legendary spot was still pointed out to travellers,
as late as the second century of our era, when it was seen by
Pausanias, who remarks TroVrov Kat es;rias eTL a&#39;rt arov
fvXado-rovar-v avOpn7roLt (IX I2, 3). A part of the ancient agora
was supposed to occupy the exact site of the dwelling of Cadmus. Here were shewn ruins of the bed-chambers of Harmonia
and Semele, and a piece of wood adorned with brass by one of
Semele&#39;s brothers, Polydorus, which was called &#39;Dionysus Cadmeius,&#39; and was said to have fallen from heaven when Semele
was struck dead by lightning. Near the gates called Proetides
was the theatre, and adjoining to it a temple of Dionysus Lysius,
which contained statues of Dionysus and of Semele (Pausanias
Ix I6, 6; Leake&#39;s Northern Greece, II 235, 236). For IyJrpos…
KEpauvVas, cf. Soph. Ant. I I39, parpp a(rv KEpavvia (Schol. Kepavvo3XT0r), infra 598, Kepavvz6oXos.
8. TvU,61jEvao Aioru rvpos ErL t;orav Xo&#39;-ya) &#39; Smouldering With
the still living flame of fire divine.&#39; There seems to be no real
difficulty in taking f)X6ya as an accusative of cognate sense after
the middle (or passive) participle rvfoietva, the latter being equivalent in general meaning to ltvapczs O/eXyovra, and the transition between &#39;smouldering&#39; and &#39;dimly burning&#39; being quite
natural. Non dubium est autem, says Hermann, quin recte rV(eroOat cuzn accusativo eius rei consfrui possit, quam jfrocdit
fumus; nam TrV4Etv O)XO6ya is dicitur qu i excitat itnenm: rv)eTrO8a autem, quod est subdito igne fumare, si additum habet Xo&#39;ya,
necessario sigznificabit prodere subditum ignem fumando.-The
line is in a manner quoted by Plutarch, Solon c. I, rrapEcfvkXa$
7rvpOLfEJPEV aipov Trvpos ETL Ccirav 4Xo6ya Tr7v EporiK7j LKV 1fVJiJYV Kgal
xacpv. Hence it is concluded that Plutarch probably read rvufotie&#39; dapo re rvpos E&#39;rL raav qX&#39;fya, where the insertion of re is
supported by the fact that the two MSS have 8iov re. As however cdpos is never used in Greek Tragedy, it seems better to
suppose that Plutarch was (whether consciously or not) adapting

Page  91
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NO T/ES.

91

the passage to his immediate purpose, and to accept Alov rrvpsp,
striking out re. Its insertion may be accounted for by its similarity to rL or 7r, the first letter of the next word. Aiov Trvpos,
&#39;the fire of Zeus,&#39; is supported by the emphatic reference to
Zeus in the first line, and also by the contrast brought out by
Alov between Zeus in the present line and Hera in the next.
The forgers of the thunderbolts of Zeus are called reKrovav ALov
7rvpos in Alc. 5 (cf. Alc. 128, AL3oiXov rrXrjKTrpov 7rvpos KEpavvYov);
and at a later point in this play, where the smouldering flame
that is here playing around the tomb of Semele is kindled into
brightness, that flame is described as the (Xoya Aiov /3povrii
(599). In Eur. Sipfip. 860 (on the death of Capaneus), opas TO
iov ou eiXos 8Le;rraro, restored from Polybius, is in the MSS corrupted into opasi rTOv a3pv.
9. cdcaavaTov…ipLv) &#39;Hera&#39;s immortal despite &#39;gainst my
mother:&#39; immortal, in so far as it was the enduring mark of her
proud scorn of Semele. This is supported by EriL carav in the
previous line. We have Trvpos se dOavdrov in 524, and, without
excluding the above meaning, there is something to be said
in favour of making the line equivalent in sense (as Mr Paley
expresses it) to vf3pLv acLavarov Beass ILr Ovr Tv WJTrpa.-For the
acc. in apposition to the whole of the previous sentence, cf. 30,
ro(fl&#39;ryLaO&#39;, 250, 7roXlv yeXov, 1100, crroXov 8a5rrorvov, and 1232,
o*iv OVK evfSaaIova. It is particularly common in Euripides.
Kuhner&#39;s Gk. Gr. ~ 406. 6.
10. apaTvov) opp. to 3r3iXov. Cf. Pausanias, quoted on 1. 6.
Places touched by lightning were regarded as sacred. Such
spots were sometimes called &#39;vrlXvrt-a, as in Aesch.fratm. 15, of
the place where Capaneus was struck dead; E&#39;vr7Xk&#39;oa X2eyerat EIs
a Kepavvro Etl-3eifprlV Kal acvaTiOETraL AlL KaraLt3aT Kkal XEeyfra
38vra Kal 4/3ara (Etym. Magn.). Cf. the Roman bidental.
11. cr&#39;Ko6v) a sacred enclosure or TEi4EvoS. Hesychius explains
it by Taros&#39; vadS, referring either to this passage or more probably to Phoen. 1752, BpodLLos aroKos a/3aroS opec-t Iatvdacov,
where the Scholiast says d rdaos r Ts 2eL;EX77rs…coK6? 8E o vaoa…
-/yw in the next line stands in pointed contrast with Kdaihov
au dessus de. &#39;All praise to Cadmus, who untrodden keeps This spot,

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(II

his daughter&#39;s chapel; but &#39;twas I That veiled it round with the
fresh clustering vine.&#39;
13. Av8(v Trovs iroX pvioovs yvas…) &#39;Lydia&#39;s and Phrygia&#39;s
tilths that teem with g ld.&#39; I/iz. Aid. 787 (a play of the same
date as the Bacchae), at XroXzxppvcro Arvaal Kal 4bpvy)Ov aXoXL.
Cf. 154, TLWoov Xpvcropoov Xlai, and Herod. v IoI, there quoted.
-14. WrXKCis) ace. after ErEXO9^v, not after XmLTTr. Dionysus, after
leaving his early haunts in Lydia and Phrygia, and advancing
victoriously over Persia, Bactria, Media, Arabia and &#39;Asia,&#39;
comes to Thebes first in all the land of Greece.-15. 8UorXtLiov)
The bleak climate of Media is described by Herod. ill 8, who
in the same chapter refers to the worship of Dionysus in
Arabia.-&#39;Asia&#39; is used in its limited sense, referring especially
to the west coast of Asia Minor: this is clearly shewn by the
context with its mention of the Greek colonies of the sea-board,
happily described by Cicero, in a reference to those colonies in
general, as a &#39;fringe upon the robe of barbarism&#39; (quasi aftcxta
quaedam baarborumt oris, De R&#39;p. II 4 ~ 9; Isocr. PaIleg.
~ I62). It is an obvious anachronism to make a speaker in the
time of Cadmus refer to colonies that were not planted till
many generations later.
13. JFLL-yoL) A tribrach falling exactly into a single word is
rare in Greek tragedy. Cf. however SoTrpvuo (26I), lepO (494),
XLtvoE (662).-19. &#39;TXrPELS) here with the instrumental dative,
instead of the usual genitive. Herc. Fuir. 372, 7rteKatL-tv xepar
rXqJpovTres, similarly Or. I363, aaKpvotLo- yap &#39;EXXca&#39; adraoav
EnXrTo-e, contrasted with 368, aaKpvzov &#39; Ee&#39;TnrX7affv xe. Aesch..5. C. T. 464, 7rvEvLacrtv,rXt9poVrdEvot.
21. KdiKEI) i.e. int Asia also (with Hermann, illic quoquc).
But KaKE;, it must be admitted, would more naturally be taken
as atgque illic, and this would involve either (a) accepting the
transposition KgdgK XopevoaS-SPpoTo4S, els 7T7v8f WrpCTov JX/ov
&#39;EXXivcov 7ro6iv (proposed by Pierson and adopted by Elmsley);
or (b) supposing that a line is lost after 22, e.g. 7roXXo0V gEretLoa
Tr)v Etp3v Ov6o KXvE l (as suggested by Mr Paley); or (c) transferring to this place line 54, tiopjbr v flv JLErTEaXoV ets av8pos
vo-lv (with Mr S. Allen, supported by Mr Tyrrell). The objec

Page  93
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NO TES.

93

tion to (a) on the ground of its apparent tautology with the line
that would on this supposition follow next in order, irpoiras UE
Or)jas ro&#39; o-e y/r &#39;EXXviaosr, is not, I think, insuperable. Il
seems not unnatural to take the clause that forms the goal of
the long period immediately preceding, and resume it (with
some slight variation) as the starting-point of a fresh departure.
(c), as Mr Paley excellently points out, is open to grave objections, &#39;(I) the fact would thus be stated three times over; cf. 4
and 53. (2) It is very improbable that, if the verse belonged to
this place, it should have been wrongly transferred after 53.
(3) It is not a tautology in its ordinary place, because elos
Ovrirov is not necessarily a human form.&#39;
24. dvwX6oXiua) &#39;T/ebes have I first Thrilled with glad shouts,&#39;
&#39;filled with the cries of women.&#39; dXoXvyi (unlike uzthlatzs) is a
joyous shout, and generally of womzen calling on the gods. In
line 689 where Agave rouses her fellow-Bacchanals from slumber,
the word used is coXAXvEv. The present passage is perhaps the
only place where the word occurs in a causal sense.
vc3piS&#39; ~.alIzs Xpodos sc. avTrov, the Theban women, implied in
Or/3as. The fawnskin was one of the special characteristics of
Dionysus and his female votaries, while the skin of the panther
was more commonly worn by the Satyrs and other male companions of the wine-god, as well as by the god himself. It is
generally represented in works of ancient art as fastened over
one of the shoulders and slung across the chest, with the larger
portion of its folds falling over the side below the other
shoulder, as may be seen in the illustrations to this volume.
The use of these skins was naturally associated with the mountain haunts and the pursuits of the chase, which were a favourite
pastime of the followers of the god. Cf. ilfral, III, (TrrTKrV
pep3pitov, 137,;&#39;Efiplos lEpbv Edvvrov, 249, 7TOLKlXaol&#39; v Ft/3plO, 835,
ve3ppoV (rTTLKcTV lEpar, also I76, vefpv topar, and 696, ve3pt&#39;as daEcrrlXavO&#39; oo-ralrtv af/larTov Ivv8eo&#39; &#39; EXeXVTO Kur KalracrLTKrovE tv opa
eUtFLV KaOeCa&#39;o&#39;avro. Hel. I375, -ytia Trot avarat vWeptv vrarmroiKLXOL -TroXi3eS, PIzIoe. I753, Kau~Feiav vepaplia o-roXLto8oraeva roTr
eyo 2elu&#39;Xa$ epoV 59ao-ov &#39;penlv aveXopevora. The god himself is
called vei3puto&#39;roXov in the Orphic hymn 52, o1; Lucian (iii

Page  94
94

BACCH,4E.

(24

p. 75, ed. Reitz), Dionysits ~ i, ytwaiKE ve/pikv~ &#39;vqtpzpvot. Cf.
fragment of the Bacciuze of Attiu v (12), tiunc silvestrum
exuvias laevo 15/c/as la/eri accommodant, N onnus Dionysiaca xi
233, V+&#39;O9Ev (i)Lov vE/3p&#39;a Kal #vXpoLiotv EITl 0OTEpVOLtL- KaO+avra.
(Many other references are given in Schoene, die _Aersonaritm
in Euiei-zidis Baccizabus 1abiltn scenico pp. 79-88; also in
Mitchell&#39;s ni. on Ar. Raneae, I1176.)
25. Giparov) The tihyrsits was a light wand with its head
covered with a bunch of ivy or vine-leaves, or the cone of a
fir-tree, or with cone and leaves combined. Sometimes a sharp
spike was imbedded in the upper part of the stick, and in this
case the fir-cone would serve as a cap to conceal the point and
to protect the Bacchanal from being hurt by it (the spike is
exposed to view in a has-relief in the Vatican, Visconti Afliseo
Plo-Clement/no, IV pl. 29). In works of ancient art all these
ways of decorating the head of the tizyrsus are represented.,
and the upper part is often bound with ribbands or fasciate,
the object of which, apart from ornament, was probably to keep
the stick from being split up by the insertion of the spike or
fir-cone at the top.
The Ihyrsus is often mentioned in the course of the play,
e.g. So, aivat Ov&#39;pcrov TLvaITIY6JI&#39;, i88, OvpUCOc KPOTOW yi9V. Cf. Herc.
Fur. 892, KaraOpXE-tO xopevia 7Tv/I7rapcWV arep, OU BpoM/q&#39;0 Ke~apL~E&#39;V Ov&#39;pcG os6 (chorus of Satyrs), ov.&#39; ra&#39;&F Bpd~o~
aV CUe Xopot&#39;, Ba&#39;icat re OlpT4Opt 1 TVLaV a aay~L.
Anthol. Pal. VI i65, tNvPO-ov ~XXOFPOV KWVO~50poV Ka&#39;aKa, and often
in Nonnus 0$&#39;er&#39; ipao-o, id. IX I22, avrTIj 6&#39; E7TXEKE Oi,0pooV 0&#39;1w0&#39;v-Yo
0LV07Tt KLOp,&#39;( aIKpoTa&#39;r6) lI 0-lI?7POV Errco-(MJO- KP/4,3p, KEVOO/EO
7r1EraXOLO-LV rv uL dXVcLy Catullus LXIV 256, tecta
quatiebant cus.,bide thi-ysos, Statius Achdil. II 175, tlzyrsi teretes,
)Yieb. II 665, fragiles, Ovid Met. vi 594, levis has/a, and esp.
Virg. Aen. vii 390, Mo//es /161 sumere tizyrsos, and 396, P5am15ineasque gerunt, incinctaeh1ellibus, has/as.
K~cIFLOV 3~Xs)inlfra 363, KLOOLVPOV j3a&#39;Krpov, 710, KLO-04POW~ 6tp
TOW, Ion1 2I7, BpLo&#39;Eo ca"ov d7r0XEJ.LTL KLTOWLVOLcTL /3aKTpOLSC E&#39;vat&#39;pf
TEKVC4OV 0&#39; BaKX1EZ&#39;,. Both the MSS have pIAXos~, which is
retained in Mr Tyrrell&#39;s edition alone; all other editors have

Page  95
— 2 5):VOTES.

95

accepted /3E&#39;Xo which is due to Henry Stephens; but instead of honestly putting forward the correction as an emendation of his own, which on its own merits, would have at once
carried conviction with it, he actually condescended to the
statement that he had found this reading in his &#39;Italian AMss,&#39;
which, it is now generally agreed, had no existence except in his
own imagination. In spite of the falsehood which accompanied
the first announcement of this correction, we are willing to
accept it as a conjecture which supplies a true restoration of the
original text. Mr Tyrrell, however, prints Klo-arvov itLXos
avo6Xvua, where the verb is made to govern /JXoS as well as
Or3as, the intervening words being parenthetical. But, in the
first place, the construction thus gained is harsh; et dans le
second, there is no ground for his assumption that the Kissian
minstrels of Susa &#39;though generally spoken of as mourners
(Aesch. Pers. 17, 123, and Cho. 415), no doubt sang all kinds of
orgiastic strains&#39;; and lastly, beyond the general fact that
Dionysus passed through Persia, there is no proof alleged of
any connexion whatever between him and the Kissians in particular. Had there been any such point of contact, surely the
Kissians would have been named by Nonnus, somewhere or
other, in the forty-eight books of his Epic poem on the adventures of Dionysus. While Mr Tyrrell&#39;s advocacy of the claims
of the manuscript reading;EXos does not appear to be entirely
successful, his reasons for not accepting the conjecture /3eXor
also fail to convince us. His first allegation is that Euripides
never applies /fXos to a thyrsus; this we at once admit, but
what we are defending in the present instance is, the applicability to the thyrsus, not of the bare word j3eXor, but the full
phrase KLOrt-LVOV /XoEs, where the epithet may be regarded as
one of the well-known class of &#39;limiting&#39; epithets (of which
7rrToVS KVCOV is an exaggerated instance), in all of which the
metaphorical use of the substantive is made possible by the
adjective attached to it. Thus the weak wand that is wielded
by the votaries of the god is here metaphorically described as
a weapon,-a weapon not of war, but wreathed with ivy (cf.
daroXfOLSti KLOaTIlvotaL iaKTpoLS in the passage quoted above).

Page  96
96

BA CCHA E.

(25

The descriptive touch is most natural when we remember that
the thyrsus is here mentioned for the first time in the play.
Again, Oepo-oLts or-XLO-F;voL, in 733, shews that the poet regarded it
as a weapon or missile (cf. o099); and further in the Dionysiaca
of Nonnus, a poem of special importance for the illustration of
this play, we find in the 43rd book alone, KLcroOOopoLt BEXE(vols,
KlO&#39;O&#39;TcJV &#39;yXOsE, Ovpos aKoYvrTtorp, and Xepelova OvpOov ca&#39;oras (&ieo
(ot O;L &#39;Xo XXo. Lastly, when Mr Tyrrell states twice over
that Ovpros is expressly distinguished from 3);Xor in line 76I, he
omits to notice that the t/iyrstus is there contrasted not with
i3;Xor merely, butwith XoyXrTov,e;Xos. (Part of this criticism
has already appeared in my review of Mr Tyrrell&#39;s edition in
the Acadrmy for April I, 1872, Vol. iii p. 138.)
In cursive MSS the characters for, and 3 are particularly
liable to be confounded with one another, j3 being often written
as n, minzus the lower part of the first stroke. Thus in a facsimile given in Bast&#39;s Commentlatio Palaeografphica, 3dp/3apoi
appears as uapuapot. So in 1. 678 for po-rXov I should prefer to
read /3(trKCv.
29. Els Zjv&#39; va<>c&#39;,peLv Tqrv Cap.Lpiav XEXOVS) &#39; Fathered on Zeus
her maidenhood&#39;s mischance.&#39; For avaqSepetv, in the sense of
casting off responsibility from oneself and laying it at another&#39;s
door, cf. Ou. 76, els Doi3ov avaCegpovra T7Vy aJaprtav, ib. 432,
Iph. T. 390, Ion 543 and 827; Lysias contr)a Eratosthenem ~ 64,
ras d7roXhoyIas els eKeLVOv avaoLepoivas, de olea sacra ~ 17, el rtS
avTrovs ITrlro, ELXOV avcveyKclv (ro r payy/a), orTp 7rapieoo-av (rT
Xoplov). —rrv aLaprTlav XeXovr, instead of the more regular collocation rejv XiXovs adjLapTrav, may be defended (as Mr Tyrrell well
observes) on the ground that the two words combine to form one
idea, and are therefore treated as practically equivalent to a
single word. Paley proposes the tempting, but perhaps needless, correction, THiNd&#39; AMApTI;aN; where rrtv6e would refer
back to vvLevEvOeao-av eK OVqTrov TltOS in the previous line.
-30. KcdSpov o-o&#39;;rpoc-ac&#39;) The sisters of Semele held that the
story of Dionysus being the son of Zeus was a mere tale
trumped up by Cadmus to screen his daughter&#39;s fall. Pour le
acc. of apposition which is frequent in Euripides, cf. note sur
1. 9, F3ptv.

Page  97
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NO TES.

97

32. VLv airdis) eas zisas (Elmsley), those very sisters of Semele,
as contrasted with all the rest of the women of Thebes (tray ro
0)Xv orE&#39;pia Ka3/,aEcoiv). The words &#39;ra-rpca liavlatl in the present, and rrapaKo7roL f pevwv in the next line, find their parallel in
the Attis of Catullus LX III 4, stittlatlus ibifurenti rabie, vagus
animis. This is one of the many passages in Catullus, which
prove his intimate familiarity with this play (a point to which
special attention was drawn by Mr George O&#39;Connor). For other
instances cf. notes on 59, 472, 506, 987 and 1056, and see especially the fine description in LXIV 251-264.- 35, 36. These
lines are thus translated by Attius; deinde omni stirpe cue
inclhta Cadmeide Vagrant matronae fercitae insania (Bacchae I
(5)).-ocraL yvvatiKEs icrav is best taken, not as referring to grownup women (Paley), but as an emphatic repetition of the words
Trav o r OjXv o-irEpia (Tyrrell); the latter, as has been remarked
by the Master of Trinity, is supported by the fact that ao-av is
written, not. Elalv. &#39;And all the womenfolk of Cadmus&#39; race,
Aye each and all, I drave from home distraught.&#39;
38. &#39;Neath the pale firs, on the roofless rocks they sit.&#39;
The EXara& are not referred to at random, but are part of the
accurate local colouring of the play; even at the present day
the silver fir is one of the characteristic trees of mount Cithaeron; and the modern name of the range is &#39;EXari. In strict
keeping with this, the chorus calls on Thebes to play the true
bacchanal with boughs of oak and fir (iIo); and hence too,
when Pentheus goes to spy out the revellers on the hills, the
poet appropriately places him on an Xanrr, I064-74 (Wordsworth&#39;s Athens and Attica, p. 14). Cf. 684, 816. &#39;Cithaeron,&#39;
says Dodwell, &#39;is now shrouded by deep gloom and dreary
desolation…it is barren or covered only with dark stunted
shrubs; towards the summit, however, it is crowned with forests
of fir, from which it derives its modern name of Elatea&#39; (quoted
in Cramer&#39;s Greece II 2I9). So also Col. Leake, Northern
Greece II 372, after referring to the &#39;wild rocks and the dark
pine-forests of Cithaeron,&#39; states that &#39;Elatid is the name of the
two great peaks above Plataea.&#39;
42. &#39;To mortals proved a god, her son by Zeus.&#39; For TrKrtL
S. B. 7
*. *..:. ** ^*..:^

I
I
I
I
II
&#39;i
I
11

Page  98
98

BJ CCHAE.

(42

cf. note on 1. 2. 43. yEpas KaCI rupavvi8a) &#39;his throne and all its
rights,&#39; or prerogatives. Thuc. I 13, irpoTrpov 47rav &#39;Trl pqTrols
yepaoLt 7rarpLKal 3a-LXELat.
45. 0Eo6laXEi) infra 325, 1255. The only place besides, in
which Euripides uses the word, is in a play of the same date,
Ipz. Aid. 1409, r OBeotLaXflv adroXLrovra. It is remarked by
Donaldson with reference to the Bacch/ae that its &#39;solemn warning against the dangers of a self-willed OeoooaXia seems to have
made this drama highly suggestive to those intelligent and
educated Jews, who first had a misgiving with regard to the
wisdom of their opposition to Christianity&#39; (Theatre of the
Greeks, p. I5I). Cf. Acts v. 39 /r7TroTE Kal OoiLZaXOL evpEOqrE.
46. iv E~xats ouSapi.o p.veCav 9XEL) &#39;In all his prayers nowhere
remembers me,&#39; finds no place for me in his petitions, makes no
mention of me anywhere, neither in the first nor second nor third
endroit. Aesch. Suppt. 266, fLvrjfliv TroT&#39; avrTtILOov Tper&#39; &#39; v XTrais.
oi&#39;3aioO, the reading of one of the MSS (the Palatine), seems
better than oivaifir which is given by the other. L & # 39; former
is confirmed by the author of the Chrisflus Patiens, 157I.
49. TcivOevSIE 0iEvos Ei) Hipp. 709, eyo yap rafa OB aomL
KaCos, and I/ih. Aui. 672, 6lEYvos EZ raKEi. The position of e, in
this verse, coupled as it is in sense with the preceding OI,,yor,
instead of the succeeding Acerac-rrTro, weakens the effect of the
usual break in the line at the end of the fifth half-foot, and cuts
it into two equal portions, a form of verse which is generally
avoided. As other instances of ev in an exactly similar position
we have Soph. Ai. 1252, aXX&#39; ol (povovrST el I KparoVCi rravraxov,
and Aesch. EIzm. 87, o0Bvos ae IrolEtv E I (fEpEyyvov IrO 0(&#39;.
52. o&#39;vvci+o) sc. /pXr/v, which is expressed in Phoen. 1230,
acvva+ orvyy6ovY? r &#39;7tp PaXtv" similarly below, 837, av4aXcv
adxr). For the dative,,alIvda- o-rparTXarcTv, cf. Eur. El. 321,
EXXarcrv E&#39;arparT7XdrEt, and, for the sense as well as the construction, Aesch. Eun. 25, i( oVrT OdKXais e-crparr7iyraev Oeos.
53, 54. These two lines at first sight mean much the same
thing, and we may almost say of Euripides, as Euripides himself in the Ranae (1154) says of Aeschylus, irls ravrov 7ljL; ei7TEv.
To remove this tautology, it has been proposed to read cv OUVEK)

Page  99
-5s)

IVO TIES.

f LO 0Pr7T-ov dcXXcdas S&#39;y (for exco) JLopo&#39;v e/fYv FierT3aXov ESl davpos
v(rLv (Hermann); it has also been suggested to place the second
line after line 22 (by Mr S. Allen, approved by Mr Tyrrell). But,
as has already been observed, EZo0 Ovrrovy is ambiguous, and
dXXdas is uncertain in sense, and thus the second line may
very well have been added to clear up the first. Such a redundancy of expression is quite allowable in this particular part of
the pia-rs, as the two lines in question close a distinctive portion
of it with a couplet summing up the general sense of the
speech up to this point. The effect of this parallelism of sense
is very like that of the parallelism of sound at the end of
Shakespeare&#39;s speeches, which often close with a rhyming
couplet.
55-63. The rest of the prologue is addressed to the Chorus,
which is made up of a troop of Asiatic women who have accompanied the speaker during his travels, but regard him only as
a fellow-votary of the god and not as the god himself. The god
does not reveal himself until line I340, raur&#39; oixl OvqrroV 7rarpos
eKyEyCs Xeyoc Atovcros adXXa Zrlvos.
TL.Xov) called Iepos in 65, and dvEuo37rs in 462. The
mountain was famous for the vines that grew on its slopes,
Virg. Georg. 2, 98, Tmolius asszurgit quibs et rex iz5se P ihanaeus
Ovid Met. VI 15, vinzeta Timoli, Seneca Phoen. 602-240, Ito/a
Baccho Tmohts attollit iuga.
56. eOacros) specially used of the revel-band of the votaries
of Dionysus. infra 558, Ovpooroopes Otalo-ovv, 680, ii8o. En tant que
example of vowel-change from v to t it stands in the same relation to OvtLa8s as 8pla to apis and o-iaXos to o-vs; the root is EY
which appears in vco, O6EXXa, vda-(8)-s, vi-ds&#39;. For the termination, cf. 7rer-ao-os (G. Curtius Gk. Ettym. ~ 320 and p. 671 ed. 3).
It thus appears that it is unnecessary to suppose that the word
was &#39;not truly Greek, but Asiatic.&#39;
57. rrcapESpovs… lvvELr6pous) not necessarily synonymous, as
the latter expresses companionship in travel, the former in rest
and repose. This distinction may be brought out by the rendering &#39;comrades in rest and march.&#39;
58. &#39;Take the home-music of your Phrygian land.&#39; IrdXet
7-2
ee: ~@,:.

Page  100
100 BA CCHI4E. (58
need not refer to any particular town; in the Ionl 294, Euripides
calls the island Euboea a 7roXLr. Some however would attempt
to identify this 7r6Xtr either with Berecynthus, a town of the tribe
of Berecyntes which only exists in a late lexicon, or with Pessinus
(where the image of Cybele fell from heaven) which has a much
better claim.
59. The reading Trvp7rava is open to question, as the final
a would be lengthened before p, and the first foot would thus
become a cretic. It is therefore probable that we should adopt
the less common form Trvrava, making an anapaest in the first
foot, as printed by Nauck, and also proposed by Shilleto, &#39;An
rvirava?&#39; In a fragment of the &#39;H&ovoI of Aeschylus, a drama belonging to a tetralogy on the doom of Lycurgus, which owing to
its kindred subject must have in several points resembled the
present play, we have 7rvrdvov 6&#39; LK(V CoE-O&#39; U7royaLov /( povTrs feperat fapvTapIr&#39;s (fragm. 55), cf. Homeric hymn XIV 3, rvrrfvov r&#39;
LaX7I, Diogenes, quoted below, and Hel. 1346, rirrava (so emended)
pvpororevr. So also in Catullus, who (as already noticed)
was specially familiar with the Bacchae, Attis (LXIII) IO, leve
ty/panum, tyjpanum, tubam Cybelles, tua, mater, initia. the
fuller form is found infra I56, Cyclops 65, 205, and fragm. 589,
Ova(av AtovvO&#39;ov Kopav, oc ar "Iav 7r eprerat a vv /Larpl LXa rvptrdvv Cd aKxots. The last fragment is preserved by Strabo (x p. 470),
who quotes it side by side with the present passage and large
portions of the following chorus, as an example of the association of the rites of Dionysus with those of Cybele.-The instrument was a kind of timbrel or tambourine, and was made of a
&#39;wooden hoop covered on one side with hide, like a sieve, and
(sometimes) set round with small bells or jingles&#39; (Rich, Dict.
Antiq.), cf. Lucr. II 618, tymzpana tenta tonan/t palmis, and
AnIth. Pal VI 51, where cymbals and flutes and sounding timbrels (rvTrrava 7XqrevTa) are dedicated to the Mother Goddess;
infra 126, f3vpa-roovoz KUVKXc, o a, 507, f/;po-rTs KTVTroS, and I59 sqq.
Cf. Diogenes tragicus ap. Athenaeum, XIV 636a, a locus classicus on similar instruments too long for quotation in full, Kalrot
KXV(o) e&#39;v &#39;Aotaiasv LTrpq)opovs KvI3eXav yvvaiKas, rraia as oX3tcov
~LpvyvY, TrvTcrvotL(r KaL pKot /3oLoL Kal XaXKOKTV7rTC)V 36!.AOos 3pEiLOV

Page  101
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N;o TE S.

10II

r-as advrTXcpa- Kvf3adXov. The rSvLravov is often represented in
works of ancient art, and may be seen in the vase-painting from
the Museum at Naples, which supplies one of the illustrations
in the introduction to this volume.
60. The scene is laid before the palace of Pentheus. —,s
opa, &#39;may come and see.&#39; 62. -rrTuvXs) an expressive word for
the &#39;glens&#39; or &#39;rifted sides&#39; of Cithaeron. The wind-swept
mountain-clefts are called 7rrTXes Vtjcvet o-oral in the Iliad (I I, 77),
and Ev rroXv7rrtXp XOovi is applied in /fih. T. 677, to the rugged
region of Phocis. TrrTVXa (from 7TrvX4, which is certainly the
form used by Eur. in lines 797, I2,9, and in other plays where
rrrvXalS occurs), is Elmsley&#39;s correction for rrrv&#39;asv, from 7rrr&#39;.
Mr Paley rightly remarks that &#39;an undoubted instance of the
final -Xas made long before a vowel would be an evidence of
some weight&#39;; the evidence which he seeks may be found in
Soph. fragm. I50, where ypaylarwov 7rrvXas (MS TrrVxas) ~xCov
closes an iambic line.
64. &#39;Ao-cas) Though Asia has here a wider meaning than in
the Homeric poems, it is interesting to notice that south and
west of the very Tmolus mentioned in the next line, lay the old
&#39;Asian meadow, around the streams of Cayster&#39; (I1. 2, 46I).On Tmolus, see notes on lines 55 and 154.
65. eoato Bpo.C ir6Svov Sjivv) &#39; In Bromius&#39; honour I ply in
haste my pleasant task, my toilless toil, the Bacchic god adoring.&#39;
oaodsetv (Ooo, NOo) almost always means &#39;to speed,&#39; and like its
English equivalent is sometimes intransitive, as in line 218, ev
{ao&#39;KLots OpErtL Ooao~FLv, Tro. 307 (and 349), iatvhas 0oacift 8Epo
Kaca-ordvpa pot,-sometimes transitive, as here and 1pk. T.I I41,
0. 7rrfpvyas, and Herc. Far. 382, 0. o-ira ye;vvTr. One objection
to following Elmsley in making it intransitive in the present
passage, is that rovov TrSuv Kafaroav r&#39; evKaiLarov thereby becomes
an acc. of general apposition, and such a construction, however
common in Euripides, is usually more briefly expressed and
generally comes at the very end of the sentence, whereas here
it would be followed by the words BaKXLov eva ofeiva (0oEv). the
word afiiears to be used as equivalent to Odoa-ELV in Soph.
O. T. 2, iapas Oociere, and Aesch. Sitpph. 595, and if the double

Page  102
102 BACCHAE. (65
sense of &#39;speeding and &#39;resting&#39; is to be allowed, the word is
almost as puzzling to ourselves as our own &#39;fast,&#39; used of
running fast as well as standing fast, is to a foreigner; with
this difference, however, that in our English word the notion of
firmness and closeness passes off into that of steady swiftness;
in the Greek the word that almost invariably indicates rapidity
of movement seems conversely to be used in a very exceptional
sense of rest. (Buttmann assumes a double root, while Hermann endeavours to bring the exceptions under the same
sense as that in ordinary use.)-For the dat. BpoCi,, cf. 195,
494, and esp. Helen. 1364, faKXEvovo-a T &#39; E&#39;OECpa Bpoty O.- -r6vov jS8v KdarTo6v TI cEiKLC.irov is a &#39;labour of love.&#39; So in the Tempest III i, There be some sports are painful, and their labour,
Delight in them sets of… These sweet thoughts do even refresh
ny labours.
68-71. The chorus solemnly preface their praise of the
BIacchic mysteries by warning all profane persons to depart,
whether in the highway or in the hall, and by calling for solemn
silence. Thus Callimachus begins his hymn to Apollo with the
words, otov 6 rT7rOrXXcovos eorel-aro a1dvivos o&#39;prq, o7 a 8&#39; OXov ro
aeXaOpov&#39; eKaS, eKag, oortL adXLTrpr. Cf. the opening of the,vaorr5v
Xopos in Ar. Ranae, a play of about the same date as the present, 355, eV(q)qtrEiL XPT) KadaL-Trao&#39;OaL rots 4IfjreotcLt XOpOtO-Lv Otrts
(LrrEpoS TOitvbe Xoyyov, &#39; yvor /&#39; KaOapef cEL, y evvalWv opyLa
Movaorv L7r&#39; LFfEv i&#39;T) eXOPFEVctrV.-69. oro&#39;dfa r EUc;;T.OV, K.r.X.)
&#39;hushed be every lip to holy silence.&#39; For the proleptic epithet,
cf. Aesch. Ag. I247, fecqr)fv d rdXatva Kolr7aov rroma; for the
sense, Eum. o039, EV&#39;falaprire 7rav=atl, and Horace&#39;s favete lingrtis.-70. Tar VOFILL-O&#39;VTa dEC) &#39;in ever wonted wise.&#39; Pour le
neuter plural adverbially used, cf. 157, ev&#39;a. Hermann accepts
the conjecture of Jacobs, edoi for alEi, and calls it r5raeclara atque hand dubie vera…Id ipsun est ro voMLOiev, Veol
clamari. alel quidem neque cum Tra v/oLro-eGvra, negque cum
Uvo-roo), aipte coznizngi Jotest. I confess I see little difficulty in
either of the last alternatives, and the wild exclamation (voi,
proposed by Hermann, strikes one as out of keeping with the
quiet composure that ought to mark an exordium, though quite

Page  103
72)

NVO TIES.

IT3

in place in later parts of the chorus (141, 157), when the enthusiasm of the audience has already been raised to a higher pitch
of expectation.-The last word of the antistrophe is doubtful;
/vjlova-c cannot correspond in metre with the strophe ending
with daoE&#39;va (or ev&#39;aCoE&#39;a) (O6v), unless the first syllable is treated
as short. In a play of the same date, Ipfj. Aul. I573, the MSS
give us &#39;Ayaretxvwov, which is corrected by the editors; but the
is little difficulty in such a case as that last quoted, or in /FlLvfcoOat (Aesch. Pers. 287), as compared with the violence done
to the organs of speech in the endeavour to pronounce v short
before a combination of / and v; v/vwOseL in Aesch. Ag. 990
is open to grave suspicion, and is altered by Mr Davies into,Iovwoae. egvipvos is quoted from Epicharmus, 69. In the passage
in Pindar Nemn. IV 83 (I35), the first syllable of Oszvos need not
be short; and if it were, we should have to assume that Pindar,
who makes the first syllable of 1xv1osr and its derivatives long
about fifty times, breaks the rule in a single instance (cf. Mr
Tyrrell&#39;s &8Frepats qporTL8ES). It seems best therefore to suppose,
with Hermann, that vIuvrj-co is a marginal explanation of some
such word as KEXa8o-co, which has accidentally found its way
into the text. If, however, Aeov be omitted in the strophe, it is
probable that the antistrophe ended with an anapaest, such as
KEXaso3 (Nauck).
72-77. This is one of the many passages which ascribe
a special happiness to those who are blessed in the full fruition
of divine mysteries. The reference in the present instance
(as in lines 469-474) is mainly to the sacred rites of Dionysus,
but the plural 6ewv proves that a wider meaning is also intended,
and that the Eleusinian mysteries of Demeter are not excluded.
Several similar passages (Hom. hymn. ad Cerer. 480, Pindar
fragim. I02, Soph. fragmz. 719, are quoted at length in a note on
Isocr. Panzeg. ~ 28, Tr7v TeXEr7Tv (of Demeter)?s ol LerTeraa vrevs 7rTfp
TE TTJS l3iov TrEXfvrT7 Kat ro TOV Vinav7ro altvoT s ratovr ra? s Arl8as
Xovotv. To these may be added Ar. Ranae, 455 (Xopros livarov),
/LOvois yap 7lLiv rtXLos Kal 4eyyos iXapov ocrTv, ocotL LCEL/vrjlfLeO FdT fev
7E BarjyOl.e rporov, Plato Phaedo, 69 c, ors &#39;v a/&#39;Iqro-s Kal adreAXcoro
eIs "Atou adplKrlT)raL v /3p/30op) KpicEtrra, 6 T e KEK aOaptevoE TE KU&

Page  104
104

BACCHAE.

( 7 2

TETEXEO7IA VO-T EKEiOTE ac~LKo&#39;lAE&#39;Vo /LErA OIECOV GL&#39;KT~eTE. IfLOL l19~
fJJaTLV oc TrEPNL T ar TEXeTaV s, vapOr/KOt/J&#39;pOL /1E V 7rOXXO&#39;, (IaKXOL 8E TE
ira pot, Ret. P. 365 iit., Antisthenes ap. Diogen. Laert. VI 4,
/1VOV/IEfvOr 7TOTE -a&#39; Op&#39;/JLai, TOl) 1EPE&#39;W, ELW7OI)VT-0 OTt L oi-am-a vo&#39;
JIevoL 7roXXcov a&#39;yaOct)vi E&#39;V a&#39;8(ov /IEL(TX OVOLI TL OVI E4?7, OVK a17ToOVJO-KEL9 (other references may be found in Lenormant&#39;s mzonograj5/ie de la voie sacre&#39;e Eleusinieinie, 1 864, p. 8 6)Th
most masterly book written in modern times on the ancient
mysteries is Lobeck&#39;s Aglaojihamnus, which may be referred
to with advantage as a wholesome corrective to the fanciful
theories of our own Warburton and others.
72. WS IJc&KCLP, oOrTLS E1&c,(LCcVl, K.TAX.) For the juxtaposition of
these almost synonymous terms, cf. 911, Theognis 1013, a
/LcKap E aSULICOV TE Ka2Lu oXloros, Gebetis tabSita, caps. 2,121,
and esp. Plato&#39;s P/zaedrus, 250 B, o-Vv EaaZL/iovt Xop6 /luKapiav
oqtnV i- Kal Of&#39;av…EL(SV Kal &TEoVV-o TcOv TreXET-6v 6) Oi/1Lr Xi-yetv,L~~apcaiaT?1J.. v(aL&#39;/ova c/iL~ IO/EO.74. 13LOT&cV d~YLGTTEVEL)
Cf. the interesting fragment of the Kp~7-Ev of Euripides, 475,
10-20, preserved by Porphyry de abstitnentia, where a oadKXov
descrihes his life of consecration to the worship of Zeus, Dionysus Zagreus, and Cybele (it will also serve to illustrate other
passages in this play, references to which are here added)
(yvO vSE /Xov 7TE&#39;vo/1Ev, E4 00 ALOrv &#39;I(aaov /1Uo IA7 -T?7r -YEVO/t Kai
VKLAOov (486) Za-yp&#39; v (1192) /3povTarg (o-7rov~a&#39;r Lobeck) I -ar.rC0o~a&#39;yovr (a~ara (I39) TEXE&#39;o-ar /uqi-pl T 5&#39;pEl&#39;p 80a(Sa da(COI I a 93KO &#39;X&#39;q&#39; Kovp &#39;TCOV (I120) a3K~ EKOVoLCOOE&#39;j. 75. eOLO~rE&#39;UE-rQ +iuxctV) i. e. &#39;joins the lBacchic revel-band in very soul.&#39;
The active form occurs in 379.- 78. Cf. 59 and I129. the
metre is ionic a mzinor-e and Kvo3iav must accordingly be
treated as metrically equivalent to two long syllables; op- -i
Kuj3tEdr I Oe/luTeIJCO;Cf. 398, US Tirt av /Lrya- I-Xa tOSKCOV I
81. KLOOcr) oi-EcfcLvwce~s) Ivy was used in the worship of
Dionysus not only because it could easily be made into wreaths,
but also because its leaf is sufficiently like that of the vine to
allow of its being used instead, without stripping the vine. Besides, as an evergreen it could be used at times of the year when
the vine itself was not in leaf, O&#39; 71-OOOW XeL/iawvr wpq~ Tov airo,, – 0- —-

Page  105

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NO TE S

105

-rqv aI7rEXov oTrEc/aJov, cOse EKELqVi ecopLa -/VP.VV Kal a(~vXXov, d&#39;yairaoat
(60KaE Hot TqJ 1uo)LoLTJa roy KtTroV, Plutarch Symp. IIi 2. The
very cradle of the infant god is described as having been garlanded with ivy, Piwen. 65 i, KtL0-0&#39;V06 W TTPLOT7Ecfri&#39; ELKT69 EVOUE
Ert O3pE,0os yXoipjoopowo-tv 7EPPEOLY KarTWYKLOLOTLV O1xf3L~Oav eVorTaOEv,
Ovid Fasti; 3, 767, cur hederea cincta est? iheeera est&#39;grat/ssima
Iiacc/ho… Azysiadles nymnfkae 5uzerztm guaerente noz&#39;erca (sc.
Hera), Ihanefrondemz CuitiS afgfiosuere;wvis. In Plutarch Symf5.
I(I I, 3, III 2, there is a discussion over the wine, as to whether
the ivy-wreath was invented by Dionysus to cool the over-heated
brows of his votaries, o-7rEFbavoio-Oa& ML&L~aL To4 3aKX~EvV&#39;ovra, A13?TTOJJ v7ro 7-0 T&#39;VVdV670 OV KLrTO1 Kara(Tj3,Evvt&#39;rosv T&#39;p&#39; tLEe17I/ T
#vXpoTrpL. However that may be, it was one of the primitive
emblems of the god, and he was even worshipped under the
name of KLOCo-a-v at Acharnae (Pausanias I, 31, 3). Hence too
such epithets as Kt0OOOKo&#39;jl79 in the Homeric hymns, 26, I, and
(flLXOK10l0&#39;0(oljpoIV in Cyci. 620; cf. Ovid F., 6, 483, Bacche racemi/eros hedera redmitzie cap/illos. —( Vide ne rescrizbendumz sito-e
v~d Ire IIt KLOW-Op giosselila Sit) Shilleto, adv.
84. Bp6(LLov) A name descriptive of Dionysus as the god of
boisterous merriment; in the Homeric hymns 25, 8-Io, the
account of the infant god &#39;roaming through the wooded glens,
wreathed with ivy and laurel and attended by the nymphs that
nursed him,&#39;) closes with the words fOp~o&#39;jov c&#39;X (ZOITeToY iXip,.
85. KcLT&#39;yovocLL) &#39; bringing home.&#39; See Ar. Ranae I I 52-65,
and Eur. Med. ioi5-6.
87. eipvXo&#39;povs d-yVLCX&#39;S) Pind. PyI/h. 8, 77, and oracle quoted
Dem. Meid. P. 531, 7,,LEpv?,oOaL BadKXOLO Kat EVPVX0p0oVL KarT
aiyvtail, K.T.X.,-the epithet is even used of a district (Elis), in
the Odyssey, 4, 635. It has been supposed that it is only a
poetic f&#39;orm. for eu&#39;ptiXwpos-, but it is often used with a conscious
reference to Xopo&#39; in the sense of a &#39;place for dancing&#39;; here, of
the &#39;wide-squared&#39; Grecian towns, with open &#39;places&#39; for the
dance. This is the only passage where the word occurs in
Tragedy.
88. gy~ov&r Ev SvW&#39;8V( XOXCCLLS C&#39;LVQYKQCrOL) For tExovo-a cf.
Herod. V 41 (first quoted by Matthiae), Kal i~ 7IpoTE&#39;p? yvv&#39;) TOL

I
I

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106

BA CCII,4E

(88

7TpOTrfp0V xpOvov arotwv g&#39;ovo-a 70OrE KOE9 E&#39;Kv17OEf~ o-vvrVXLr, 7auT,7 Xp&#39;lo-ayI n ~&#39;ovav 8E&#39; avT?7&#39;v adX7~Oi XO&#39;Y&) OS T7~ E,7rexooVT yaIC iOL)tO 7TV0O jEV0L J~XXEov. The whole sentence may be turned
as follows: &#39;Whom erst, when flew the bolt of Zeus, his mother,
great with child in sorest pangs, brought forth untimely, slain
herself beneath the stroke of thunder.&#39;
94. XoX(CoLs-OOXa.4LCLS, K.T.X.) &#39;and anon, unto hollow recesses
of child-birth, Zeus son of Cronos received him.&#39; OaX~as/, refers
metaphorically to the thigh of Zeus, as appears by the next line.
For the application of the word to cavities of the body, cf.
Aristotle 7rEpi ~&#39;7rov ~ 3, ThV v KaI~p&8s EKT v 17E~vOX
K00%&#39; (Lj Ao-, If, however, we retain the manuscript reading,
Oaxe4sots9, we may render: &#39;at once, in the very chamber of
birth.&#39; 96. KCLTd 1L1pCP6 KCMX*M~cS, K.T.X) See 286 if. Hence the
epithet jipoipacju)1 (Strabo xv p. 687) and elpuasot &#39;r (Homeric
hymn 26, Auth. Pal. IX 524, 26, and Orphic hymn quoted
below).-Xp&#39;o-&#39;CLLoV, (sic Xp&#39;-E (ye!/ Xpvor&#39;v) 372. vid. Elms!.
ad Med. 6 i 81 Shilleto, adzv.
99. 9TEKEV 8&#39;, d.VCKQ MoipaL.rE&#39;XEarcv) &#39;But, when the Fates
had matured the babe, the father brought forth the bullhorned god.&#39; For Moipat -e`XeO-av, cf. Pindar Pythi. III 9, 7rp&#39;1v
TeX~oo-aL (of the mother) psarptrnhXcp o-,&#39;v &#39;EXeLOvia, and 0/. VI 42,
where &#39;EXcsv0cd and the Moipas assist at the birth of lamos, and
XI 52, elV 7i-P0i)TOYOvco reXeTraL 7apea-rav Moipat (at the foundation of
the Olympic games). Orph. Hymn. 48 (47), oi Baicxov ALo&#39;VVTOV
Ep/3Ot I 07CVTf &#39;Opov elpa~r/L &#39;T7lV /J.?p6 e`yIKaTe`pa#av uWO&#39; 0E.EIVO WXOt
PL?7STL 7r1Ept7rXO/IE&#39;VOLS- KaL /1Wv TSXEOJv EKO,/1LScruav Tjic~Xov E&#39;v?7&#39;yaOeov
(Lobeck Aglaojihzamus 1047). So Nonnus 45, 99 calls him?7/LCtEXE-rov, cf. Ovid F. 3, 71I7, fiu~er idfiosses mzatur-o tem&5ore
uzasci, ex, ic/turn fia/rio corjiore mahins onzus. From the double
birth of Dionysus, we have him called &tLAT6Jp (Orph. Hymn.
49, x; 5 1, 9; bimza/er in Ovid MIel. iv, 12), SLtao-&#39;oTog (Nonnus
1, 4)
100. &#39;racupo&#39;KEpWJ 0OEo&#39;v) Dionysus is often represented in literature and sometimes also in works of art, either with horns on his
head or even in the form of a bull. See esp. 920-922, 1017,
ii5q, with the engravings illustrating those passages. Soph.

Page  107
T 0 -2)

NO TE S.

107

Jragm.11 94, T7-16 3et3aKXLL1LE47ZJ /3poroi(TL KXEt~lq7v NXro-(av (556) 6v c
/3OV K E&#39;p L0I % XOSv avrp /.Laiav r/&OT?)-rV TrPE, /JEL. So also he has
elsewhere the epithets ravpconr&#39;. (Ion Chius, ap. Athen. II 2),
f300&#39;Kpatpo.V (Nonnus 45, 250), KEdpaov&#39; and XPVTOKEpcov (Ant/h. Pal.
IX 524), which last exactly corresponds to Horace&#39;s description
of him as anreo corimz decoruis ((&#39;arml. 2, 19, 30). Cf. esp.
Plutarch Qztaest. Gr-aecae, 36, "&au&#39;LT 7- ITOv Atwo&#39; ov at&#39; T-c~Ov &#39;HXEL&#39;CwV
-yvvaiKEV l4Lvooa-a 7Wapa~aXOc-t f3oE&#39;G) 7roal 7rapaytLveTOat Wpo&#39;. av&#39;ra&#39;.
exeta o v&#39;TC.vO&#39; VWvo9 E&#39;XOEv, T&#39;pco Ato&#39;vvrE, AXLov &#39; va&#39;Y d-yvov
oJvp xateaot e&#39; vaOV T6O) 3EO) 7ro~l Ouw&#39;i. EL a 84L &#39;rr &#39;0OVTLV&#39;, $LE
Tra~pE!`-TrOT7-pov/ Ot, Kal f3ovyevT 7rpoa-ayopeV&#39;ovct~V Kat Tavpov!40OL TO &O&#39;v; id. de Isid-e et Osiride, 35, Travpo/liopc~a ALOVV&#39;O-OV
IroLOlZO-LV c&#39;aydXpara 7roXXo&#39;L 7-c~h &#39;EXX&#39;VCOV, K.T.X. Athenaeus, XI 5 1,
P. 476 (of Dionysus) 6&#39; & KvCLtKGp K~al Tavpo/opc~ov olpvraL. A fine
representation of this kind has been found at Athens, over the
monument of a person named Dionysus (F. Lenormant, voie
sacire&#39;e Eleusiniennze, iP. 66). Besides the gem figured in illustration of line 1159, there is another representing the Dioriysiac
bull carrying the three Graces between his horns (MifllerVieseler, 11 xxxiii 383).
102. 9VOEV M`ypCLV 09OrjpTpocOV MMLLV4BES dL~LfOLc3dXXOVTrcL &#39;rrkoKCd.p.Osl) &#39;whence it is that the Maenads fling around their hair the
wild serpents of their prey,&#39; i. e. capture wild serpents to fling
around their hair. a&#39;iypav has thus a predicative force. Ovpro —
P O&#39;pot (from the Laurentian MIS at Florence) was the common
reading up to the time of Mr Tyrrell&#39;s edition which was the
first to give an improved text by accepting Oqp~rpotjov, proposed
by (Musgrave and) Mr S. Allen, and founded on the reading of the
other Ais (the Palatine), Oqporpo&#39;ooL. We thus get rid of a merely
conventional epitbet and obtain an appropriate adjective to help
out the meaning of ai&#39;ypav, which Hermnann tried to explain by
supplying dlpaKO&#39;vrow from the previous clause. The serpent slain
by Cadmus, whose teeth produced tbe famous crop of armed
warriors, is called in the Plhoen. 820, qO~7_poO&#39;fhOV cOOWLKOXocf~OLO
~laKOVTOSL. Opr~pO~O4)og in an active sense occurs in 556, 7156OL
Nio-qv 7-av Oqporpo&#39;fwv Ovpo-of~opeiv O~aiaovs,, and in the present
passage the confusion may possibly have arisen from an earlier

Page  108
Io8

BA CCHA E.

(I02

MS having had a marginal quotation of the parallel just cited
which led to Ovpc-of6poL, suggested by the margin, finding its
way into the text and taking the place of Oqp6rpopbov (Mr
Tyrrell&#39;s introd. xi).-This is perhaps the only passage where
the infant Dionysus is described as entwined with serpents;
one of the god&#39;s transformations alluded to later in the play
(IoI9), is his appearing as a 7roXvKpavo GpaKcKov; tandis que le
references to his Maenad votaries twining snakes in their
hair, and allowing them to curl around their limbs, are common
enough: see infra 698 and 768. Thus Clemens Alexandrinus
(protrept. II p. 72 Migne) refers to BaiKXOL aVTTdvfELfEvoL
rTOS O5Eo-Lv; Philostratus (imagines, I ~ i8) mentions 04ELvs
o&#39;pol among the accessories of his picture of the Bacchic
revels on Cithaeron; Plutarch writes as follows of the mother
of Alexander the Great, irj ( &#39;OXvUTrtLas aXov &erepv ) XoVraoT a
rTa Karoxas KaL rovE EvOovtrtaatoovs&#39; e&#39;ayovra 3ap3apLKQTFpov 6OlFsL
Je~yadXov XELPO}0~ELp EELXKETKfro ToL0 Olaa-roL, oi 7roXXaKLI EK Tro
KLTrro Kal rTCV JLVOTLKCrKV XiKVO)V 7rapava8vOdLEVOl Kat repteXtrrTOeLEVOL
rTOi OvpoOLt rTV yUvatCVLKS Kal TOLs (rTfE(cadotL EE67TXr7TTrov roivS avpas
(A lex. 2); and Lucian, Dionysus ~ 4, says of the battle with the
Indians, al Mamvade o-riv dooXv3vy} eve7rrjlqrav avroLI paKovTas
vtreoooa&#39;-puEva KaK rTWv Otvpoawv a&#39;Kpov d7royvutvovraL TOV oTiSpov. Cf.
Catullus LXIV 258, pars sese tortis serpentlibus incizngebat, pars
obscura cavis celebrabant orgia cistis; Hor. Carmz. 2, 19, 19,
nodo coerces vipferino Bis/onidum sine fraude crites.
In works of ancient art this characteristic of the Maenads is
seldom represented; an example however is engraved in illustration of this passage. The serpent was an important element in the mystic worship of Dionysus and is often represented in reliefs and coins creeping out of a half-opened basket,
the cista nsystica; thus, frequently in Bacchic scenes on sarcophagi, Pan kicks open the cista and the snake emerges (e.g.
Miller-Wieseler, II, xxxv 412); and on the coins of the kingdom
of Pergamus known as cistojihori (which, as they were not struck
till 200 years after the time of Euripides, are cited here not as a
contemporary illustration but simply to shew the wide prevalence of the association of the serpent with the mysteries of

Page  109
-1371

NO TE, S.

log

Dionysus as well as those of Demeter), we see on the one side,
surrounded with a wreath of ivy, the cista mystica of Dionysus,
half open, with a serpent creeping out of it; on the other the
car of Demneter drawn by serpents. It is the serpent twined
about the sleeping nymph figured in illustration of line 683 that
has led to her being identified as a resting Bacchante; and
the cisla and serpent may be seen in the gem engraved below.
105. Thebes, which is here called upon to wear the livery
of the god, is similarly personified in Seneca, Oedz25uls 407-I2,
~ftusam redlilnte cornar nutante corymbo mollia Nysaeis arnmatae bracci&#39;zia tlhyrsis… nobiles Tliebae.-On the ivy, see 8i n.
107. XXO&#39;PIEL FLCXCLKL KCLXXLKC&#39;p&#39;rrQ) Theophrastus, lust. j5iant.
in i8 iiimmediately after describing the ivy, goes on to
describe the smilaxv as follows:,7&#39; 86 ujuiXa6 E&#39;ortL pev h&#39;7raXXO&#39;KavXovJ (a creeper), O&#39; U Kavov a&#39;KavOCObijS KaUL Coc&#39;l-Erp OpOa1KavJov,
TO 3E jn)XOV KLTr(586E9 /LLKIQoV ayli)IJLOV. (After describing the ribs
of the leaves, the joints of the stalk, and also the tendrils,
he continues) a&#39;vOoV 86 X1EVKOV Ka&#39;L EV&#39;XIn XEL&#39;pvov&#39; TO&#39;V 1E&#39; Kaplro&#39;v
EXEL 7rpOO-6/1q6,Fpq 7-63 a-7rptXvp (nightshade) Ka&#39;L 7o- /I-7XAOpqp (bryony)
Ka, fiaXta-Ta T?) KaXov(OEVpE7~ cTrac/vXyj a&#39;ryptL… O 8E&#39; KapwroE. E&#39;pVOpOE.
To the same effect Pliny Nat. Hist. xvi 63, who closely
follows Theophrastus; sinmilis est heder-ae, e Cilicia firimumt
quident ftrofecta, sed in Graccia freqitentior,…densis geniculata
cazilibuts, sfiinosis frutectosa ranzis, folio liederacco, fiarvo, non
anguloso, a fiediculo emzittente hamniinos, flore candido, olente

Page  110
J /rr/- TrT J 77

r..

110 I D~ LL -IJL,. L1 u
lillium. This description corresponds exactly with the appearance of the plant called the smilax aspera as figured in Sibthorp&#39;s
Flora Graeca, vol. x (I840) p. 49 plate 959, where it is identified with the o-/iLXaT rpaXela of Dioscorides and its modern
Greek name is said to be aKpouvoaaros, while in Cyprus it is
known as the vX6/3arov. It grows abundantly in marshy places
and also on rough ground in Greece and the Archipelago, and
in Crete as well as Cyprus. Like ivy, it is an evergreen creeper
with a dark-green leaf of leathery texture: it bears small white
starry flowers with pink stalks, growing in clusters at the tips
of the spray; the berries are of a bright scarlet. The stem and
the slightly prominent points of the leaves are in some specimens prickly, in others smooth, having in the latter case cailes
fere inermes…folia omniino inermia, to quote the words of
Lindley, who edited the later volumes of Sibthorp&#39;s great work,
and who also says,foliorum formd neczno aculeoruzn praesentid
et abundanlid variare videtur. (For a photograph of the plant
taken by Guidi of San Remo I am indebted to the kindness of
Mr Hotham, who informs me that he has often seen it growing
by the road-side in the Riviera, &#39;and very graceful it is, with its
thick leaves of a dark yet bright green, and its red berries.&#39;)
Thus we may safely identify the /pXaf of the passage
now before us with the smilax aspera as above described; the
brightness of its berries at once explains the epithet KaXXIKaprros, its clustering flowers account for the epithet dv0e~q(r6pos
in 1. 703, and its resemblance to ivy would specially commend
it to the votaries of Dionysus. It is probably the same plant
that is meant in the pleasant picture, in the Nubes 1007, of
the young athlete running races beneath the sacred olives of
Academe, Trreqavoo-dLYevoS KaXadtL& XEVK5 eTra ao-povos,XLKlOTOv,
a-pLXaKos O&#39;wv Kal dnipayoioarvvrls Kal XEvKq)s fvXXooXovrrIs, i/poE
ev opa Xaipcov foraraav lr&ravos 7rreXea OlvpinA. Again, in
Aelian&#39;s charming description of the pass of Tempe, while
ivy like the finest vines (8nKr7v rTv evyevwv adtTre rXwv) entwines
itself about the lofty trees, it is the smilax which mantles the
rocky walls of the ravine (7roXX0i 8E a/eiaXa,? tpe;v rpos av&#39;rov
rTOy rdyov dvaarpeXFt Kal E 7rTKL(id TrjV roerpav, Varia Historia

Page  111
-I09) AOTES. III
III I). It is not found in the British Isles; the plant that
perhaps most closely resembles it in our own Flora is the Black
Bryony, which belongs to the closely allied order of Dioscoreac,
and (as it happens) derives its name (referring to the quick
growth of the stems) from the very same verb (,3pvev) that
is here used of the smilax. For purposes of translation we
must either naturalise the word smilax or be content with an
approximate rendering such as &#39;burst forth, burst forth with
the green bright-berried bryony.&#39;-This explanation is, I venture
to think, better than the conjecture given in Liddell and Scott
which makes it the cra-Xa XELa and identifies the latter with the
bindweed or common convolvulus (calystegia sepiumn), which
is too delicate and withers too soon to be suitable for a wreath,
and certainly cannot be called KaXXliKap7ros. The same name is
also sometimes given to the yew (taxus baccata), and IMr Paley
so understands it in the present passage. But its berries, though
as bright as those of the smzilax aspera, were supposed by the
ancients to be poisonous; it would lend itself less readily than
the latter for the purpose of twining into wreaths; and its foliage, being unlike that of the ivy, and being also of too gloomy a
hue, would make it less attractive to the merry Bacchant.
109. KaTapcaKXLOGo-OE) &#39;Make a very Bacchanal of thyself&#39;
amid branches of oak and fir. On the analogy of verbs in -oco
(8Xoiv, aovXovi, EpLxvorLv-8qX6v, oiaXo, e&#39;prJov TI-rOLFiv), I3aKXLOVV
means 3aKxov Iroielv, and the simple verb is here used with the
intensifying preposition Kara (as in Kara&#39;d8Xo, &#39;very plain&#39;) in the
ordinary sense of the middle voice, &#39;make a very Bacchanal
of thyself.&#39; This seems better than Lobeck&#39;s interpretation of
Kara3aKxlovaOatL as coronari (quoting Hesych. OaKxav&#39; ecTrrTav)aOai); his other quotation is more to the point, and is quite
as consistent with the sense above given, as with his own view:
Schol. on Ar. Eq. 409, /a:KXov o 7 rto Avvoo v poV vov eKaVO E oVV
aXXa Kal TroVs reXovYrav Tra opyta, Kal TOVE KXaidOVS OVS ol
ptCaorat ppov)l, after which follows a line from the comic poet
Xenophanes (as emended by Lobeck), erTrav &#39; EXarwv TrvKLvol
irepi &OLara aLKXOL, where the eTXaTov /aaKXOL correspond to
the Eu&#39;Xras KXda8O of the text (Aglaoaihamus p. 308, comm. on

Page  112
Ii2 B BA CCHAE. (109
Ajax 1. 847). Cf. ~/5.. Io8, adv&#39; &#39; hXralco- (Hes. Sct?. I88,
eXOaruv y XFPcpLv eXOVTre) oTreavco& TE Xre Xca OiaTOs EJOXEv…
KevraVpov (quoted by Wecklein).-Liddell and Scott wrongly
render, &#39;in oak leaves ye rave with Bacchic rage.&#39;
The oak and fir are doubtless mentioned because of their
being (as already stated on 1. 38) the common trees of Cithaeron
(cf. 684, eXadrrjs do37rv and 685, 8pvos 0fiXXoLOa). In 703, the
Bacchanals wreathe themselves with crowns of oak-leaves as
well as ivy and smilax, and in I I03, branches of oak are
used to prise up the fir-tree on which Pentheus had climbed
to spy out the revellers. Herodotus (ix 31) tells us of a pass
of Cithaeron, called Oak-Heads, Apvros KIefaXal.
111.;TLKTCYv EvS&T& VEPpL8coV cr0T14ETE XCVKOTPCXCOV 7XOKaLCOV
p.XXots) &#39; Fringe thy livery of dappled fawnskins with woolly
tufts of silvery tresses.&#39; The Bacchanals appear to have used
tufts of wool or strips of goat&#39;s hair to trim their tawnskins and
set off their natural colour. Much of the difficulty felt by early
editors is excellently cleared up by Lobeck on Ajax 1. 847,
p. 375, &#39;significatur…insertio penicillorum (&#39;tufts&#39;) diversico
lorum, quibus hodieque pelliones mastrucas (&#39;skins&#39;) distinguere solent.&#39; Cf. Tacitus, Germ. 17, eligunt feras et detracta
velamina sfarguzlt maculis fellibuszue beluarum quas exterior
Oceanus atque izgotlum mare gzgntit (Paley well compares the
&#39;similar device still adopted in the manufacture of furs into
muffs, tippets, &c., where ermine spots are thus imitated&#39;).
Claudian again (de quarto cons. Honor. 228) describes the fawnskin of Bacchus as bespangled with pearls, Eryth/raeis intextis
nebride gemmis Liber agit currus. But, while using these
illustrations, we need not assume that in the present passage
the fawnskins were studded with artificial spots, as this would
give ora-)Ere a sense which it can hardly bear; c&#39;est assez
to understand a frinzge or trimming, which that word may
very well express. According to Miller, Ancient Ar;t ~ 386, 5,
the &#39;roe-skin covered with tufts of wool, is also to be recognised
on vases.&#39; For the use of wool in sacred rites cf. Aesch. Eumz.
45, eXdas v&#39;r+yevVrqTov KXdovO XajIEtL PIey;-ro orciqp6vwo t(rrjLuivov dpyjrt uaXAc.

Page  113
-"31

NO TES.

I3)

XEVKOrTpLCXov rXOKtLWV ALCAXXots presents some difficulty; The
would be little awkwardness in the apparent combination of
&#39;hair&#39; and &#39;wool,&#39; in the first and last words of the phrase, as
the compound XEVK0O0pt4 need not mean much more than XevKOS&#39;;
but the addition of r-XoKdrlOOv makes it less easy to get rid
of the full meaning of the adjective; and unless we suppose
that Euripides uses the three words as a condensed and confused expression for tufts of wool and bunches of goat&#39;s hair
combined, it is hard to make sense of the passage, especially
as 7rXoKa/tos is not, so far as I can find, used elsewhere of
the hair of animals, but is constantly applied to the flowing
locks of men and still oftener of women. Reiske (who is followed
by Mr Tyrrell) proposes iroKadiov (sometimes said to mean
&#39;sheep,&#39; but only found in the sense of &#39;hair&#39; or &#39; wool&#39; in Ar.
Thesm. 567, AdXX&#39; KroOKLC5 -ov ras 7roKaCaas, which apparently
means &#39;&#39;ll1 tear your hair out,&#39; &#39;give you a good combing&#39;).
Elmsley suggests 7rpodrcrwv, with misgivings, as the word is
never used in Euripides, nor indeed (he might have added)&#39;
by any of the Tragedians (though Strabo p. 784, speaking of
the Nabataean Arabs, says they have 7rpol3ara XEvKorptXa). Sure
the whole, I think it best to regard ytaXXors as a metaphor taken
from tufts of wool and applied by an easy transition to bunches
of hair, and to understand XEvKorpiLXov,rXoKdPucov, &#39;white-haired
tresses,&#39; as an ornamental phrase for the tufts of hair which
the Bacchae may have taken to trim their fawn-skins from the
goats killed by them in the chase. In 1. 139, alia rpayoKrvov
is mentioned immediately after the words, vE3piLo CO&#39;Xcov iLpv
E8rvTov.
113. 4a(,lJ vdp0lSKacs O3ppr&s v 6crLoeao-) &#39;be reverent in thy
handling of the saucy (or &#39;wanton&#39;) ferule.&#39; The vn&#39;p1oO was the
light wand supplied by the pithy stem of the giant fennel. It is
the Latin ferula, of which Pliny XIHI 42 (cf. Theophr. Hist.
Plant. VI 2 ~~ 7, 8) writes, nulli fruticum levitas maior. ob id
gestatu facilis baculorum usum senectuti _praebet; cf. Nonnus
XI 354, y7poKofCLO Vap07KL al Eas a rtp(QEro UKTrpw, and Ovid Met.
IV 26. Its lightness would make it very suitable for the female
votaries of Dionysus; and, if we adopt the notion naively sugS. B. 8

Page  114
114

BA CC(A/E.

ar&#39;

gested by Diodorus, Iv p. 149, it was to prevent serious consequences arising from the abuse of clubs on occasions of boisterous merriment, that the god himself graciously enjoined on
his worshippers the use of the light and comparatively harmless
weapon (similarly Plutarch, Symplf. 7, Io, 3, o Oeos rov vapOqKa
Tol 70i voUvrtL eveXElpLeT KOVrn&#39;arov 13eXos Kati JaXaKT-rarOV adlvvTrrPLovy Oros E7r 7reXl crra ralovorvLy, rKLOTra PXdarrnwo).
Tournefort (in his Voyage du Levant I p. 245, quoted by
Joddrell) says it grows plentifully in the island of Skinosa (LtKLVOS,
one of the S5orades) modern Greeks call it Nartheca; &#39;it bears
a stalk five feet high, three inches thick, with a knot every ten
inches, branched at every knot and covered with a hard bark of
two lines thick: the hollow of the stalk is filled with a white
marrow, which when well dried catches fire just like a match.&#39;
It was in the narthex that Prometheus stole the fire from heaven
(Aesch. P. V. I09, vapOrKo7rX7rpo;rov rvpos, Hesiod Works and
Days 52), cf. Phanias Epigr. 2, 7rvpLKoLTra vcapO0rKa Kporda(wv
7rXaa<Topa vqYrtcxoav.
Strictly speaking, the vapOqrl was different from the Oipo-or,
the former being a plain light staff, the latter usually swathed
with ivy, or trimmed with ribbands, and armed with a sharp point
capped with a fir-cone. Eur. however in the course of the play
sometimes uses the words indifferently. Thus Cadmus has a
vdp0rl in line 251, which is called a Ovp(ros three lines after;
and in 1155 we have vcadprOq ef&#39;vpaos applied to the Ovpaos of
Pentheus (835, 941).
118. Cf. 1236, Tra trap&#39; iLrroLos EKXLnrovca KepKLras.
120. &#39;O vaulted chamber of the Curetes! 0 holy haunts of
Crete, birth-place of Zeus; where, in yon caves, the Corybantes,
with helms of triple rim, first framed for my joy this round timbrel
of hide.&#39; According to Strabo, I, I I p. 468, the Curetes saved
the infant Zeus from being devoured by his father Cronos, by
sounding the tyzmpanum and other instruments, and by martial
and boisterous dances which drowned the cries of the babe and
prevented his being discovered. He suggests two derivations
for the name,?&#39;TOL &a To vo Eio Kal Kopot (cf. KoVpoL) OvreGs v;rovpyEFv
} 6aa ro Kovporpoci~L rov a A&#39;a.-The common tradition placed

Page  115
— 26) NOTES. 115
the home of the Curetes in Crete, and that of the Corybantes in
Phrygia, but Euripides in the present passage clearly assigns
the Corybantes also to Crete, and either identifies them with the
Curetes, or at any rate gives them a Cretan origin. The lore
of the subject has been collected and discussed by Lobeck,
Aglaobhzamzus p. IIII-55 (esp. II44, II50, 5 I55), whose conclusion is as follows: &#39;satis confirmatum videtur Corybantum et
nomen et cultum ad sacra Phrygia pertinere, plurimumque
interesse inter hunc barbarum Kopv3avrrca-ov et Graecorum Cretensium Kovprto-p&#39;ov discriminis, quamvis Corybantes et Curetes a poetis et mythographis propter generalem similitudinem
saepe confusi sint.&#39;
Lobeck on Ajax 1. 847, p. 374, refers the epithet -rptKpvOEV,
here used of the Corybantes, to the &#39;triple rim of their helmet
which gave the effect of three helmets placed in succession on
one another,&#39;-not unlike the papal tiara. Strictly speaking, it
was the Curetes who wore a helmet, while the Corybantes wore
a Kvp,3tcrla or tiara (Hdt. v 49, 7; VII 62, 2); mais ils sont
here confounded with each other, and the epithet properly
applicable to the former is thus transferred to the latter. In
works of art the Corybantes are represented as dancing not only
around the infant Zeus (according to the common legend), but
also, in one instance, around the new-born Dionysus (relief in
the Vatican, copied in Miiller-Wieseler II xxxv 412).
The reading of the MSS is ev6a 1rpLKopvOE9s ev aVvpois. the
metre is restored either (I) by writing e&#39;v0a rpLKopvOE avTrpoLs where
avrpotr is a dative of place, a construction which except in the
case of names of places is almost confined to poetry, esp. Epic
poetry, though it also occurs in Sophocles and more frequently
in Euripides and the Lyric poets; or (2) by accepting Dobree&#39;s
conjecture rptKopv0es E&#39;vO E&#39;v avrpoLs.
126. pfiKXLa) is certainly harsh in sense, as it implies that,
before the Satyrs borrowed the tympianum from Rhea, to introduce it into the worship of Dionysus, the sounds of that instrument could be called Bacchic sounds, which would be a strong
instance of a truly proleptic epithet. Of /a&#39;KXto Hermann says
&#39;rara omnino haec forma est, ubi non de ipso Baccho aut vino
8-2,;!

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Ii6

BA CCHAE.

(I -6

usurpatur sed ut adiectivum additur nominibus&#39;;…&#39;verum qui
BdKXLa aut ra Ba&#39;KXta dixerit, id ut Bacchica sacra significaret,
novi neminem.&#39; Further, he rejects the possibility of taking
aiva 3adKXa together, in the sense &#39;in the Bacchic rites&#39;; and even
assuming its possibility, holds that such an anticipatory use of
the epithet is logically absurd. He rightly insists on taking dva
with Kepacav, per tinesin; but it is difficult to follow him when in
place of /aKXta he conjectures faKXad6&, an adjective for which
(as he admits) there is no authority. If f3aKXta is wrong, the
text must have been corrupted at an early date, as Strabo
testifies to the reading faKXELc in his very inaccurate quotation
of parts of this chorus (Io p. 469). Co-vr&#39;vY is also open to
suspicion, as the meaning &#39;intense,&#39; &#39;impetuous,&#39; &#39;keen,&#39; is not
quite in harmony with advf36a; and it is possibly a corruption of
TvUTrdavv. The requirements of the sense would be met by some
such emendation as dva 8&#39; apcayfara rvu7rcivwv Kepaaoav da8v3oa
clpvyi&#39;ov avlv 7rlErVLariT (cf. Eur. Cyc/. 205).
129. KTUro1V Ediaco-rIL BaKXav) put in apposition to 3vpo&rovov
KVKXw/Aa, &#39;to sound in loud accord with the revel-shouts of the
Bacchae.&#39; Even here, as above in the manuscript reading
3daKXa, the reference to the /3aKXai seems premature, as it is not
till the next sentence that the passing of the tymnanum into the
worship of Dionysus is described; but the present instance is
less harsh than the former; even there however, the harshness
of the prolepsis is to some extent softened by ptot (= ratis SaKXas)
in the previous line. Cf. also 1. 59, where the instrument is
described as the joint invention of Rhea and Dionysus.
131. cvtavi-ravTo, &#39;won it for their own,&#39; stronger than viro-avro,
which means to &#39;attain,&#39; &#39;get at,&#39; as in Aesch. P. V. 700, Xpelav
tjvI(rao-e. Liddell and Scott, less adequately, explain it in the
present passage as meaning &#39;to gain one&#39;s end.&#39; —rvviwav, not
Eavrovs, &#39;joined in the dance,&#39; but TO Trvtpravov &#39;wwedded it
(mingled it) with the dances of the triennial festivals, which
gladden Dionysus.&#39; rpLerrTplas, i.e. festivals returning every
other year, once in every cycle of two years, for this is what the
Greeks meant by a TpLerTpIlS (alternis annis, says Macrobius,
quoted on 306), just as the Olympic ir{vraernplt was what we

Page  117
– 35)

NO TES.

I 7

should call a cycle of four full years. Ovid F. I, 393, festa
corymbiferi celebrabas Graecia Bacchi, tertia quae solito temfiore
bruma refert; Virg. Aen. IV 300, saevit inozfs animi, totamque
incensa per urbem bacchatur; qualis commo/is excita sacris
Thyias, ubi audito stimulant trieterica Baccko orgia, nocturnusque vocat clanore Cithaeron.
135. orav Freyr standing without any subject is awkward,
and the same objection applies to evr&#39; av. It is therefore not
improbable that for orav we should read os &#39;v (which has occurred to Kirchhoff and doubtless to others). Even i1js, though
found in the sense of &#39;well-pleased,&#39; &#39;glad,&#39; in Soph. O. T. 82,
and elsewhere, has been altered into &#39;Sor, voludtas in montibus
(Musgrave), and into 778 y&#39; (Dobree); the latter may be supported by a fragment of the Archelaus, a play so named out of
compliment to the king at whose court the Bacchae was written,
frag. 265, Ea-TL (+ r Meineke) Ka&#39; 7rapa BaKpvOL KELpvoV i8v fporoI0,
0Tav avlpa ^iXov TrEvaXn Ts Ev EoKo (vel o&#39; cKr), where however
it will be noticed that rts is expressed. A further extension of
Dobree&#39;s conjecture was once suggested by the present Master
of Trinity College, da8 y&#39; Ev Op(CoLv a av, which he supported by
Soph. fragm. 326, ir8O7rov 8&#39; orTc rdapEtTL XA rjs V p a KaO&#39; jft;pav.
This is not open to the objection raised above, viz. L&#39;absence de
a subject to the verb grTEn. Hermann, who prints Wfvs, ev o&#39;pEciv,
os r&#39; av…7recrr7 7reao&#39;e, renders &#39;laetitiae plenus est, in montes,
quique ex velocibus thiasis in campos se contulerit,&#39; thus introducing a contrast between oupevwv and 7reboae. He makesmerry
over the absurdity of the god, or his votary, being described as
&#39;happy on the mountains when he hunts on the plain,&#39; goal
neither in the manuscript reading nor in any proposed correction, is Euripides really responsible for such a statement; for
7reboase must mean, not 7rpos retla (much less ev rre&lotr) but rrpos
rreaov, &#39;to the ground,&#39; just as in 600,;lKerE rreUo8E rpotepa
C(rloara compared with 605, 7rpov 7re8o. 7re7rTo&#39;Kare; cf. Troad. 99,
ava, 8vcrSaillov, 7TrFO0VE KE()aXv. Some such correction as luvs Ev
ovperrv ovpeo-Lv (o-&#39; es va would be open to no exception on the
ground of construction, or of metre, coinciding as it does with a
form of verse used four times in this epode; e.g. ELs OpoS, eiS Opos

Page  118
xI8

BA CCHA4 E.

(I35

daotuva 8&#39; apa, where the characteristic repetition of OV"pEoIv also
finds its parallel. Such a repetition would easily drop out of
the MSS and o-O&#39; or eoTrlv might be lost after the last syllable of
ovpeawv. As an alternative might be suggested j) vs ev oUpeo-l
E;-0&#39; orav rtL, a logaoedic verse like the last line of an Alcaic
stanza, and equivalent to the next verse in this chorus with a
dactyl prefixed. A still simpler course would be to keep closer
to the MSS and to accept 6jvs ev opeSo-Lv o" v, av paeonic dimeter, -. — I -— l I. This is Schdne&#39;s emendation, and it has
the advantage of giving us the same form opea-Lv as has been
already adopted in 76, and altering only one letter in the rest of
the line.
The sense thus gained is: &#39;Oh! happy on the hills is he,
whoe&#39;er from amid the revel-bands sinks to the ground.&#39; Alors
Propertius I, 3, 5, assiduis Edonis fessa choreis qualis in herboso concidit Atfidano, talis visa mihii mollem spirare quietem
Cynthia, non certis nixa caput manibus. The resting Maenad
is well represented in the sleeping nymph, engraved in this book
in illustration of line 683. In modern sculpture the resting
Bacchante is one of Bartolini&#39;s works in the gallery of the
Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth.
138. dcypEi>(v alia TrpaQyOKTKovov (oo4lYdOV X pLv) &#39;chasing the
goat to the death, for the raw banquet&#39;s relish,&#39; bed. &#39;hunting after
a goat-killing slaughter, as a raw-eating delight.&#39; For at/ua=
covos, cf. Orest. 285, I I39, and esp. 833 and 1649, IarpoKr7-ov
aLa, &#39;matricidal murder.&#39; With rpayoKTrovos in this active sense
Elmsley compares JrlrpoKTrvos (u. s.), davOpOTroKToos (CycI. 127),
and /3poroKrovos (Iph. T. 384).
3Jocfidy/ov XapLv) in app. to aiXa, =XaapLv co1iohay&#39;as, &#39;for the
enjoyment of a raw banqueting.&#39; So Herc. F. 384, Xaplovaicrtv
alvOpo3pcro- = t apxPova7s alvOponro(faylas. Cf. Eur. fragm. of Cretes,
(o0/ofdyovs aiTras, quoted on 74, which might appear in favour of
printing Wcsodayov (passive) here; but even there, &#39;raw-eaten
banquets,&#39; though a more obvious, seems a less poetical idea
than &#39;raw-eating banquets.&#39;
For the sacrifice of the he-goat to Dionysus (as a foe to the
vine (?) or for other reasons) Virg. G. 2, 380, Baccho caper omnibus

Page  119
-I42)

NATO TE S.

I19

aris caeditzur; Ovid F. I, 357, rode caper vitemn, tamen hinc,
czam stabis ad aram, in fua quod spfargi cornua ipossit, erit. Sure
a painted vase (copied from Mon. ined. del. Inst. I860 pl. xxxvii
in Daremberg and Saglio&#39;s Dict. des Antiq. s.v. ara) there is a
representation of an altar with the head of an ox carved upon it,
and beside the altar a priestess with a fawnskin across her robe
holding aknife in one hand, and a goat, which she is on the
point of sacrificing, in the other. At Potniae, near Thebes,
there was still standing in Pausanias&#39; day a temple to Dionysus
Alyofi6Xos (IX 8, -I). It was probably as an animal sacred to
Dionysus, and not as an enemy of the god, that the goat was
sacrificed to him; the Maenads sometimes wore the goat-skin
(Hesychius s.v. aZy(Cetv and rpay)bf6poL); and in the masterpiece
of Scopas known as the /3aKX, XtJialpoovos (the original of
many representations on ancient monuments, one of which is
copied among the illustrations to this ed., p. 86), a Maenad was
to be seen holding in her hands part of a dismembered kid.
The rites of tWooiayla were connected with the cult of Dionysus
Zagreus (the hunter), and the animals captured and pulled to
pieces by the Bacchanals are supposed to have taken the place
of the human victims of an earlier time (Paus. Ix 8, 2, Porphyr.
de abstinentia, II 55); thus even Themistocles, before the battle
of Salamis, sacrificed three young Persian prisoners to Dionysus
Omestes (Plutarch Them. 13). There is an interesting article
on the subject by F. Lenormant in the Gazette Archiologique
1879, pp. 18-37, Dionysos Zagreus.
141. t9apXOS…Euoi) et. of the coryihaeus of a chorus, here
of Dionysus himself as the invisible inspirer of the revels. Dem.
de cor. p. 313 ~ 260, TOVS qfELS (cf. 103, 698) roS 7irapetas OXI3COv KIal
v7rp rjs KEq)aXr)s alCop cV Kal Eorv evo a o-a/o3 Kal f7ropXOV(Evo vrs
a. g, X K l v
arrTs aSrrTS vrS, E&#39;apxos KUal 7rporLyepcov…7rpoc&#39;ayopevofLevos.
Lucian Dionysus ~ 4, III p. 78 (Reitz), ro aovvOllpa (watchword)
tv arrao- rTo eVL, Hor. Carm. 2, 19, 5 evoe! recenti nmens trepidat
nmetu…evoe piarce, Liber, piarce gravi metuende thyrso.
142. These marvellous streams of wine, milk and honey are
dwelt upon with more detail in 697-704, 750 ff. It was doubtless descriptions like these that Plato had in mind when writing

Page  120
I20

BA CCHAE.

(r4s
L142

the fine passage on poetic inspiration in the Ion, 534 A, esp.
the words, IaKXXevovac Kal KareX6oIevo L OaTr7ep at aKxaL adpVrTTrora
eKc TCrV 7roTracv tLt /IX Kal dyXa KareXol/Levat. So Horace Carm.
2, I9, Io, vinique fonztem; lactis et uberes cantare rivos alque
truncis lapsa cavis iterare mella; Ovid tells of streams of milk
and nectar flowing in the golden age, Met. I, III. Elmsley
quotes the Septuagint version of Exodus iII. 8, els yqv peovucav
yacXa Kat /eEXL. For the dat. yaXaKTL, where the ace. could have
been used as well, just as in the passage above quoted, cf. Iliad
22, 149, 7J jL&#39; (7r7)yj) viart Xtap pEEL, and 4, 45 I.
144. &#39;There (breathes) a reek as of Syrian incense.&#39; To fill
up the ellipse, we may supply either cirl or some such word as
rrvll, implied by the general sense of Ape in the preceding clause.
For Evplas Xcidvov, cf. Aesch. Ag. 1312, ov &#39;Sv&#39;pLov dyXd)ioara t8ai,/drTc XVeyEi, and Orphic hymn to Aphrodite, 54, I7, evXlidvov
vpl?)S.
145. 0 BaKXev 8&#39; i xouv rvpord1 ())6ya T revKaS EIK vapOr7os
aLc(TrE 8pp/@i KCa XopoLS pE9LicOV rXavadras aKxaLs r&#39; dvar7rdXwv,
rpvqfepov 7rXoKa/.ov els alE&pa p7Traov. This is a somewhat perplexing passage. The above words seem to give the best text
that can be got by keeping closely to the MSS, without resorting
to a considerable amount of emendation. Both MSS have Kal
Xopoig, but in the Palatine there are two dots under & in Xopols
which seem to point to Xopovs. If we strike out iKal and read
Apo6ic, Xopovs-we are almost compelled to take datT-oct 8po&#39;cU
together, in the most obvious intransitive sense, &#39;rushes along
at full speed,&#39; &#39;speeds along in the race,&#39; though there is a strong
temptation to make it transitive (with Paley) who renders the
whole sentence as follows: &#39; and the follower of Bacchus, holding the ruddy blaze of pine-wood on his wand, waves it about in
his course, rousing the scattered bands as he goes.&#39; The torch,
he adds, seems to have been placed at the end of the wand,
for the purpose both of holding it aloft, and of giving it a wider
range in brandishing it about. This last suggestion as to the
way in which the torch may have been attached to the ferule is
very likely to be right; and, if we accept it, we may understand
Kc vdCpOrKos to mean, either (i) hanging down from,&#39; or (2) &#39;pro

Est

Page  121
;Y91- -,i&#39;: —i,~,1-1,- -l;,. e~3.-., ".V-, – i- -,. ~._, I rl~: – -…*r;r~~r~~~3~*M J 14_

-I45) NOTES. 121
jecting from near the end of the ferule to which it was attached&#39;; or possibly (3) from a socket formed by removing the
pith of the vaprp0q, letting the torch in and tying it fast with
ribbands round the bark. I rather incline to the first, because in the present sentence it would appear that after the
rest from the chase and the refreshment of the honey, milk
and wine, the chorus passes, by the transition supplied in the
reference to the &#39;reek of Syrian incense,&#39; to the description
of the Bacchant himself rising from his repose and refreshment,
and holding aloft the newly kindled pine-torch, which, before
being carried separately in full blaze, would not unnaturally
be suspended from the ferule with the flame downwards; (this
could easily have been managed with strings or ribbands like
those which may often be seen in works of art representing the
pine-coned thyrsus with ribbands fluttering about its upper part.)
The leader next rouses his companions, rallies the scattered
revel-bands, and calls upon them to sound the praise of Dionysus
on the timbrel and the flute.
cK vapOqKosV in the sense of &#39;hanging from the ferule,&#39; without
any participle or similar word to introduce it, is not entirely
free from suspicion; and it is this that leads some to prefer
making dta&#39;r-e transitive. The sense then would be, &#39;the
Bacchanal holding the ruddy flame of the pine-torch, shoots it
forth from his ferule as he runs,&#39; or rather &#39;by his running&#39;;
but if we thus take the verb in a transitive sense, it seems clearly
better to separate 8p6eAV from dtciae and read apocA Kal XOpols
fpeOifcov 7rXavaras, &#39;challenging his truant (or &#39;errant&#39;) comrades by his coursing and his dances&#39; (the usual construction of
epeOLetv as in Iliad 4, 5, KeprojiEos eir;eErorv and Od. 17, 394,
vL8ooaLv XaXEr7rotoLv), or &#39;to racing and dancing&#39; (the construction found with a similar verb in I/. 7, 218, 1rpoKaXiroaro XadpMp).
Cf. Ar. Nubes 312, IejKeXda3O re XopcGv EpeOiLa-taa, Kal iovaa /3apvOpouosv av&#39;Xcv.
The only representation of anything like a torch attached
to the ferule, which I have been able to find, is the following engraving, taken from what purports to be a copy of a Florentine
gem. Though I have some suspicions as to the correctness

Page  122
1 22

PA CCHAE.

(145

of the original copy from which it is taken (as I have observed on another page, in the description of the engravings), I
nevertheless give it here as at any rate a representation of one
of the various ways in which a torch may have been attached
to the Bacchanal&#39;s wand.
EK VdpOYKos has ere now been understood of the tinder-like
stem of the ferule in which fire was commonly carried about, as
is still the custom in Greece, Bacchus habens (i.e. gestans)
zgneam (igniferam) flammam taedae ex ferula orientem (emicantem) ruit (F. M. Schulz). Nonnus, by the way, has in
7, 340, 7rvptrofo6p? vVapOqKt KaraxOea 7rrtXvv Epetras; but this interpretation would almost require;K vapOCPqKo advarrTe (kindles), and,
besides, the minute detail thus introduced is too trivial to be
tolerated in a vigorous and rapid description of the wild revels
on the hills.
It once occurred to me that the right reading might possibly
be EK iCvpOqKas dita-&#39;-e (&#39; shooteth forth ferule after ferule&#39;) = vlpOrJKav E4Ctio-ctL, by a tmesis twice exemplified in this chorus,
ava Ovprov re rvdcarcov (80), and Kara urpciO 86 KaXvJas (96); this

Page  123
041

IVOTES.

1 2 3

would be parallel in sense to j3a&#39;XXovraq K~at CrElOVra I~aKXELOV
KXaa8ov in 308, but the only evidence I can find in favour of the
compound i&#39;4o~o-o-etw being transitive, is its use in the passive in
one passage of Homer, Ii. 3, 368, EiK U fXot I&#39;EvXOg ~iOq 7raXai(qpftv
(which also exemplifies the Irnesis proposed).
The pine-wood torch described in 1. 146 as borne by the
Bacchanal, and often so represented in works of art, is sometimes
mentioned as waved about by the god himself (see 306-8, with
the notes).,151. &#39;And withal, to swell his revel-shouts, he thunders forth
such calls as these: On! On! my Bacchanals, bright grace of
Tmolus and his streams of gold.&#39; On mount Tmolus see note
on 5 5. The epithet Xpvaropdal is here applied to it, because it was
the source of the small stream of the Pactolus, a tributary of a
far larger river, the Hermus, which is itself called auro turi&#39;idus
(Virg. Georg. 2, 137): Herod. v 1o1, t&#39;~rl TrO&#39; I~aK7cRIXOP lrorapov,
Gv o-pt 4n-Iypa Xpuo Ka~a(/)opEcov 4EK Toy TM5oXov ata,ioq r~ -o
p71&#39; ("EEL Kal E7~ELTa E&#39;, TO0v Ep/.koP 7roT-ajJLo&#39; EWK&3&, Ovid A/el. XI, 87
(of Bacchus) cumique clhoro me/lore suii vine/a Tinmoli Pactoion que jtetit; q(amnivs non aureus illo tenzjhore, nec canis erat
invidiosus arenis. N onnus, 43, 442, H(aKrcoXoi 7rapa&#39; 7ri~Ca, 0&#39;73,7
XpvLoavyEi 7rq7Xji d(vinou 7mrja)oio pXav dJJoLvlo-oTETQa V&8op.
156. jpapv~ppo&#39;LAv i-7rT&#39;jJ-rcvc-7rv)v&#39;to the sound of the deep-toned
drums.&#39; The same epithet is applied elsewhere by Eur. the
notes of the flute, the sound of thunder and the roar of the waves
(J-e/. 1305, 1351, Plhoen. 183).-For V&#39;o&#39; which is often used c.
gen. to indicate a musical accompaniment, cf. V&#39;7&#39; at&#39;Xo5 XopevEtVEL
ien-&#39; 5opjatyycov, and the like. Herod. i 17, &#39;a TpLTvroTOVT
a-aX7rt&#39;yyc/(v.
157. IEikaC) &#39;glorifying the Evian god in righit Bacc/hic sort.&#39;
Cf. Ta, VO/ILOEvra in 72. 160. XWTO&#39;S Ev&#39;KIEXcL~os) El. 7i6, XwOJTI U
1/0&#39;y-YOV KEXa&#39;aIE KAXXWOToV, MOVO-aV Ocpair(wv.
164. v-iivoXct (~oL-rtWT *Ls 0S Pos) &#39;in apt accord with the wild
bands trooping to the mountain&#39; (=qfovr(-oo-atv Elv O&#39;POS.). We
cannot construe ez&#39; 05pov with IMF f3alKXat (Musgrave) or with
KCOXov ayEL (Elmsley).-Bd&#39;K~a in 169 is Musgrave&#39;s excellent correction of the manuscript reading &Ba9KOV.

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170. r~s Iv &#39;1rivXcLaL; KcLSiLov f&#39;KKCLXELI The older editions, including Elmsley&#39;s, had 74, ez, 7rrXato-L Kaia.Lov E&#39;KKaXEi (fut.) U4cov.
Elmsley himself however suggests, hut does not adopt, the reading printed in the text, quoting in its support Hel. 437, TL.v 7rP&#39;,rvaUtL; Phoen. i067, Cm), TL EV 7irVmat cT& &J)Iacw Kvpei; avoiyer&#39;,
EK7TOpEVETV &#39;IoKa&#39;T7?7V 80&#39;cov. To these may he added Eur. fragm.
625&#39; (Fe/eus) /%cio-o,~at raipa 7-av v~reprovov /3avr twO,7rvXaL-TLV T~ TL&#39;
EV UlAOLS&#39;; and Ar. P/u/us 1 103, (A) o-i&#39; 7-qv OApap e`Ko7iTEV;-(BD)
adXX&#39; e`KKa&#39;XfL To&#39;V 83EoWOT7r0V.
171. 1T6&#39;XLv-Q~o-rv) In 7rofX Ls the city is primarily regarded as
an association of men, a body of citizens; in a&#39;o-,rv, as a place of
dwelling, a group of buildings. The former is connected with
the Sanskrit fiur, fiura, j~uri, still frequently found as an element
in the name of Indian cities and villages, e.g. Cawnp ore, SYeramzpiore, Midnaiaore. Pur or fiuri (7rdXts) and ghuru (7roXi&#39;s) are
doubtless connected, as both sets come from the root PA~R, &#39;to
fil.&#39; The latter, a&#39;o-rv, is connected with the Indo-European
root vXs, &#39;to dwell,&#39;2 whence the Sanskrit vds-lya, va7stu, &#39;dwelling-place,&#39; &#39;house&#39;; the Greek Jo-74ia, Feurria; and the Latin
Vesta and possibly ves-ti-bu/um. —Thus the walls and towers
are the a&#39;o-rv only, while the citizens are the true 7ro&#39;XLs, and the
famous words of Nicias to his Athenian soldiers in Sicily are,
even etymologically, strictly true, avNapEv 01) Tel~q i-OAt.-In the
passage before us the exact sense of a&#39;o-7v is kept up by the use
Of &~v&#39;pywo)-eF.
176. UOt-Oovs ciV&#39;vdTrIELV) Some supply XEp&#39;L and make it
Xaf3eiv elr Xeipa (Schbne), but it is perhaps better to render it &#39;to
swathe (lit, to fasten) the thyrsus,&#39; i.e. &#39;to dress it with ivy,&#39;
after the manner described in 1054-5 (so Elmnsley). Cf. Iferc.
F. 549, Oavairov,reptoo&#39;XaL&#39; dvq4piceda and ib. I012, 8eO-La&#39; cTEupatwziV
j3pd6XcOV d&#39;Pq&#39;7rro1.cv 7rpo.T MLOM Mr Tyrrell well quotes Hesychius dJadmreTEv, 7rEpLOEivat. The thyrsus-wand was not always
capped with the pine-cone only, but often finished off at the
top or swathed along the stem with ivy or vine-leaves. Virg.
Edl. 5, 31, 1/basos inducer-e Bacciti et Jo/iis /entas intexere
mo/i/bus Ihastas, and Nonnus 9, 122, quoted in note on 1. 25
(paragraph 2).

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178. &#39;Dearest of men! for e&#39;en within the house I heard thy
words, wise as the man that speaks them.&#39; cs=nanz gives
the reason why Cadmus at once comes out and addresses
Teiresias, without waiting for the porter to open the door and
announce the visitor. Hec. I 114, c&#39; (4LXrar&#39;, a-1dtorv yap, &#39;AyapLE/~vov, (TEOev qfWOvP dKovto-as. Elmsley also quotes Rhes. 608,
Oed. Col. 89I.-For.JO6urxv, ~786irlv and 7or-j4fi v (sic) (from
ijo0,at) have been suggested, but the plupf. of that verb would
be 7oja-r7v, and the aorist or present would have been more natural
than either the plupf. or impf. The line is borrowed, just as it
stands here, by the author of the Christus Patiens, 1148.
183. ctL&#39;eotreau pE-yacv) &#39;wax to greatness,&#39; a proleptic epithet.184. IrroL (for wroi) &el Xopevtev is due to the implied idea of
motion, Here. F. 74, 7rol 7rarrp anirrTL yr;
185. citiyov -r vo FiL ypv yIpoV&#39;T) Expound to me as an
old man to his fellow.&#39; In Soph. O. C. 1284, KaXts?yap iEr/yeL
o-V got, we have a coincidence of expression, but the sense is
somewhat different. In the present passage, and not unfrequently elsewhere, the word is used of priestly interpretations;
e.g. Andocides, de myst. ~ 116, e ryp, K7pv&#39;KOwv O, V&#39; OiX tOLOV arol
ef&#39;ryei7-Oat (i.e. you have no right to expound the sacred rites, as
you are not one of the priestly Eumolpidae, but only one of the
hereditary Heralds of Eleusis). Cf. $ry-rrjs, interpres religionum.
188. rLXeX&#39;ioCrLEO&#39; tj5~s(s yEpovrEs ov&#39;VEs) The manuscript reading is jscov, and the sense thus given, &#39;we in our old age have forgotten our pleasures,&#39; &#39;are not alive to the pleasures still open to
us,&#39; does not tally with the reply of Teiresias, &#39;Then you feel as I
do, I too feel young again and shall essay the dance.&#39; Hence
all editors now accept the emendation j84cov, due in the first
instance to Milton. The same easy alteration afterwards occurred, possibly independently, to Barnes (ed. Cambridge, 1694)
and to Brunck (ed. Strasburg, I780). The former says &#39;mendam
hic nemo ante est suspicatus&#39;; the latter &#39;mirum est id non
adsecutos fuisse viros doctissimos…nostra emendatione nihil
certius.&#39; But Dobree is perhaps not entirely justified in his
severe epigram: &#39;palmariam emendationem r4e3s& Miltono surripuit Barnesius, Barnesio Brunckius&#39; (Kidd&#39;s Miscellaneous tracts

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p. 224). Milton&#39;s emendations were known to Dr Joddrell
whose &#39;illustrations of the Ion and Bacchae&#39; appeared in 1781
(II p. 335 " and 572) and all of them were printed in the zMseumt
Criticum in 1814. They were written in the margin of his copy
of the edition of Euripides printed by Paul Stephens at Geneva
in 1602, 2 vols. 4to. now in the possession of Henry Halford
Vaughan, Esq., of Upton Castle, Pembroke. Milton bought it
in 1634, the very year in which he wrote the Comus, which was
acted at Michaelmas of that year, and shews in several points
special familiarity with this and other plays of Euripides (cf. esp.
Comzus 297-30I with Ibh. T. 264-274, and notes on 235 and
317 inlfa).
192. dXX&#39; oUvX O1JioCs av 6 OEos &#39;LtL&#39;V EXO) Elmsley (approved
by Shilleto) suggests a somewhat more rhythmical line, dXX&#39; ovX
ofoV lau do 0Eo av TLF;7V XxoL, remarking that &#39;in tragic iambics, a
monosyllable which is incapable of beginning a verse, as av,
yap, ae, iev, r7e, rs, is very rarely employed as the second syllable
of a tribrach or dactyl.&#39; But Hermann shews that nrLqv XELfv
being equivalent to rTiaa-Oa, &#39;oLoiws will stand, and that although o OEao is found elsewhere as a tribrach in the same place
as in Elmsley&#39;s line, with the ictus on the article (206, 333), it is
better in the present instance to keep the manuscript reading
which allows the ic/us to fall on O8es, the emphatic word.
193. &#39;The old man then shall be the old man&#39;s guide.&#39;
Gellius N. A. XIII 19, 3, sed etiam ille versus non minus notus
ytpowv —iyd el t i ra troedia Sophocli scriptus est cii titulus est
OtoT7r3ecg et in Bancc/his Euriidi.
197. pcaKpov rb ieXXELv) &#39;delay is tedious.&#39; 198. &#39;There now!
clasp hands and link your hand with mine.&#39;
200. ovsev o-o<(Lt6o&#39;LE(rto TotL SaCtLoo-) &#39;we don&#39;t philosophise
(do not rationalise) about the gods.&#39; ov&#39;iev, lit. &#39;in no respect.&#39;
Some of the earlier scholars (Scaliger, Valckenaer, Brunck) favoured the alteration ov8ev rot(tfcleo-Oa, forgetting to challenge it
on the obvious ground that with the conj. Eur. would have written
uvL7V. TroLOL aaaiJoo-Tv appears to be a dative of hostile direction,
&#39;against the gods,&#39; which Elmsley compares with the common
construction of 7roXECltv and errtovhevetv, &#39; niJil aigIte commZ-i

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127

niscimur in deos&#39;; so also with dycovleiroOa,,aXceo-Oat, dvrLXeyewv, dvOoa-raTLat. Mr Tyrrell however refers to 683, crcolao-tv
TrapetLevat, thus shewing that he would rather take it as
meaning &#39;in the matter of.&#39;-aolCr-Oiat is only once used elsewhere by Eur., and that in a play of the same date, Iph. A. 744,
cro-folLaL 6 Ka&#39;7rl rot-L a f)raroLt reXvas 7ropi&#39;o. In the sense of
&#39;speculating,&#39; &#39;rationalising,&#39; &#39;subtly explaining away&#39; a received
belief, it is well illustrated by Plato P/aedr. 229 (in part already
quoted by Paley), "Tell me, Socrates," says Phaedrus, "was it
not front somewhere hereabouts on the Ilissus that Boreas, as
the story runs, carried off Orithyia?…Do you believe the legend
(,uvOoXdyr7Lna) to be true?" "Why" (answers Socrates), "I
should be doing nothing extraordinary, if, like the learned (ol
oooli), I were to disbelieve the tale; and if, in a rationalising
mood (ooi6LStLEJvos), I went on to say that as the girl was playing…she was blown over the cliffs just here, by a blast of the wind
Boreas, and that having thus met her end, she was fabled to
have been carried off by the god Boreas… But I have no
leisure for such studies… I therefore leave them alone and
acquiesce in the received opinion regarding them" (XalpELV
efaras Tavra, 7rtOELoevos….r vo/LCoevy lrTEpi auv&#39;rCv). The mental
attitude thus described is remarkably parallel with that expressed in the present and several other passages in the play
(427-3I, 395, 882-95). But just as Plato in the Republic and
elsewhere rejects myths of an immoral tendency, so the vulgar
stories with which the Greek Theogony was rife (whatever
explanation of them may in the present day be made possible
by the light of comparative mythology) were again and again
condemned by Euripides (Ifi. T. 386, H. F. I341). Yet this
position of remonstrance does not prevent his allowing expression to be given here and elsewhere, by characters in his plays,
to a feeling of contented and unquestioning submission to traditional and time-honoured beliefs. Such passive compliance is
dramatically appropriate in the lips of the aged prophet, and is
not unsuitable to the declining years of the poet himself; but we
must be careful not to assume that the poet himself actually
held the sentiments which a sense of dramatic fitness leads him

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120D

to ascribe to the characters in his plays. It was an assumption
of this kind that led Aristophanes and others to make an unwarrantable charge against him founded on a line wrested from
its context, 4 -yXd~o-o-&#39; ijt4co&#39;,~X&#39; 47 8E (~pqv advc~oroq (H45p 62)
a line which is dramatically most defensible; and, if read in its
proper place., is justly recognised as a sudden outburst of selfreproach on the part of a youth of stainless purity, indignant at
having been entrapped into a verbal oath of whose true meaning he was at the time utterly innocent, an oath whose binding
force he acknowledges immediately after, and which he keeps
at the cost of losing his life.
201-3. &#39;Iro.pL&#39;ovs -1rcapcSoXcis…cfp~wvc) &#39;Our fathers&#39; heir-loom
of time-honoured faith,.No reasoning shall cast down,.-not
though the lore Hath been the invention of the keenest wit.&#39;
This passage is referred to by Plutarch Mor. 11 P. 756 (Amator-iUs 13, 3&#39;, PE-y&#39;Xuv /LOL 80KIEZ9 IreoOat Ka&#39; 7wapaf3Xov 7rpiy iro~
ttiAXOUv AW9 ~crTa&#39; a&#39;Ku&#39;vqTa KOJELR, T~ rEPL OECOV 80&#39;~)~qTV E&#39;XO/.EV, Trept
EKaTTOI) X&#39;O&#39;YOV a7raLT6cV Kal d7r6O8EL6LV&#39; a9Kfi &#39;ya&#39;p 4 7rarp~a KaL
7raXaL&#39;a 7rio-Tn,?/V OVIC E&#39;FYTLV ELITEL1/ 0&#39;a, aVEVpELJ&#39; TEK/I7pLOJJ EapyioTrepov, o01 el 8IL a&#39;pav To&#39; uo()O&#39;v EV&#39;p77TraL ct) pEvo&#39; a
Eflpa 7TLv aV1Tq Kal /3C(TLSV V&#39;(fJeCTTCO(T KOLIq&#39;? lrpol&#39; evue/3etav, E&#39;av At&#39; 4EV.
TaparTTraTa KaL a-aXEVI77aTroL TO f/aLw av&#39;Tf, Kal PEV011LOJUV0V~ E~rto-(aXq)v -Yivc-rat 7TGGYL KaL v7roirTof. This quotation (as was first
pointed out by VaLckenaer) shews that for the manuscript reading 7rarpo&#39;., we should read 7rarplovv. It is acutely suggested by
Mr Tyrrell that Plutarch paraphrases KaTrf~aXXEL (&#39;gets the
better of&#39;) as if he had read V&#39;,rEp/3aXEi (&#39;will be better than&#39;).wLLTpCovs) Plat. leg~es 793 B, ~ratrpta Kal 7ravraclrao-LV a&#39;pXaia vo&#39;4taja.OjJ.1XLKCLS Xpo&#39;vw. This may mean either (i) traditions &#39;coeval in
time&#39; (with ourselves), which we have not only inherited from
our ancestors (7rarpiovg) but have looked upon as familiar friends
who have grown up with us from our very infancy; in that case
we may compare Soph. 0. C. 11i2, 7~o raXato&#39;, 374, xPvc il
87,xpnc,3pa(Itv (so Hermann); or (2) &#39;coeval wit/i timze,&#39; as old
as time itself like the unwritten ordinances of the gods in Soph.
Anitig. 456, 0v) -ya&#39;p TL (Vi&#39; -YE KcXE&#39;v a&#39;XX aEi 7roTE T auTa, KOVl&IEL9
0LE di&#39;6i-ov &#39;Oavqo. The latter interpretation is sometimes held to

Page  129
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129

be supported by Plutarch&#39;s &#39;raXaLt in the passage quoted above, but
that epithet seems equally applicable to the former sense, in which
the traditions are spoken of as f/iXoLt raXatoi, veteres amici; had
he used dpXaia rro-&#39;?tr, aztiquat fids, prisca fides, he might have
been appealed to with greater confidence as in favour of the
second rendering; his paraphrase of the passage is however too
loose and cursory to admit of our relying upon it for the determination of so nice a point. &#39;Old as time itself&#39; is a spirited
expression which may appear too bold for Euripides, but it
must be remembered that he personifies time in this very play,
as well as in a line from a lost play quoted by Aristophanes to
raise a laugh at his expense (Xpovov rro6a, 889 n.). Had he meant
the first sense, he would probably have written as O&#39; loUf7XLtKa
7rdXaL KteKT7pEOa.V —&#39;arC) (used instead of av&#39;rais) refers to the
general sense of the previous line, as in Thuc. v, Io, atrov8al
&#39;toovralt ovmTo yap eirpaav arTa (sc. ra rfpl rag o-rrovS8ad).- ErpriTa
is most naturally taken not as aor. conj. mid., but as perf. indic.
passive. Hermann however says, &#39;neque vero ei vpqTrat indicativo perfecti dictum hic aptum est, ut in re incerta. itaque aut
Tr; intelligendum, aut Ev&#39;prlTa perfecto passivo, sed modi coniunctivi habendum.&#39;-In thought and expression alike, the passage appears to be directed against the Sophists, the first of
whom, Protagoras, wrote a treatise under the title, Kara3atXXovrTS (sc. X,,yot). One of his sayings was, Vrrpi /Zi EOe v OVK
QXw (L8e&#39;vat OG DS&#39; gS EiCrLV OU0&#39; WO OVK teIcrv, Diog. L. ix 51 (Usener).
204. Cpet TLS) At enim, &#39;fortasse dixerit quisipiaz.&#39; &#39;Some
one may say, I have no regard for eld (no self-respect), In
going to dance, with ivy round my head; Not so, for the deity
hath not defined, &c.&#39;-The manuscript reading El Xpw&#39; XopEVftV
(still printed in Nauck&#39;s text) implies that the copyist took the
construction to be, orv ljprlKev sire rTO veov eire rov7 yFpaLTrpoV, fL
XP? XopEVELV=ElrE TOV veov XP&#39; Xopevetv etre Try yepairepov. the
correction given in the Aldine ed. eXpjv is simpler; Kirchhoff
(approved by Paley) proposes oGre rTv ryov ( Xp&#39;…ourE TOy
yEpaLTEpor.
209. 8t&#39; dplOp5v) This difficult phrase, about which almost
the only point that is clear is that it is intended to stand in
S. B. 9

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(209

sharp contrast to i$ dadvravwv in the previous line, is supposed
to mean, &#39;by certain fixed numbers,&#39; i.e. by certain circumscribed classes of men, young alone or old alone, only poor
or only rich. The god will have no compromise; he claims a
honour from all classes indefinitely, without respect of age or
other circumstances, and cares not to be worshipped by any
narrow number, to be honoured by instalments, by halves, as
Elmsley expresses it. In short, he expects of the state in
general what Wordsworth in a strain of higher mood says
of the unreserved self-sacrifice of the individual, &#39;Give all
thou canst; high Heaven rejects the lore Of nicely calculated
less or more&#39; (Ecclesiaslical Sonnets 43). Mr G. O&#39;Connor comes
near the sense of this last parallel, when understanding it "with
employment of calculations" and translating it "by rule and
measure." Mr Brady (quoted by Mr Tyrrell) proposes 8taLpCv,
suggested doubtless by 8aLpr/Ke and already anticipated by Dr
Joddrell; but Mr Tyrrell himself has since deserted that proposal in favour of &aptiOiwv, (suggested by Heath as well as by
himself,) which he takes with ot&#39;eP, &#39; makhing no di tinzctioz,&#39; though
he allows that, in this sense, the middle is more usual. I own
I am not satisfied with the above explanation of &&#39; dptf1cosv or
with any of the proposed corrections. What is obviously
wanted for the restoration of the text is a phrase exactly parallel
to ea c7rdvrWov in the previous line; the most obvious equivalent
to including all among those by whom the god expects to be
honoured is om/ittinig ino one, and the most natural Greek for this
would be ovSiva 7rapaXtrrcov; the sense would therefore be satisfied
by some such correction as 7rapaXircwv 8&#39; ovev&#39; auC&#39;eo-9aL OEXft.
ov8iv…eXEL) &#39;in no wise wishes.&#39; There seems to be practically little, if any, difference in sense between 60XfL in the
present and oIXETraL in the previous line. In IpJ. A4l. 338, we
have TO aoKeLV Hev ovXt Xpi(icv TC Se o3tXe(r-Oat OiXcov, A/c. 281,
Xe;aL 0hXco tot 7rp&#39;v ORuveiv ia 3oivXoJai, and in Dem. fals. leg.
~ 23, oUTr aKoveIv Ij0eXEre oVre 7trretveLv e3ovXeaOe. ofoiXoelai
(according to Donaldson Ne&#39;w Crat. ~ 463) &#39;refers to the desire
or wishing for a thing;&#39; while OXco &#39;is restricted to the mere
will or willingness.&#39;

Page  131
-2 24) NO TES.13
211. wrpocfnIrs) &#39;myself shall be the prompter of thy words.&#39;
Had not Teiresias been blind, he would have ended his speech
by announcing the approach of Cadmus in some such words as
KaL jio7v (Anzizg. 526, ii8o) 1rp0&#39;9 o1Kov9 08E 310 o-1rOv171 repat H1EVOeUg.
As it is, Cadmus prepares the audience and the soothsayer, for
the coming of the king, by taking up the speech instead,
and this is why he is called 7wpo/~-i-r~ X6-ycw. So Teiresias him-n
self is called Ato&#39;sv 7rp44n-rq (Pind. Nem,. i. 91) as one who
speaks instead of Zeus and interprets his will to man; so also in
Aesch. EuM. 19, AL3I. 7rpoq)ofr77&#39; eCo-r AoVib 7rLg, Apollo is the
revealer of the will of Zeus, and the Delphic priestess in her
turn is 41o(8iov 7rpo/i~rmg IO" 32 1, cf. esp. 9 1-93. The notion of
foretelling is only subordinate; and in the line before us we
cannot (with Bothe and Schdne) understand Cadmus to be
P redicling a coming conversation.
214. c~s ElrT6WrnaLl &#39;how flushed he is!&#39;, &#39;how wild his mien!
129 7O wr~olOEi&#39;, 304, 31E7To&#39;qo-e (struck with panic&#39;) and in apa
of the same date, I)Nz. A. I029, o-rEi~ovo-av f&#39;n-rroqtvp&#39;P7. Cf. lifed.
1 120, 7r1&#39;vJ~a 3&#39;?79Et011T/EVGV 83ELIKVVOLV (xil TI Katvo&#39;v a&#39;yyEXEi KaKOl&#39;.
215. T-VYXavc, wxith the participle, often expresses coincidence in time apart from any notion of chance. &#39;Though at the
moment absent from this land, I hear of strange ills in the city
here. Our women as we find (,jiip) have left their homes In
feigned orgies; on the shadowy hills They frisk it.&#39; Oooa~,tv, here
intrans. (cf. n. on 65), &#39;hurry hither and thither,&#39; Troad. 30 7,
paLVaV O0aZ~El &F~po Kaawo~v/pa 8ppt~, and ib. 349.-221. MG1OOLS
EvI JE&#39;ITOLOrLV, not, &#39;in the midst of the festal groups,&#39; but &#39;in the
midst of each festal group.&#39; -T1cEa.,C&#39;VCt Kpcml-lpcLs, Paus. VII 27, 3,
aPaenroiircp (Atov &#39;o-c Aa/irrfjpL) Kal AapLrT1 Jp~a f&#39;OpT7&#39;V ayovn
KaL 3-~~T lT ~pl OUOVEl 177 PVKT-L Ka&#39; LO 9T)lI
ui&#39;T&&#39; aoa&#39; T11) 777)io&#39;XtV 7wioav, and Oracles quoted in Dem. Jhid.
~~ 51, 53; also Statius T/ieb. II 75 (of Theban votaries of Bacchus)
e/frsi j-hassimz Per fecla, Per ag-ros Sertla ieuter vaclCUosqie mem
era/eras.
224..irp0o4)crcLV pLEiv) Ar. Eq. 466, 7rpo(a(Ttv pu~v &#39;ApyELovV
~Ji iovr 7pLV7rOLLa3/ 3&#39; E&#39;KEL AaKEF~aL)U0Vt&#39;L oiwyyLyveTat, Thuc. vi
33 and Lysias Or. 13 I 12 (Cf. 12 ~ 6). rrppo&#39;a(rrt fLiv…1ro) 3&#39; a&#39;XPOE&#39;v.
9-2

Page  132
13 2 B.A4C CH 4E. 1224
S B&#39;s S~ C. oi~o-av. For this ironical use of c.v a&#39;, cf. Andr-om.
235, 0). 8r a-V&#39; uo-wpovw ra&#39;tcl 8&#39; ov&#39;XJ o605 cjpova, where as here the
participle is omitted.-OvooK0&#39;ovsj also used in Rhesus 68, 7TC5V
e&#39;fuo&#39;v OVOKo-,COV j3ovXa&#39;,, and Iliad 24, 221, 1&#39;7 OL (LUVTLEI C10- 6VOOKGOL?- LspiEs!. The verb is found in Aesch. Ag.cr 87, OVOOrKELS. —226.
&o-p&#39;lovs x(Epasl Xi&#39;pav is the &#39;aec. of closer definition.&#39;-227.
ITrmv6,qJJoLcn a —TEyGLLS)44 7rav8rjsov o-riy~, the &#39;public buildings,&#39;
as a euphemism for the prison; cf. 0ol&#39;K17, aqikuov and 89lL6KoLVO9.
229. So in idyll xxvi of Theocritus, on the doom of Pentheus, (A~vai J&#39; BaiKXaL),&#39; &#39;1V5O K&#39; Ai&#39;7ooa X&#39; a&#39; MaXolraipaov &#39;Aya~a
TP(F4 6taciooVV 6c b&#39;poV rpIELv aya-yoI avuraL CGL~rat.
234-6. &#39;A wvizard sorcerer from the Lydian land, With fragrant golden curls, and wine-flushed face, And eyes that beam
with Aphrodite&#39;s charms.&#39; The whole picture reminds one of
Milton&#39;s &#39;Vermeil-tinctured lip, Love-darting eyes or tresses like
the morn&#39; (Gomnis 753); words written, it is to be remembered,
for the autumn of the very year in which he bought the copy of
Euripides described in a previous note, 1. i88.
It is doubtless to the present passage, and to 453-459, that
Callistratus refers in his graceful description of a statue of
Dionysus, the work of Praxiteles, (Stat. 8),,,vd p&#39; v &#39;
7T77T0V (493) &#39;YELcov, /L~ ~pq WPEOEvos, Oioui ainr&#39;v E&#39;PL7r-&17r ~&#39;v B&#39;iX0S
Mor..avf.i51VE….6)4 KLOUO-0?7v O&#39; XaXKO&#39;. ELI&#39; KXOa&#39;K~ oME1VOI&#39; Kat TWv /3oaJpV&#39;Xflv rovI&#39;. iExLtycrpa &#39;EK /AETfA&#39;)7TOV KEXVILEV0VV
dv AoXXcov.
-y0,qs errw86s) It seems best to understand the latter word as
a separate substantive and not as an adjective to the former.
TFhe words are used as substantives in Hilj5 108 0r~ La
y0jr Plat..Symlif. 203 D, aIELPOI&#39;. }I0&#39;7I&#39; Kal c(cap/LaKIEILE Kal 0G/IohTo-J&#39;V.(a clever wizard, sorcerer and charlatan). The notion that the
strange visitant was a wizard might easily arise from vague
reports of his mystic mummeries, therTeEal EV&#39;LOL Of 238, and
of the marvellous streams of milk and honey and wine referred
to in 142.
235. tavOoicrtL poarp~)xowlo CYcl0,s 75, &#39; (Xos- 6)I OfXe B&#39;KLE
roi 0o7TooXFI 4avda&#39;v XaL&#39;rav OEUAW, Seneca Qed. 42I (of Baccbus),
crinef~aventi sirnulata virgo.-,E OfLL KOLLv (as in Iliad 8, 42;

Page  133
— 246)

NO TES.

I33

13, 24; XPv-n(rLav e&#39;OEprlv KoLcowvrT) is Badham&#39;s conjecture for
E&#39;o0Jflov K0Lr7V (of the MSS and Aid. ed.). Evoo-&#39;os$ Kofr/v (Brunck&#39;s
conjecture, adopted by Paley) has the advantage of being a
slighter departure from the MlSS. EUotro-LOv KOntS&#39; (proposed by Mr
Tyrrell) is not conclusive, for in that case KO/LSr would not be
wanted at all as a genitive after /oo-rpvXOiL-Iv; and, partly for
this reason, his alternative EVOOTLGAwV KOIV seems better.
239-241. The sense would perhaps be improved by transferring these lines to a place between lines 247 and 248. We
should thus get the stranger&#39;s misdemeanours mentioned first,
with the threats of punishment immediately following. Ce
suggestion is due to Kirchhoff.
242. EKEtvOS EvtvC JlTrO- ALO6vurov 0E6v) Not ille se dicit esse
Dionysum deum (Barnes), which would obviously have required
the nominative after iTvat, on the principle which is well illustrated by Thuc. IV 28, OVIK E&#39;jr avroS dXX&#39; eKELVOV (Trparryeiv. The
nom. is actually printed in the editions of Reiske and Matthiae,
who forget that Dionysus has not yet revealed his deity, as the
plot of the play implies that at present the god represents himself
as a votary only of Dionysus, and not as the god himself. the
repetition of KE~JVOS in the next line, the genuineness of which
bas been perhaps unnecessarily suspected, is intended to intensify
the contempt conveyed by the pronoun; &#39;Tis he (this Lydian
impostor with his own unsupported assertion), that says Dionysus is a god; &#39;tis he, forsooth, that says that Dionysus was sewn
up in the thigh of Zeus; the babe that was really blasted to
death by the flaming thunderbolt.&#39;-244. aKWrUpoiTaL, present of
vivid description, as in line 2. For the verb, cf. Troad. 301,
aur6ov K7rTTVpovo-L (To-ara, Herc. F. 421, 136pav ee7rVnpwcrev, and
Ifpi. A. 1070, IlptalioLO KXeLVa&#39;v yaiav EKcrrvporcov. —245. ACous OTI
ydpLovs 6i*oE&#39;&#39;ro, see lines 26-31.
246-7. &#39; Do not these wrongs call for the awful halter, This
stranger&#39;s outrages-whoe&#39;er he be?&#39; o-rT&#39; Blca) The same
words end the line in Orest. 615, but both passages are perhaps
unnecessarily altered by Elmsley into enrrdaa, because, as he says,
nullurn senarium apfid tragicos exstare luto qui in initio quinti
iedis &#39;oer&#39; vel arr&#39; habeat. —dyXovX6 s) Soph. 0. T. I374, gpya

Page  134
134

I CCHA E.

(247

KpeLf(TOVi&#39; ayX(pvr, Eur. Heracl. 246, r-a&#39; ayXo;vrlr 7rXar, Ar. Achl.
125, rarTa 1ir&#39; OUK va-yXor; In all these cases hanging is referred
to, not as a punishment, but as a form of suicide; and he has
been suggested that the present passage is no exception, but
that Pentheus here virtually exclaims &#39; This is as bad as bad can
be-it is enough to make one hang oneself.&#39; On this supposition,
it is urged that the transcriber, mistaking the sense of this line,
and wrongly supposing it referred to the hanging of the impostor,
added the next line (247) to explain it; but the retention of the
next line is not inconsistent with the above suggestion. Those
who understand the halter to be here a form of punishment,
may notice that (according to the ordinary printing of the
passage) Pentheus has already threatened to cut the stranger&#39;s
head off, in which event he might dispense with threats of
hanging; but it is open to them to rejoin that the king&#39;s rage
makes him incoherent, and leads to his blurting out one punishment after another in an ungovernable fit of passion; in a later
passage, 356, he threatens him with neither decapitation nor
hanging, but with death by stoning. —ipELs V3pCtELv) As the only
other instance of the plural of!/3pLs in Tragedy is Herc. F. 741,
Vf3pFLs V3ppl&#39;rov els adlEiovas ceSev, it has been proposed to alter
it in both instances to igptLa-&#39; (Elmsley, who quotes Heracl. I8,
pU)tw&#39;-&#39; E&#39; 7jpias rj4iaTev t3pto-at), but (as Hermann justly remarks) rarilas non est idonea damnnandi caussa. v&#39;p3o-pLa hic, zCmea
sententia, alieenum foret, quia nonl de uZna, sed de mudltiplici contumelia serno est. The singular is much more common as in
Hel. 785, VJ/3pLv v &#39; J&#39;pLeiv EI 4e&#39; v &#39;rXnv E&#39;ya, Hera. F. 708, v&#39;piv
t0&#39; _/plieis eiri Oavov&#39;Y roI Eigots, Iph. Aid. 96I, dXX&#39; I3pLv s
fiLas t3pt-r&#39; &#39;Ayanietvowv atva$. In all these cases the cognate
acc., contrary to the general rule, has apparently no adjective
or pronoun joined with it, though it has what may be regarded
as an adjectival phrase instead. In the present passage, the
absence of any adjectival element condemns the conjecture
ifptor&#39; vS(pl^iv, but this objection does not apply to the manuscript reading, as the use of the plural, vipects, gives a fuller
meaning to what would otherwise have been a bare repetition of
the same sense. (Further details on this construction may be

Page  135
– 25 31

No TE S.

135

found in Lobeck, de iuira E/ymiologica, p. 506, and in G. Guinther, dle obiecti quodl dicitur interioris itsi Etri~z5/deo, P. 2 2).
251. vdipellKL IPCLKxEuovr&#39;) It is uncertain whether this stands
for the dual or the singular accusative. Though both are alike
arrayed in the Bacchic garb, Teiresias is specially described as
dressed in fawnskins; so it may be Cadmus alone that is represented &#39;with a ferule masquerading.&#39; At the same time, it is not
improbable that as a single fawnskin is all that is usually ascribed
to the votaries of Dionysus, the poet is thinking of Cadmus as
wvell as Teiresias in using the plural vE/3pt&#39;aL (cf. however
Nonnus 45, 86, XpV&#39;a,-a,dr &#39;rXa j6ipcov o&#39; vef~piba~).-The reading
of the Laurentian MS is corrected into /3aKXEvovrasg, both Aiss
have &#39;dvalvo~zat, while ~rairep may be an interpolation, added to eke
out the metre. As, however, the first reading of the Laurentian
ims was vai&#39;oliat, we may suggest that this points not to dXltL
flaLvojlaL, as has been proposed, but to an original readinga&#39; v~Oq Kt
/OaKcXEV&#39;ovTav- aiXX&#39; cdvai&#39;voj._o, the accidental omission of a&#39;~a accounting for the mutilated form vaivop~at.?&#39;apOl7Kt IaKXf&#39;vragOS
a&#39;ov/.LaL 7ra&#39;T-p is proposed by Porson (advers. p. 264), and this
is supported by Nonnus, 45, 73 (referred to by Hermann, who,
however, does not accept the alteration), where Pentheus says to
Teiresias, ataio/iat TEO yqpa~g, (IJ.E7p0j3LfOV bE` KaL aVth) paplfrvpa ff-fl&#39;
4ETECOv 7roXt&#39;jv 7rXoKaOM~a yepaqip. For dat&#39;valojat, See Ifih. A11d.
1502, Oaoio-a b a1K vavolicu &#39;it pains me not to die&#39;; &#39;proprie
est recuso, detrecto, quod quoniam. est eius, qui quid invitus
facit, significat fizgvt me&#39; (Hermann).-If we retain 7ra&#39;TEp We
must be careful to translate &#39;ji4~cv so as to shew that it is plural,
&#39;father, I am pained for thee, At seeing your old age so reft of
sense.&#39;
253-9. Nonnus expands this speech after his diffuse manner, 45, 67, KabFLE, jitatvoMiE&#39;v?1 at7rOKa&#39;TOIEO KLO-7O&#39;V E&#39;OUtpqS, KaT-OE
KaL I&#39;apOI)Ka vov2TXaYiog AIovV&#39;o-OV….V717rte TetpeO-L&#39;a oTr-Er~avnc)OPFp, 1ii4ov
aq)TaLy O-Ci) 7rXQKa&#39;/Lwvi rabE -~VAXa, voOOov a-TT-c/bov In the next line
but one, follows the passage above quoted, and then the further
imitation, 75, &#39; P&#39; y0 Vp 7-abE?av0 -EpJrvE Ka&#39; L XaTEO Kia&#39; E
d&#39;XVKT07J-E877G-LV 6&#39;YCO&#39; G4o xEpavE iXLav &E&#39;a-,utov aX9vOEtrt KarecT-Op?-y La-a /.LEXa&#39;Opp, K.r.XN.

Page  136
136

BA CCHAE.

(255

255-7. We have an equally strong invective against Teiresias from Oedipus in Soph. 0. T. 387, &#39;adyov…,iXavoppadov,
8oXLov ayvpTrv, OOr-TLs rots KEpBaEOlv,dOOV aBEop<e, and in Antig.
1055, Creon taunts him with venality, ro pavTLKov yap lrav
bJaidpyvpov yevos. The function of soothsayer seems to have
been held in small repute among the contemporaries of the
Greek tragic poets, and passages like these reflect the general
feeling of the day. Euripides in particular enters with special
zest into attacking the whole tribe of /ad/rets, e.g. Hipp. 1059,
Ion 374-8, Hel. 744-757, El. 400, Phoen. 772, fr-agm. 793,
TL &#39;kTa eaKOLI MWa4LKOLS EfVT/LEVOL era4ows &01LYO ELAEJQL aTO –
rl ~rTa iiKOls pavrtKov vpr)Jvot -aacos ioflVv~&#39; elbevac rT 8atq6 -vov; ov TrcovO XetpcOvaKTes avOBpc7roL X6ycv, and (in a play of the
same date as this) Ipbh. A. 520, ro LMVrTIKfKOV Crav a-Tre&#39;pa (LOTLOv
KaKov. The taunts of venality, which Euripides here allows to
be flung at Teiresias by Pentheus, taunts to which he offers no
reply, may well make us hesitate in accepting the prophet as
the exponent of the poet&#39;s opinions in the often-quoted line,
ov8ev aot(,Loe-,OQa rolaiL 3aIoiL (200).
262. oviSev vyLis) is very common in prose and comedy, but is
less suited to the dignity of tragedy. It is however found in
Eur. Hel. 746, Phoen. 201, A ndrom. 448, 952, and three passages
in the fragments 496, 66o, 821, in all of which allusion is made
to current proverbs or opinions of the day; hence it is that
Euripides, while referring to these proverbs and opinions, falls
into the use of a phrase of every-day life (oiKela rrpayar&#39; Erl(ay(v,
olS XpCpeO&#39;), ol o-vveo-EYv, Ranae 959): Aeschylus, on the other
hand, never uses it, and Sophocles only once, Phil. Ioo6, and
even there without any loss of dignity, o ptE/av vyItes,ra&#39; E&#39;XFvOepov qcpovtv.-In the previous line, for o&#39;rpvos, a tribrach consisting of a single word, see I8, iLya/lov.
263. The mss have rsq eva-tr/elas, which, if retained, is most
naturally taken in an ironical sense (as by Barnes, Matthiae,
and Tyrrell). But irony is out of keeping with the general character of the chorus in Greek Tragedy, and least of all is it
appropriate in the case of Asiatic women addressing a Theban
king. Hermann, while retaining evo-&#39;felas, suggests KaratlXvvYW in the third line, and gives an explanation which strikes

Page  137
-263)

NO TE S.

I37

one as highly artificial and unconvincing: "constructio verborum haec est, OVK albrj Oeoi&#39;, rj-S eve3ELa&#39;as Kah/!ov re Karatlxa^vev,
iam dicere debebat Kal To obv avroo y;eYo…sed continuat orationem…&#39;EXL&#39;ovos 8&#39; wyv vraTs KaraLOXVVELv -yevo," i.e. &#39;Are you not
ashamed before the gods at disgracing not only Cadmus on
account of his piety (propter pietatem), but also (as son of
Echion) disgracing your own lineage.&#39; A clearer sense is given
by adopting the emendation r js v-(TeE3eiFa suggested by Reiske,
and apparently approved by Porson (Kidd&#39;s tracts, p. 225).
Hermann&#39;s objection to treating the first two words of the line
as a separate exclamation on the ground that exclamatio non
nisi faziliari colloquio convenit may be met by admitting that
such an exclamation is more common in Aristophanes than in
the tragedians, but by pointing out at the same time that in the
very last line we find a colloquialism in the phrase ovtev YLifs.
This kind of gen. is found sufficiently often in tragedy, preceded
by >ev, (J 7rT7ro or o&#39;tJ.OL (e.g. Here. F. I374, o&#39;tolt afitapros KaL
TrKVwOV OJLOL 8&#39;&#39; 4/o), and also (as here) without any interjection,
as in Med. I051, aXXo TjrVs FtLg Kas TO Kals O rpoEor(at (sc. eie)
tLXOfaKovs X6yovs opePvi and Iph. A. (a contemporary play) 327,
cl Oeoi, Ao-r davatxvvrov fpeov6E.-The two next verses (264-5)
are transposed by Musgrave, the effect of which is to bring
KdaSpov under the influence of KaraL-XvveLr, leaving Oeovs alone
to be governed by ai&#39;sEZ. This is not a bad arrangement, but
one that probably did not occur to Euripides, who adopts the
natural order of time, mentioning the gods first, then Cadmus
the grandfather, and next Echion the father of Pentheus.-For
the reference to the crop of armed warriors that sprang up from
the serpent&#39;s teeth sown by Cadmus, cf. 1315 and see esp.
Pkoen. 657-75, 818-21 and 939. The teeth, as the legend ran,
were those of the serpent that guarded the fountain of Ares and
killed the men sent to draw water by Cadmus who slew the
serpent and sowed the teeth. The armed men who thus sprang
into life forthwith began to kill one another; of the five survivors one was Echion, who became the father of Pentheus by
Agave, daughter of Cadmus. The following gem represents
Cadmus at the fountain attacking the serpent which had slain

Page  138
I38

BA CCHA E.

(263

his companions, whose fate is indicated by the overturned
pitcher lying on the ground.
266-7. This couplet from a play written (it will be remembered) at the Macedonian court, was afterwards quoted by no
less a successor of Archelaus than Alexander the Great, after
listening to an eloquent speech by the philosopher Callisthenes
in praise of the men of Macedon (Plutarch, Alex. 53, 2). the
king next called upon him to show his powers as an orator by
discoursing on a more difficult theme, thefaults of the Macedonians, and the philosopher indiscreetly consenting, at the close
of the second speech the king remarked that Callisthenes had
given the Macedonians a proof not of his eloquence but of his
enmity. Plutarch, after giving another instance of the indiscretion of Callisthenes, adds that his relative Aristotle had therefore well remarked of him, 4okr KaXXLiOevrs kryc /ie v?1V arof
Kal tiuyas, vov 8aE OVK ELXEV. Here we may note the coincidence
of expression with the context of Alexander&#39;s quotation, where
vvaro&#39;s and vov OVK e&#39;XOv occur in the same short sentence.
WVere the words less common, the identity of expression would
better deserve notice; but if it is admitted that Aristotle was
thinking of the context when he made his remark, it would be
an argument of some slight weight in favour of retaining the
manuscript reading wvvaros instead of accepting Dr Badham&#39;s
tempting conjecture eva droroL.-For d<coppas cf. Herc. F. 236, up&#39;
oVcK daopLtas ToiS XoyoLal&#39;v aya0ol Oqvrr7Tv EXOVOI Kayv 3paoUs tL,7 Xeyeiv; and Hec. 1239, fporoica-V rW T xp t rpa pdy!arTa xpr rrcY
dooppLas evs3iot&#39; ate Xoywv, also Lucian, Rhetorum fraeceptor
C. I8, ~7rEav&#39; 8E7 XfeYEL Kal ot wrapovrTs VWrofaaXact TLvas VroOectELs

Page  139
-2741

-A TO TT S.

139

I /optxAg 7r~v X&#39;yco)v.-268. E&#39;.TPOXOV -yXZ~rrocw) fragm. 4 Hp
po1.), EV~rpO,/~OLt 0T70JlaO-L ra&#39;XJOEorara KXE`WTOVOLtV, COO-Te /jL7) 8KEiV
aXP&#39;7 80KELiJ.
270-1. &#39;But the rash man, if strong and eloquent, Makes a
bad citizen, because he&#39;s senseless.&#39; This couplet is placed in
brackets by Dindorf, who does not perhaps attribute sufficient
weight to the fact tbat it is quoted by Stobaeus, 45. 2, from the
&#39;Pentheus&#39; of Euripides (as also the previous couplet in 36. 9).
On the same page (45. 5) he cites a passage from Orest. 907,
which is closely parallel to it, 3&#39;,raz&#39; -yap i78v ro7v Xo&#39;yoLIv?~povwv
KaK(Z)V 7PEL&#39;O&#39; rO&#39; 7rXT10o.9, -r1 7To&#39;XEL KaKOV /.L&#39;-a. This last quotation is
supposed to have been directed against Cleophon, a demagogue
of influence between B.C. 410 and 405. The couplet, inspired
perhaps by the poet&#39;s remembrance of some such notable
member of the Athenian democracy, would have been less in
place at any representation of the play at the court of King
Archelaus, than before the Athenian audience that heard it
after the poet&#39;s death.-voi~v OV&#39;K 9XcWV) states the fact, &#39;destitute,
as he is, of sense&#39; and repeats in another form the notion
already expressed by Opac&#39;s; had the sense been I&#39;if destitute
of sense.,&#39; the negative particle which implies a supposition
would have been used, and we should have had some phrase
equivalent to tz&#39; &#39; ow.-(ieg-endurn dpaouV&#39;s el, IIVPa7oT Kal XE`yciv 0o
eOWT avqp. Dem. A4nirot. p. 6oi ~ 33, / Eacioz&#39;.v A7 Opao-6E….T0Lr
fOpao-EO-t Kalt 83vva7-oi Xe&#39;yetv) Shilleto, aciv.
272-3. OW&#39;TOS c5 8tCP~WV K.&#39;T.X., instead of being placed after
000,on which it depends, is for rhetorical emphasis put at the
very beginning of the sentence, without being altered into the
acc. after E16&#39;,weiv. So in Xen. Anab. 2, 5, 41, llp6~Ei/ov Kcal
ME&#39;PCO E6,rELI7TEp E(L VjIETfpoL EvepyEraL, 7r-4n~arE av&#39;rov~, 8e6po.
273. 0O3K C&#39;v 8-uva4pirqv I.C&#39;yeeos rigLortLv &~cros, is rendered by
Attius, Bacchae IX (2),…nequee sat fifngi neque dici Potest I iio
nza-nit ate.
274. 8ilo) sc. M-qfr&#39;1p and Auvo-oV,0. Nonnus, 45, ioi, in
the corresponding speech of Teiresias, says of the god, ou&#39;rov
a/AaX&#39;Xor&#39;KG) LA17/I17TEPL P.LOVO. E&#39;pL&#39;et avTL&#39;TVTI0V OTraXvEctLv ex(COV EV130 -T O1/rpq&#39; The identification of Ag/A&#39;rq~p with y~ is in accord

Page  140
I40

-BA CCHA/E.

(274

ance with the old etymology, which made it an old form of yri
I&#39;rjrp, cf. 3a for yi in Phoen. 1296 (rejected by Ahrens Dor.
p. 80, who connects &i with the root of Kos, c, AOa, av for zav
&c.; and by Curtius, Gk. Etym. p. 492 ed. 5). For 276, Paley
aptly quotes Aesch. P. V. 217, &#39;raa 7roXX vcv voLro7ov Itop(fiO Pia.
-278. By accepting the correction 0o 8&#39; we get an easier
transition to the next line than that supplied by 6 8&#39;, (which,
however, comes nearer the MSS, which have o&#39;a&#39;). o in the
latter correction is used as a demonstrative pronoun; &#39;in bonis
codicibus ubi 6 non articulus, sed pronomen demonstrativum
est accentu notatur&#39; (Hermann).
As an extension of Badham&#39;s ingenious conjecture rf8ovq&#39;v
advrTaXov, we may propose S3ovq&#39;v 7ravutTrovov, which comes
very near the manuscript reading rdvr7iraXov. This is suggested by an expression in one of the Orphic hymns, 50 (49),
addressed to Dionysus, iravot1rovov Ovrr)oicTL Javel? aiKos. the
word is found in Iph. T. 45I, and in the parody of Euripides
in Ar. RanLa, 132I, olvacvas yadvos adftz7rov, fgorpvos EXLKa 7ravaLrovov. avrTrv7rov, however, in the passage above quoted from
Nonnus, seems to shew that in his time, at any rate, the manuscript reading was probably avTlrrahov.
282. Some edd. print urvov, making a double gen., the notion
of &#39;oblivion arising from sleep&#39; being coupled with &#39;oblivion of
ills.&#39; &#39;He gives in sleep, from all our daily ills Oblivion, that
sole simple for all toils.&#39; vfrrov was supposed to be the reading
of P (the Palatine ls); Milton suggested brrvov, which happens
to be the reading of the other Mrs (the Laurentian), and (according to the latest collation) it is found in the Palatine MS
also.
284. o-MevScETa) used in a double sense, being grammatically
applicable in the middle voice to the god himself, who &#39;makes
peace with&#39; the other gods; but also involving a reference to his
gift of wine which &#39;is poured out&#39; in libations.
286-297. The genuineness of this whole passage is open to
serious doubt. It professes to give an explanation of the legend
that Dionysus was sewn up in the thigh of Zeus, a story which
had its origin, according to Teiresias, in a confusion between the

Page  141
-286)

AO TEIS.

I4t

words 0o7rpos and trjpop. Against the genuineness of the lines
may be urged, (I) the absurdity of the explanation; (2) the
intricacy of part of the language in which it is expressed; (3)
the inconsistency between the present account and the popular
legend accepted unreservedly by the chorus (96-Ioo, 519-29);
(4) the incongruity of placing this attempt to do what looks very
like explaining away the traditional belief, in the lips of the very
prophet who has shortly before exclaimed, ov8ev rohiof6LeuOa
rolcL aloa-oot (200). On the other hand, it may be observed that
(I) absurd as is the explanation, the popular legend is at least
equally absurd; (2) the explanation finds a partial parallel in the
legend preserved by Apollodorus, according to which Zeus
deceived Hera by changing the infant Dionysus into a kid
(II 4, 3 adfin.); (3) the clearing up of a confusion arising from
two words being similar in sound is apt in any case to be
intricate, especially in poetry; (4) a fondness for etymologising
is one of the characteristics of Euripides; (5) Pentheus had
made an emphatic reference to the current story.of the god&#39;s
birth (243), and in accordance with the constant rule of
Euripidean rhetoric, this point had to be met in the prophet&#39;s
reply; (6) it is not necessary to have a perfect consistency of
opinion between all the characters of the play, and a chorus of
Asiatic women may well be represented as accepting with
unquestioning trust a popular legend which is indignantly rejected by the young king, who is unconscious of the inner
meaning which it is the prophet&#39;s task to unfold in his reply;
and lastly (7), as to the supposed inconsistency of Teiresias, it
has been well remarked, that "The form of the popular story
is, he allows, absurd. But the story itself is essentially true.
Dionysus is the son of Zeus; Zeus did save him from Here;
a jumble of arqpps and o/prpos was the source of the grotesque
popular legend. Now, this is not incongruous with the character of Teiresias: it is a rationalism which, holding to the
substance of faith, seeks to purge it of gross accidents; he is
in perfect harmony with the office of the prophet, the;E&#39;yrrT?,
at need, of esoteric truth" (Mr Jebb, in the Dark Blue for July,
1871).

Page  142
142

BA CCIf E.

L2S6

In Dindorf&#39;s Poetae Scenzici, lines 284 to 297 inclusive (i e.
the passage now under discussion, together with the preceding
couplet,) are all placed in brackets; Mr Tyrrell allows the
couplet in question to stand, but brackets all the lines down to
305 inclusive, he also brackets 243, to which part of this passage is a reply, pointing out that unless emended it interrupts
the construction; he holds that the passage now before us
"must have been interpolated either by the younger Euripides,
or, as is far more probable, by some Alexandrian learned in
mythology, and in the etymology of the time… The interpolator
of vv. 298 -305 was perhaps reminded by the mention of
Delphi in v. 306 of the word /Lavrts, and, being in the etymologising vein, wished to make out an affinity between /uaivrTi and
wavwa. The etymologising in v. 520 seqq. is quite in the allusive
style of Euripides, and strongly contrasts with the ponderous
exegesis of the spurious passage." (Inztoduction, p. xxix.) I
am not prepared to go so far as this myself, for the part referring
to the oracular and martial powers of Dionysus is finely written
and is quite worthy of Euripides; I am less clear about the preceding portion (286- 297), but even here it is an undue exaggeration
to say, as Dindorf does, dictio inclpta contfusa o/;niZnoque znon
Euripidea. With regard to the relative length of the two
speeches, that of Pentheus contains 48 (or if, as by Dindorf, 243
is rejected, 47) lines; the reply of Teiresias as given in the oiss
has 62, as in Dindorf&#39;s text 48 (more accurately 46, as he also
brackets 270 and 271), while in Mr Tyrrell&#39;s it is reduced to 42;
but the defence made by the aged prophet would naturally be
longer than the speech of accusation delivered by the youthful
king, and the general law of symmetry is rather in favour of only
rejecting as much as is bracketed by Dindorf, though we can
hardly regard that law alone as conclusively in favour of rejecting any portion of the text. In the following notes attention
will be drawn to any parallels that appear to shew that the
Greek of the passage in dispute is such as might have been
written by Euripides, and such evidence as is supplied by adaptations or quotations by later writers will be duly recorded.
Lines 285, 287, 289, 291 are recognised by the author of

Page  143
-288)

vNOTE S.

I43

CJrisltus Palienls (569-580), but this recognition is, of course,
consistent with an early interpolation.
286. KCLraTCyeXs VL, os eveppcaCn)) KarayefXav and alayeXav (like
KaTac(poveLv and oXlycopilv) usually take the genitive; here, however, we have the ace., as also in 322, ov 8&ayEXas (cf. 503 Kara(povpEi pLE). The ace. in the present passage, however, may be
explained as used by anticipation in the principal sentence,
instead of the nom. in the subordinate clause. So in Tbuc. v,
36, 2, rT eiVTroL IlavaKTov;eSovro BotLorov o7rcaTT 7rapai(uoovTrt
AaKeaattxoviots, Ar. Avl. 652, ErTiv XEeYOleVOV 8 rV TL V aX7reX&#39;
Wos qfXavpwos KoIvv71ro-ev aetr& 7rore, and 1269, 8,Evov ye TOV KJ7pVKa…el F./treore voOiTo-rreLt rciTXL (see further in Shilleto&#39;s adversaria, in Vol. III p. 225 of Cope&#39;s Retorz&#39;c).-For iveppcdi
Dr Thompson would prefer the older Attic form evEppdalOq.
The 2nd aor.;ppmqyv is found in the Ionic Greek of Hippocrates, 3, 524, and paqovat in the later Attic of Dem. Conon (54)
~41.
288. For the expression &#39;pwrao-r&#39;…ris 8&#39; "OXvirrov &viyayEv, cf.
Theognis 1347, (of Zeus as here) dp7rcasa 8&#39; es "OXv/urov clvrjyayE,
KCa FLVw e&#39;BIKE Ma4lova (of Ganymede). dvljyayev 6eov, the manuscript reading, is in some slight measure supported by the latter
part of the passage just quoted; OEov, if retained, is equivalent
to Jare OEBv 0vra, and gives the reason for the babe being carried
off to Olympus; cf. OEor a few lines later (296), referring almost
certainly to Dionysus, and not to Zeus.
288 sqq. The explanation offered by the prophet appears
to be that when Semele was struck dead by lightning, Zeus
rescued the babe from the flames and took him to Olympus;
Hera, in her jealousy, wished to cast the infant out of heaven,
but Zeus thwarted her design by removing the real Dionysus,
and palming off upon her in the form of the infant, a wraithe,
which he placed in her keeping as a pledge of his fidelity to her
for the future.-291. olta Sq Os) devised a counter-plot &#39;with
godlike skill.&#39; oTa a) like are, are ar), cs, is often used as a causal
particle, its relative force being nearly lost. For the omission
of cWv with such particles, contrast Xen. Cyrop. I, 3, 3, 6 Kvpos
are rrals adv Kal /LXdoaXos, with the preceding words, 6 Kvpos ola

Page  144
144

BA CCHA E.

(29T

87 TraS (VTcelt 4 bnXocrro;pyos.-Plato Crilias p. II3 E, ota 8/ 6eos;
Eu/xapo6s.
292. Hermann makes the construction run as follows:
dov8e (sc. al0fpa = alpos pspor rToS) erl)KE ALtvvo-ov, EK t8oV lS S rpov
"Hpas VEtLKEOv. This is particularly harsh, as it removes AlOvvoov
from the influence of the participle EK&8oVs which may naturally
be expected to govern it. Sch6ne prints &#39;qOKi&#39; 6 T8&#39;, understanding that Zeus &#39; rent off a portion of the aether, and therein
put Dionysos (enveloped him therewith), giving&#39;him up as a
hostage, a pledge, against the contention of Hera.&#39; In preference to either of these courses, we would take K&BOVS ALtOvv-OV
together, and without altering the text construe &#39;trqK<e rdove
Gorjpov with "Hpa VELKoKeV, understanding 7rov8 to be masc.
either by attraction into the gender of gor&#39;pov, or by reason of
alOjp being referred to instead of aWlepovs epos. The rendering
would thus be: &#39;made that a pledge against the strife of Hera,&#39;
the while &#39;entrusting Dionysus to safe keeping,&#39; &#39;putting him
out&#39; to be nursed by the nymphs; or possibly &#39;by way of surrendering D.&#39; This is substantially Paley&#39;s view of the construction, only he translates K8t8OVs A., &#39;palming it off as the
real D.&#39;
292. &#39;ro X06v&#39; EyKVKXOVU.EVOV a0l9poS) fragm. 935, opas rov v;to
TrovY aTreipov a;lOpa Kal yaiv rerpt ex&#39;ovO&#39; vypals ev adyKaXaL; and
911, 0 TrepLi XOOV&#39; EXCO aI0rlp.
295. pa(lfvat, instead of rpnpfvat, is a conjecture proposed
with some hesitation by Pierson (verisimilia p. 126, quoted by
Elmsley). It is suggested by the description in 96 and by
the words ~ppad0at (eppafrq) in 243, and &#39;veppdaiT in 286. Nunc
/amen dubito, he adds, anne Bacchus eliam dici fossit rpaqbvat
&#39;v iJrpw ALO.T/
297. wSpJpucvoe=g/OfLrpOs Eye;vEro,;Fs being Dionysus. Ce
seems better than taking it as trans., as in Liddell and Scott.
Had it been active (as in Rhes. 434), we should almost certainly
have had the object expressed, e.g. vYv instead of rO&#39;.
298. 1LCVTLS) It was in Thrace in particular, in the neighbourhood of which this play was written, that Dionysus was regarded
as a god possessed of oracular power. Herod. vii, II, ovro,

Page  145
1
300)

-A;TO TE S

14 5

(the Thracian tribe of Satrae) oi,-oL AtoZvOa-ov -rO /IavT LiJ EWUL
CKTTJ(LE Jt (and Pausan. IX 30 ~ 9), Hec. 1267, 6 EOPy~t /WvrtLv ELItEr
ANt0&#39;vo-o~vra rd (in the same play 123, Cassandra, though inspired
by Apollo, is yet called a /,iavrh-,oXov&#39; /3aKXa); Macrobius, Sat.I
1S, i, A rilsolA&#39;/s, qul Thzeolog-umena scriz~6sit,.. apud Lig-yreos
(lt hi Thracia esse adytum Liber-o consecratum ex quo reddautur
tracuila. But the reference is also appropriate to the scene
where the action of the play is laid, in so far as at Amphicelia,
in the adjoining district of Phocis, Dionysus was specially worshipped as a pavrv Pausanias X 33 ~ IO, Ato~v&#39;O-p 8P(ootv p..
A EyErat b6&#39; V&#39;7ro 7-,iv &#39;AuIqhKXELE~V Idvv raTY7-E 0(L-t o0y OEO&#39;V T-O&VT
KC01077007) V&#39;O-OV KaOO TTVEVL..po tvTLE b0 LEPEVV G1 XPL~b
TOK70 OFOV KdaTOXOIV. Similarly, in the gem engraved below,
Telephus the wounded king of Mysia. may be seen consulting
the oracle of Dionysus.
299. &#39;For Bacehic frenzy And madness have no small
prophetic power.&#39; Cic. de divin. i, I, huic traestantissivzac re/&#39;
(sc. d/~v/iat/on/) noieni ntostri a divis, Graeci ut Plato (Phaedrus 244 C) /ntei~ji-etatur, a furore dux-erunt. ib. 31 ~ 67, 11aticinarifutror vera so/ct. The present passage is twice quoted by
Plutarch, de diefecht oraculorulm, P. 432 E, To&#39; -yCp PCaKXEUOCLIL0V
KC7.i -ro 110CLVSES J1CLOVTLK1~V TroXX 1&#39;v 9)EL, MrT&#39; EV&#39;pmir,3qv, cr0a&#39; E&#39;VOeppIo
77 X&#39;4? 7YEVO/IAE&#39;VI Kal 7rvp6)&87g a~rcx077at0 Try&#39; EvIXa/3ELOv, and quiaest.
con&#39;viv. P. 71I6 B, ot&#39; rraXatolt 7-iby OEF0y &#39;EXEvOypa Kal Aru&#39;rtov EKOZxovv
KaiL /IVTLK77E,7-OXX,7&#39;y E&#39;XIEL yy~r,oipav a o)&#39; r6a&#39; PCLKX1E-U&#39;TL1J0V KL
coVLJS wo~ep Ed&#39;patb7r7E ELEV, K.T.X.
300. d~s -r&#39; rL a-~&#39; &#39;WXO9 iroki&#39;) For the construction cf. Hii~5
44 3, (KV&#39;wp t ) 7r&#39;v 7roXXi) jbvf, and for a close parallel to the expression, Ant/i. Pal. vii io5. on the death of Lacydes (Diog. Laert.
5. E. 1 0

Page  146
i _t6

PA C CHA, E.

(300

4, 61u), Kalt olEo AOK73& rha~rLV E&#39;KM)0V, &o.vpa Kai CIE ~a&#39;KXOV E&#39;X(LiW
(itb7 7rO(TCTW E(T&#39;VpEV GKPOL9S 77 a(J04E&#39;v 7&#39;77&#39; Z~L0)vaoO orav 7ToXvi
&#39;EL.V 8f/iia E&#39;Xd XVge u0071 &M /177T&#39;,L Avaiov ik/4v. &#39;no%-b, &#39;in full
force,&#39; &#39; in the plenitude of his power.1
302. &#39; He also shares a part of Ares&#39; rights.&#39; Cf. /jJolvlE
8opa-ro(/Jpe, EVAVaE, 7ToXE/1oKE&#39;Xaae, poet ap. Dionys. de comy5 verb.
I,~ 17, and Macrobius Sat. I 19, i, filerlqzte Liberum cumn M3arte
conziunginzi, zazur dezum esse monst ranz/es. wide Bacchizs &#39;Evva&#39;Xtog coguomliuatur quzod est interjprolria f7Jlartis noziomna. colifur etiamu apiud Lacedaenmonios simuziacruem Liberip-atris has/a
izzsfg&#39;-e, zion 1thyrso.-In the following lines we find ascribed
to Dionysus those sudden Panics which as their name implies
are elsewhere ascribed (though not exclusively) to Pan, one of the
most constant attendants on Dionysus; R/hes. 36,,&#39; Haov&#39;.T
7-po/Ipa /ia&#39;o-ryt (b0/EL; Ailed. I1172, 80&#39;~aod urov – Ilaov&#39;v olpya~&#39;v q
ItvrLV Llcwv pLoXEUv (Polyb. 5. 96, 3; 20. 6, 12, Cic. ad Atl. V 20,
3), Hibz5 e41 E7OO LT IK f 0vo EL wErav, 77 EJbOVKpl7-)7) k5oLtaE, 77 /arpr o3peiav. To the power of Pan was attributed
the flight of the Medes at Marathon (cf. 11av Tpourato(~5pov in
Aluik. Gr. XVI 259); Pan appears as shield-bearer to Dionysus
in the exquisite fragment of ancient sculpture figured in Zoega&#39;s
Bassirilievi, plate 75 (copied in Miiller-Wieseler, ii xxxviii 445,
and in Lenormant&#39;s article on Bacchizs, fig. 692); the same type
is to he seen on a sarcophagus in the Vatican (Miiller-Wieseler
i.s. 414) where the victorious Dionysus is receiving the submission of an Indian king.-.-On the coins of Maronea, Dionysus is
to be seen with a bunch of grapes and two javelins (lb. 357); on a
fine Italian vase (now in St Petersburg), he is represented arming
himself in the midst of his Maenads, wvho bring him his shield
and helmet; while in several others he may be seen warring
against the Giants (Lenormant -i. s. notes 613 and 623, and
fi.6&#39;b Fr4jo L7Fi& (304) cf. Plato Re5. 336 13, bMt306. &#39;Even on Delphi&#39;s rocks thou yet shalt see him. Avec
pine-torch bounding o&#39;er the twin-peaked height, Tossing and
shaking his own hacchic wand.&#39; ITL, frequent in prophetic denunciations, &#39;the day will come when &c.&#39; ziifra 534-6. Hence

Page  147
-3071 No TE S. &#39;47
Shilleto&#39;s emendation of Aesch. Eum. 851, ELE7 &#39; r (for C&#39;.)
dX ~xjuoli EXOOO-at XOva -/4.v Tr EaTa-8U&#39;. &1~A~$L
17Terpa~s, even on the heights of Parnassus, sacred at present to
Apollo only. This alliance of the old Dorian worship of Apollo
with the more recently imported cult of Dionysus was typified
in the design on the two pediments of the Delphic temple, one
of them representing Artemis, Let o, Apollo and the Muses, the
other (?) the setting of the Sungod and Dionysus and his attendant
Thyiades (Paus. x 19, 4). Macrob. Sat. I, i8, 6, Eurifiides in
Licymnzio A15oiiinem Liberumque unum eumnceinyue deum esse
sinfleans scribit, Ulo-7rora cpnXO8aac/ve BiKE wad &#39;AwoXXov
VXvpE (fragm. 480). ad eandem sententiam Aeschylus &#39; KLGOOE1J.v
AAwo&#39;;Wov d&#39; BaKcXEZov o&#39; aiavrtv (fragm. 394). lB. ~ 3, item Boeotii
Parneissumn mon/emz Afioiiini sacratumn esse zeinzorantes simizd
tamzen in eodemz et oraculum, De66izicumn et s~heiuncas Bacchicas
u~ni deo consecratas counut…quod…etiamn Eari:Pides his docet
(frag. 752 Hysylye, also quoted in Ar. Ranac I121 I), At&#39;o-o
WV OVp0(TOL-tL Kat vef3p~ov a5opaig KaLOaflr~ov E&#39;V 7EVKaoL(t Ilpiaova(TGOV KaTir
7MM7 Xope""-"v (+72rapOE&#39;VoLv oru&#39;v LAOXo-tv Schzol. Ar. 1. c.). In ihoc
monte Parnasso Bacchanalia aiternis annis aguntur.
307-8. Hermann punctuates these lines as follows: mU~
oiV &#39;e~act &Ko&#39;pVljJOV 7rha&#39;Ka f3a&#39;XXovTa, KalL OaELovra f3aiCX~ov
KXa&#39;aov. This compels him to understand rrEESKatOrt with Oa&#39;UXovra,
izam facibus co/instrare bicilpitemz rzqhein dicitur Bacchzus. Il
seems better, however, to make the pause in the sense coincide
with the close of the line, placing a comma after 7wXa&#39;a and
taking it as acc. after irtn&5vra by exactly the same construction
as in Soph. AjaX 30, 7rj&3vra 7rre&a aeiv vJeoppaivq)$rfip first
quoted by Brunck, to whom in particular Hermann is referring
when he says, so/ent critici, si qutid aticubi exquisitius dictiun
viderint, id etiam alienis locis in~ferre. Nevertheless, the parallel is very much to the point, and the construction defended by
it is not really so rare as to be called erguisitius; e.g. Aesch.
Fuin. 76, vi&#39;v 7rXavoo-rt,3~ -i~P &O3Ef3v, Hel. 598, 7rao-av7&#39;~v9,&#39;,
7-,r f~e p/3apov X06va, ib 13, ipa,4E P"6Ota; and in 873 infra,
OpcooG-KIEL 7jrE8ov is better taken in this than in any other way. At
quid /zm est la&#39;XXovra? asks Hermann; quatiebant thyr-sum
10-2

Page  148
148

BA CC/I4~E.

(3&#39;8

bacc/ZJantes, non u2t missilia iaculabantur. To this we may reply
that in this very play and elsewhere the ttyrsits is often represented as a missile (762, o099), and Dionysus may very well be
here described as shooting his wand through the air on the Delphic heights. This is probably only a poetic way of referring
to the sunbeams darting from point to point athwart the crest of
Parnassus. The brilliant cloud-effects at and after sunset, while
the light lingers on the mountain-peaks, are still more vividly
represented by the pine-torches which poetic fancy describes as
held aloft by the god, in the present passage and elsewhere:e.g. Pho/en. (the scene of which is laid at Thebes) 226, o} Xcdxrovoa
Trerpa rTvpos 8LKopvCPOV oeXa; vP7rp aKpcov BaKXElov ALoVoov, Ionl 716,
Ilapvao-ov… va BadKXtos afift7rvpovs ave;XCv TreVKas XaLtqpa 7ri8a,
vvKTLTroXoLs ai.a vo-v BaKXati, ib. 550, I076, 1125, Soph. O. T. 213,
BaKXOV…(XEyoVT adyXa7rTL 7rEVKK, AntZig. 1126, BaKXEv…e. 8&#39; L&#39;rep
8&Xd0oto 7rErpas crTepo &#39; o7rco7re XLyvvs Ar. Nubes 603, IIaplaiaLav
O&#39; 0 KTarxwcov l7rpav o-vv 7revKaLs aeXaOyeL Ba,:xat AEXoI&#39;t-iL efirpeUrov Ktcoaa-Tar7 At4IvOWOS, and fragm. Hys. quoted on p. 47. These
lines are translated as follows by Attius Bacchae x (I), lacuzet
in Parnzaso inter pZiius trizudialztem in circulis Ij lidre…atq&#39;ue
taedisfigdgere.-In the twain-crested height, the poet refers to
&#39;the two lofty rocks which rise perpendicularly from Delphi…
anciently known by the names of Hyampeia and Nauplia (Hdt.
VIIT 39);…the celebrated Castalian fount pours down the cleft or
chasm between these two summits, being fed by the perpetual
snows of Parnassus&#39; (Cramer&#39;s Greece II I70). The true summit
of Parnassus (8oooft. above the sea) lies several thousand feet
above the double cliff (biciiti Parnasso), which however, is a
most prominent object in the landscape (as may be seen in the
views on pp. 236, 240, 249 of Wordsworth&#39;s Greece), and makes
the site of Delphi easily identified at a great distance (Leake&#39;s
Northern Greece II 568).-7rXdKa used of lofty ridges, tablelands
or (as in 718) mountain-terraces; in Soph. Ajax 1220, of the level
top of Sunium, Phil. I430, of the height of mount Oeta.-The
construction,/XXev KX8ov is quite admissible, and when it is
objected that &#39;the Greeks say faXXelv tva XiOc, not /agXXEv
Miov,&#39; the objector loses sight of passages where the missile is

Page  149
— 3&#39;4)

NVO TES.

I49

put in the acc., as in Iliad 5, 346 XaXKKv /3alXv, Od. 9, 495, (aXcov
f3eXos, Phoen. I375, osr eyXOs&#39; v7 1 KaXXLVLKOV EK X(EP pos es arpv
daeXfoO rvrfi&#39; d7r&#39; cXOevrS 3aXev, 1/i/h T. 1376, Trerpovs (MSS,
lreTpotr Paley) ei3aXXoiEv,-though the dat. is undoubtedly more
common, as in fragm. 566, rrvKvoYs&#39; &#39;3aXXov BaKXlov 7roevLaaotv
Kapa yEpovTros r7Tv aXovra e TrTeciELv c Eyo &#39;TErayrrv, daOa KO(r(rdTaov
IttovS. —3dXXovTa is altered by Matthiae into WraXXovra, which
though applicable to a spear strikes one as somewhat too strong
a word for the Bacchic wand in the present passage, esp. as the
same general idea recurs in oa-rovra: yet it may be right, after all.
310. &#39;Vaunt not that might alone (e.g. thy royal sway) hath
power with men, Nor, if thou think it (though thy thought&#39;s
unsound) Think thou art wise in aught.&#39; IEv in the principal
clause is answered by 8E in the clause which is incidentally
introduced immediately after but is not influenced by &#39;v.
314-6. Teiresias here attempts to rebut the scandalous
rumours referred to by Pentheus (221-5), by representing that
the god is not himself responsible for the conduct of the women
who are his votaries; that depends on their inborn nature; if
they are naturally immodest, the god will not drive them into
the path of decorum; if again they are truly modest, they will
not be corrupted by association with his revelries. L & # 39; former
part of this plea is hollow enough; but with its later portion we
may compare the noble speech on &#39;Saintly Chastity&#39; in Milton&#39;s
Comus (418-475). The dramatic description of &#39;the lady&#39; in
that play, surrounded (but not by her own seeking, as in the case
of the revellers of Cithaeron) by the riotous crew of Comus, could
not have a fitter motto than the words, Kal yap Ev OaKXEvfLaa-Lv GVo1j yE o-fp ov o iLaOap7r-erai,r and it is not unlikely that Milton
had this passage before him in writing his play (cf. n. on I88).
(The sense is well given by Mr Shuckburgh: &#39; Not Dionysus makes
or mars the chaste, But chaste thoughts and sweet nature inly
bred; She that is truly chaste will never lose This flower in
Bacchic orgies.&#39;)-The passage has a further literary interest in
connexion with the story told of Plato and Aristippus, the hedonist of Cyrene, when both were present at a banquet given by
Dionysius II. of Syracuse. The king asked Aristippus to put aside

Page  150
I 5o

BA CCA E.

(3 41,

his cloak (rpi4co) and put on a purple shawl instead (rropqvpoiv
tladrov); Aristippus consented; the king asked Plato to do the
same, but was met with a refusal expressed in an apt quotation
from this play, OVcK av 8vvaL4qv rfOXvv evivat a-TOXRjv (834): whereupon Aristippus rejoined with the present passage which, according to the version of the anecdote given in Suidas, was
quoted in the adapted form, Kal yap ev PaKxevjLuao-tv o vovS O
ro&oppov o &aaOpapr7a-oFaL (the rest cite it as in Eur., viz. Diog.
Laert. II. 78, Stobaeus 5. 46, and Sextus Empiricus, all quoted
in full in Elmsley&#39;s note on 834).
a&#39;o<opovEiv) One of the MSS (Pal.) adds I/ above the word
croopovewv; Stobaeus (5. 15, and 74. 8) quotes it twice with the
negative; while on the other hand, /i is omitted in MS Laur., and
the author of the Christus Patienzs 262 has ov yap Beos o-e urropoyvev dvayKcaKet. The insertion of the /r was apparently due to a
misunderstanding of the drift of the passage, as explained above;
and we need not build upon it any alteration of the text such
as /d fcpovyev (suggested by Musgrave and Hermann). Porson
(Kidd&#39;s Tracts p. 225) proposed Ws qpovEwv avayKacaoL…atXX&#39; ei Tt7
VOel rTO &#39;(Oq)povElv ECTV EV e I Td a r aVr&#39; delr ToTro T-KOrev XPq,
Porsonum sequor, says Shilleto, adv., and Mr Paley, in stating
that in his own judgment no other change is required than Ec for
Ev, supports the latter part of Porson&#39;s proposal by the quotation
in Stobaeus 74. 8, aXX&#39; ELs Trjv V&#39;a-Lv I rorVTO KOTCreF XPq. Ici
Stobaeus omits the line T o&#39; coopoveLv EV~ETrIV els rTa rTvrT del) but
he does not do so in his other quotation of the passage (5. 15)
where he concludes with that line, and thus stops short of TOVTO
(TKo7rei Xpj. The passage is similar to that in Hizpb. 79-81,
OroLt oLoaCKTOrV /bIev, aXXC eV&#39; T7 <JVCEL To I O -p0opoveiv eAXrlXEv eV Ta
rdvfar&#39; 6/Uw (7rdvr&#39; dae in one MS Par.), TOVTOiS peTrreaTOat&#39; TOiS KaKolTcr
o&#39; ov0; eliS, lines which Dindorf puts into brackets, thinking them
made up from the present passage, but even on that hypothesis
they are evidence in favour of Ev as against (L. Euripides may
well have repeated in one of his latest plays a phrase occurring
in a play whose general drift is not unlike that of the Bacchae.
The next three lines (319-32I) also find a close parallel in
Hizpb. 7, &#39;verrt 7yap drf Kav OeVv yevet rTdU3 TLlICe/VOLI XaLpovaLv
dvOp7r&#39;coV V7tO.

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322. 8v a-r SLayEXas) For the rare acc. (for gen.) cf. 503.
KaTra/povel fe. So in Theocr. 20, I, EIvVEKa z&#39; E&#39;/yXa~e, derisit.
On KarayEXas tv, see note on 286.
326. KO"TE QeLapp. KoOLS OKIT XdcpoS a&#39;v, O-U&#39; avEv rTO&#39;rUTO vocits)
i.e. &#39;Thou art sorely frenzied, yet no healing drugs Could cure
a mind, not without drugs diseased.&#39; &#39;Significat mentem ipsi
pharmacis corruptam esse&#39; (Musgrave, in whose view Elmsley
acquiesces). The prophet hints (but not too darkly) that Pentheus is under a spell which is leading him on to a doom
beyond all remedy. This is a fairly simple way of understanding
the passage, but Hermann is not content; " mihi nihil," he says,
"neque argutius neque putidius dicere potuisse videtur Teiresias.
Immo vero praeclara est, et dignissima sapientissimo vate
sententia, quum dicit: izsanis tristisszima insania, et nec remazediis sanaritpotes, nec sine remedio aegrotas. Hoc enim significat, neque esse, quod ilium ad sanam mentem revocare queat,
neque insanire eum ita, ut non finem isti insaniae crudelissima, quae ei immineat, mors impositura sit." This is
certainly sufficiently oracular to give fresh point to the remark of the chorus, that the prophet&#39;s words did no dishonour to Phoebus, yet Hermann&#39;s interpretation of the general
drift of the passage may be right; but if so, it may be questioned
whether the irony of the words as they stand is not too obscurely expressed to be fairly intelligible, and it may be worth
suggesting that avEv TrovrOV may be a corruption of advtarcoS due
possibly to dviarov having been written by a copyist, and then
altered by adding -r-v, a correction which would lead to the
unintelligible avtarovros which would readily pass into avev rovrWV. dvIaror, however, it must be admitted is a Platonic rather
than a Tragic word; and if any difficulty is felt on this ground,
ovr&#39; dviKrKEcrrov voelsE would make equally good sense; &#39;Thou art
sorely frenzied, and no medicine Could cure thee,yet fthy malady
hath a cure.&#39;
328. The remark of the chorus need not be narrowed into a
reference to the last words of Teiresias; it applies rather to the
general attitude taken up by the whole speech, which proves

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(328

that Teiresias can shew due reverence to the new god Dionysus
without dishonouring the older deity whose prophet he is.
330. &#39; My son! right well Teiresias counsels thee, Dwell
thou with us, within the pale of wont, For now thou&#39;rt flighty,
senseless in thy senses.&#39; For vodiwv, customary and conventional laws, cf. 891, Kpetao-ov r3V, V&#39;orL(OV yy/VLTcrK-t. For Tr&TEL,
of fitful, inconstant, flighty pursuit of wild vagaries, cf. Ar.
AveS, I445, arvTrrepco-Oat Kal reoroJfja-Oa rar ppe&#39;vas. <povov ovaSv
4povEts, i.e. &#39;your wisdom is very foolishness.&#39;
334. KcLaTc4Evov KCLXCS) &#39;tell of him the splendid (the ennobling)
falsehood, cf. Soph. Ant. 74, orad 7ravovpy&#39;rj-a(ra and Horace&#39;s.spendide meuldax. For Kara+Ev&#39;Seo-gat, &#39;to speak falsely of&#39; cf.
Karrlyopelv in the sense &#39;to tell of&#39; which gives us Karrlyopla, in
the sense of category; so also Ka?&#39; V-LWoV EyK&iJLtOV, &#39;praise bestowed on you,&#39; Dem. Ou. 6 ~ 9.
337. opas) &#39; You see before you,&#39; or &#39; are familiar with.&#39;
Plato, Golg. 470 D, (Polus) &#39;ApX;eaov r &#39;nTov oTOVTroL rv lepiKKov
ops apXovrra MaKe3ovias; (Socrates) Et 8 i;t7 acXX&#39; aCKovo, &c.
Actaeon, it will be remembered, was Pentheus&#39; own cousin (228),
and was torn in pieces by his hounds near Thebes, according to
the present passage in the meadows of the Asopus where he
had boasted he was braver than Artemis in the hunt. ev opyd&#39;ctv,
though probably meant as the scene of the doom as well as of
the boasting of Actaeon, is better taken with the nearer Ko/htrd-avr&#39;, rather than with the somewhat distant 8Leronaraavro. (D
opya&rlv vi&#39;. Schnzeider ad Xen. zvenal. IX. 2) Shilleto, adv.
341. 6.in TrdCOs o-, 8Eupo…ao-Troo) &#39;And lest thou meet his
doom, come! let me crown Thy head with ivy.&#39; g // 7rdarlv o-uv
is sometimes taken separately, as an imperative (not unlike
Dem. Left. ~ 50, O j 7rdOrpre viv vLfsL), but the clause is so short
that it seems better to take it with the subsequent sentence.
o-Te+io is aor. coni., the coniuz;ctivzzs ad/zortativzms, with which
q(~pe or aye is often expressed. Herc. F. 529, (hep&#39; EK7rvScoLat,
Theopompus apud Athen. 470 F (quoted by Elmsley), XwPEi av
aGepo (addressing a wine-cup)…i&epo (3 yeful&#39;co ( &#39; eryw, where if
the future had been meant, we should have had yq~ttw.
343. ol FPrrporoLoXELsX)Ep…. 8e…! l^….) 792, ov Jq&#39; qbpevaC;(reT

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&#39;2 dXXa… Hzi-. 606, ov3 ji&#39; rpoa-otEts XeTpa trju&#39; airj 7r 7rXcov.
Donaldson, Gk. Gr. ~ 544, would explain the construction of
such a passage as the present by making it mean literally &#39;will
you not not apply your hand, but go to your revels; and not
wipe off your folly upon me?&#39;, i. e. &#39;Hands off! I charge thee! get
thee to thy mummeries! And smear not off thy senselessness
on me.&#39; Ktihner, Gk. Gr. ~ I56, Io, objects to the interrogative
punctuation of such sentences, and explains them by understanding ov (8ELvo&#39;v E&#39;o-r) ir), an explanation founded on such
passages as Xen. 1iem. II I ~ 25, ov0 foos Lrj -e dydayo, but this
theory (as is remarked by Goodwin, Moods and Tenses, ~ 89, I,
note 2), while applicable to ov,ui) with the conjunctive, leaves
ov /L) with the future indic. entirely unexplained. Inversement,
Donaldson&#39;s treatment of the fut. indic. with ov )7 as an interrogative construction (suggested by Elmsley), is inapplicable to
ov!.u c. coni. It seems best therefore to consider ov tl) c. coni.
as &#39;a relic of the common Homeric subjunctive,&#39; used in independent sentences in a future sense, and to explain ov./,) with
fzut. ind. as expressing a stronger prohibition than / c. inmp.-&#39; oV
tll having the same force of a strong single negative in both
constructions&#39; (Goodwin, u. s. ~ 89, remark j). ov A T rpocrolcreLs is in any case equivalent in sense to a strong form of yju) TpocrEVEyKnS Xelpa. oe.Opti.EL Sen. Ep. 7, vtiiuzn adlinit…adfricuit.
346. 8CKqlV j4TELILL) c. acc., Elmsley&#39;s excellent correction of
aiKnj. He quotes Eum. 230, 8IKas LeTELL t roLve (ccra. Cf. Isaeus
VII ~ IO, (tCKaS eTXev Ev&#39;7roXv avo.
347. The proximity implied in the manuscript reading OdKovs
rova8e seems inconsistent with the impression of distance
conveyed by the context, oErrtXErco r1s Ws caXo,;XO6v 8e. I
accordingly prefer the emendation rov8e which is accepted by
several editors, though (as is remarked by Mr Paley) the word
TO&IV has already been used once, and is sufficient to mark the
person meant. For Teiresias&#39; seat of augury, cf. Soph. Antizg.
999 —o 04, P/oezn. 840, BaiKOLt0v v lepoo-(v ot O iavrevo/fiat. The
legendary site of the olwvovOKOrrefov TelpcFiov was still pointed
out in the time of Pausanias (ix I6, I).
348. iO6X~Xos rpLaivov) Here. F. 946, orpe7rrro c3riqp9o rvv

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(348

T-P~atvac(oc ~riovi and Ar. Pa-v 570, -rptatvoiiv 7-?3 8LKE&#39;XXqJ… 7i&#39;)
yyl~ov, Plato Comicus, &#39;EXX. 2, Ta6rna 7LrL&#39;Tr LTVJJptaLvco ahroXf&#39;O-O.
349. &#39;M&#39;Ningling them pell-mell in one g~eneral ruin,&#39; cf. 602,
741, 753, and Aesch. frag. 321, V&#39;… ovovua Kal TpE&#39;7r1ova 7Vifp13&#39;
aV&#39;CO Ka(O~. 351. 8 &#39;tojJicL) &#39; shall wound, nettle, gall him.&#39; Mled.
1370, OVKET IELOTL rovr-o -yap 0&#39; 871&#39;E7-at.
357. 7rLKpQ&#39;V M3KXEIUaTLV..J8Wh) &#39; Having bitterly rued his revelry in Thebes.&#39; 7LLKP~g is often (as here) used with an emphatically predicative force, Med. I 388, 7rcpas&#39;T TEXIEVTAv rcov ElY~o
ilcdw -yadpwv, &#39;having, seen how hitter is my wedding&#39;s end,&#39;
A4ndrom.1 384, 7TLKPa&#39;V KX &#39;pcoo-tv a&#39;1pEo-Lv r&#39; ~ILOL 3L&#39;OV KaOiaT~g, &#39;how
hitter is this choice &#39;twixt life and death,&#39; Soph. El. 1504, jvXci~at dELe To~Of 1O-OL 77rup~v (quoted by Prof. Campbell, Sot/h.
P. 30 as an instance where the adj. expresses the chief part of
the predicate and is more emphatic than the verb).
358. OUK oic-ea.wo; wroT&#39; J) C. J. Blomfield (Jlitsezum Cri/icnun
2, 663) proposed otlffO&#39; 0&#39;rov, which is the common form in cases
where a direct becomes an indirect interrogative (Rues. 689,
0070 Vwn HPi25. i091, oaa a&#39; oVX ihs (jp ao-co); but the text is
defended not only on rhythmical grounds but also by other
passages where the direct is used instead of the oblique interrogative. In the following passage, the direct and indirect
interrogatives are curiously intermingled: Xen. Anzab. II 5, 7,
OVK olaa, OvT, dTo" 7rOL&#39;OV aV ra&#39;XOVS&#39; OVTE7 OWrOL LIV TEE&#39; OCfv&#39;yaw airo(kv&#39;yoL (VYT EIL&#39; 7rOiOP (TKOTrog dlroapaLl77 oA&#39;O&#39;&#39; 05rw " EI EX OV
Xpi a&#39; ebo-a&#39;1 (Kbdhner, Gk. Gr. ~ 587. 4).
359. &#39;Foolish thou wast before., but now stark mad.&#39;
365. t~rc 8&#39; e}1ics) Med. 798, CM&#39; rc &#39;~ ~Lo C~V Kdpdog, 819, 17co&#39;
7IftEOLTLt0 7radJTE OVV lETo) Xo&#39;yoL, lit. &#39;let it go,&#39; i. e. &#39;let it pass,&#39;
used in setting aside a distressing thought, and passing on to
something else in spite of it, like our conversational &#39;well,
well! no matter.&#39; Cf. also Her-aci. 454, Oil /YEEiv dEL rl7v C/aJV
367. I1l&#39;Evles..wEvOosj i;nfra 5o8 and Theocr. 26, 26, C$ O&#39;PEOV
ir~vOq~La Kait oil RevO~ra L~,E&#39;pot-at. &#39;Take heed, lest Pentheus
make your mansion a pent-house of grief,&#39; is the far from
felicitous rendering suggested by Donaldson, who rightly re

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T55

marks that translators &#39;are not always very happy in their
substitution of English for Greek in reproducing such plays
upon words&#39; (Theatre of the Greeks, p. I36, ed. 7). It would
perhaps be more in accordance with modern taste in such
matters, to be content with some such paraphrase as follows:
&#39;Beware, lest Pentheus bring into thy house His namesake
Sorrow.&#39; Instances of similar plays on words are found in Euripides, in the names of Aphrodite, Atreus, Capaneus, Dolon,
Helen, Ion, Meleager, Theoclymene, Theonoe, Thoas; and not in
Euripides alone, but also in Aeschylus, who deals in like manner with the names of Apollo, Io, Prometheus, and Polynices,
as well as that of Helen; so also in Sophocles, in the case of
Ajax and Sidero. These are not to be regarded as mere plays
on words, as the Greeks &#39;read in the significant name the
character or destiny of its bearer; and thus employed they
have a true tragic interest&#39; (Cope on Rhet. II 23 ~ 29, where
Aristotle quotes from Chaeremon, TIevOevS eaoLoevrs c&#39;rvtopias
rro&#39;vvLose. Cf. Farrar&#39;s Chapters on LanguZage, XXII p. 272-7).
370. &#39;Queen in heaven, goddess holy, holy goddess who to
earth, thy golden pinion bendest.&#39; &#39;O-cra) The chorus calls
upon the goddess of Sanctity to listen to the impious language
of Pentheus. So Demosthenes, of the V&#39;ptl of Meidias, p. 556,
~ 126, 6 Oros (sc. Atdvvo-oS) co Xopy0 &#39;ycO KaSeLoTr7KELV, KaL 7T
Trs o-dras, OrtSrL7ror&#39; ETrlv, TO 0ECPVOV Kal rTO 8atLLvtov, a-vvq8lKqraL.
&#39;Oo-ta is a personification created apparently by Euripides himself; at any rate not mentioned elsewhere, though it may be
assumed that in her general attributes she closely corresponds
to Ofils. As the daughters of Oebut, Hesiod, Theog. 902, mentions EVvot(h7, AL&#39;KT and Elprvrj, called by Pindar, 01. 13, 6-io,
Xpv&#39;a rraTL a8es EVovX Oo e!tJroS. So in Statius, Silv. 3, 3, I,
sunmma deum Pietas, cuins gratissima caelo rara profanatas
inspectant nznina terras, huc vittata comam, niveoque insignis
amictu, qualis adhuc Piraesens nullaqze expulsa nocentumfraude
rudes popiulos atque aurea regna colebas (Joddrell). Among
similar personifications of abstract notions, we have IIo&#39;os (414)
and E;ptlvr7 (4I9) in the present chorus; so also IIC-rL, NTKJ7,
&#39;OJo&vota, "EXEov; similarly in Latin Fides, Mens, Virtus, Con

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cordia, Victoria, S5pcs, Honor, C/enicntia, Pax, Salus, Pietas.
"Momos in Lucian deor. conc. 13 derides the unsubstantial
names ovre ovrTov rLvwv rap fM/lV OVrTE 0voTrvat oXcoi vvaiercov.
&#39;Where is 71 7roXvOpvXrTros &#39;Aperr, Nature, Fate, Fortune, hollow
names of things invented by those dullards the philosophers?…
I should like to ask you, Zeus, whether you ever saw Virtue,
Nature or Fate?"&#39; (Mayor on Juv. i. I15 q. v.)..r6Tva OEZV) Torvrva, which here, as in Iphi. A. I524, appears
in the shorter vocative form 7rorva, is connected with the IndoEuropean root PAT, to possess, and corresponds to the Sanskrit ptniz;, the lady of the house, the feminine of pdi, &#39; the lord
of the house,&#39; literally the &#39;possessor.&#39; The corresponding
Greek for the latter is rroo-it, which shews its connexion with
the root PAT still more clearly in the word Eo-&#39;Torr7r, i.e.
8eF-o-TroT7rqS (from &eFi-, which is also found in 6o/,os), lit. &#39;building-possessor,&#39; in fact hozseholder; with its corresponding fern.
etro-rouva for 8eft-oc-roTrvLa. Thus pfiAi stands in the same relation to patazi as rrotr-s to 7rorvra, and as Ecrororrs to ercrowva.
While 7rro-rs however continued in use, though usually confined
to poetry, nTro-Ta survived as an archaic word, retaining, from its
very rarity, a more dignified meaning than the masculine word
etymologically corresponding to it.-373. Xpvoreav irEpvya c( peLS)
answers to TO rTXos vaTrvxia in the antistrophe (388), the first
two short syllables of rIrepvya being treated as equivalent to
one long syllable.-376. KaXXLo-TEaCdvOLs Ev4poo-vcVLS) &#39;the brightcrowned banquets,&#39; evqJ. abstract for concrete, just as in our
own &#39;good cheer.&#39;-379. L0ao-EEiv Xopots) &#39;to make to join the
dancing revel-bands,&#39; Ion 552, O&#39; (Ie AeXlo-tLm Kopatus E OLUIO-&#39;V&#39;.
381. aworrWa-oaC TIE E.pCIlvas) Aristot. Pol. vIII 5 ~ 2, Torerpo
TratItas EVEKa Kal dvarrav&#39;ecoS (0 IFOVO-LK?), KaCadrrp VTr&#39;OU Kal ieiOqs&#39;
ara ra Vp Ka OtaTt 7TCV otrovaalwov, aXX&#39; 7je-a, Kal a&#39; a
wraveL fEpLf.Lvav, cos cqrotv Evptnrt8qs. It will be observed that
the context of the line before us, as well as the passage from
Aristotle, alike refer to &#39;music,&#39; "wine,&#39; and &#39;sleep.&#39;
382. Cf. 261, orov f3orpvoS E&#39;v atrlr yiyveral ydvos, a line which
has been suspected on the ground of its similarity to the present; its soundness however is proved not only by the other

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wise unintelligible E&#39;t in the next line, but also by the article in
rWv Opyicov, meaning those orgies, i.e. szuc/ as have been described in the previous line.
386-392. &#39;Unbridled lips and lawless folly Can only end
in hapless doom, But the gentle life and wisdom&#39;s ways
Endure unshaken and hold fast the home&#39;; i.e. are proof against
all shocks, and keep houses from being divided against themselves, like the house of Pentheus in which grandson and grandsire are set against each other. The first three lines are quoted
twice by Lucian (I p. 573, III p. I89), and by Stobaeus (36.
13), who elsewhere quotes the next six lines (58. 3). —daXivov
o-TooLOTv) refers to the unrestrained blasphemy of Pentheus,
and corresponds to the evrTpoXos yXarraoa of 268, just as dvoLov
d(Zpor;&#39;vas does to the next line, ev Tros XoyoLr – o&#39; OK e&#39;E0rl 0tro
(jpevES, cf. also 33I, 0Spae rcv vro4ouv. Plato, leges p. 701 C,
aelv O(aLveraL ioVye, ot0vrrp L7yno, oovyov Xoyov eKa&#39;0Tore advaXal3aivetv,
Kat 1J7r KacOa7rEp dXdLXLov KEKr)i/LEov TO crTro/1a K.r.X., and Eur.
fragm. 495, 7&#39;Y;e 7rroy -taW yEX~oLovs oirtZve roOyiV 7TpL dX XLV&#39;
Xovtct rrToflara.
395. TO cr o-ov ou o-oCLa) What is called wisdom is not true
wisdom, &#39;to be knowing is not to be wise.&#39; So in Heraclitus,
7rJoXvrarOqirl voo ov 8a&o-KEL; so also in Tennyson&#39;s Locksley Hall,
&#39;knowledge comes but wisdom lingers.&#39; The same depreciation
of ro – oorv occurs in 203; for the general sense cf. 427-43I.O6 Tre AiT Ovl nT 4{povwev ppaXCs coiv) Many scholars, including
B3rodaeus, Heath, Tyrwhitt, Brunck, Elmsley, Paley (ed. i), and
Tyrrell (before the publication of his Baerepat q(povIrtSe), place a
full stop at qfpov^Ev, and understand ro T re Pj O6vrTa qpoveFT as
explanatory of ro croqo6v, thus leaving ptpaXvs alhv to be taken
separately, in the sense, &#39;life is short.&#39; But the Aldine edition
(followed by Hermann and Sch6ne) has no full stop after /pov;Lv,
and this punctuation is, I am convinced, right, for three reasons:
(i) It is supported by the balance of the clauses, as we thus have
r o-croPov with ov cro(pla for its predicate, and similarly rT re fEi
Ovrlra ppovelv with f3paXvs aldv; the two pairs correspond with
perfect symmetry, whereas fpaXvs aicrv, standing by itself, strikes
one as too spasmodic and disjointed. (2) It is confirmed by a

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passage in IpEp. T. 1122, ro Me Hie ev rvXarS KaKoo-&#39;Oat a ap&#39;s aloWv.
Just as /apvs alciv there means fapvv 7roteL rov alrva, so here,3paXvr ahiv, with its similar sequence of sound and its exactly
corresponding position in the sentence, means &#39;paaXvv 7rotE 7&#39;rov
aiLva. This parallel, which has apparently escaped the attention of previous editors, seems conclusive, and when occasion
was taken to point it out in a notice of Mr Tyrreli&#39;s ed. (in the
Cambridge Uziversity Reportel; MIay 31, 1871), it convinced
both Mr Paley and Mr Tyrrell of the erroneousness of the
ordinary punctuation. (3) It is also supported by the construction found in 1004, where SIXvrrors J/os means, &#39;makes life
painless.&#39; For the sense, Hermann quotes Iliad 5, 407,,rrt
FaLX&#39; ov0 qrvatoS oO OavadTOio-L lXXirat, which refers to the life of
Lycurgus (like that of Pentheus in the present play) being
cut short by his opposition to Dionysus.
397. Arrti oirnt) hac condicione (Hermann), i.e. &#39;on this condition
of a shortened existence.&#39; &#39;And whosoever, on this frail tenure,
aims at things too great for him, may miss the boons within his
reach.&#39; So in Browning&#39;s Grammarian&#39;sfuneral, &#39;this high man,
aiming at a million, misses a unit.&#39; Paley proposes e&#39;ri rorovr
in the sense, &#39;in the time of this&#39; (short life): but it may be
questioned whether er rotvrov can mean more than &#39;during this
man&#39;s time&#39; (zz huius memzoria as Mr Tyrrell puts it).
401. 7rcao&#39; Ygotye, lmeo qtidem iudicio, Hdt. I, 86, rovs 7rapa
crrLo-t avTroo-ta aoKeovras OAl3iov:, Dem. II ~ 3, OavtFaTrTorepos 7rapa 7racrL
vojueraLt, El. 737, XeTyrat, &#39;rav I TrLrlTv 0-LgtKpav Trap&#39; Epoty &#39;Xet.
402. Anacr. fr. 2 (to Dionysus), jva` J 8aaaXnr "Epco…ropf)vpq T1 &#39;A pod (IT OvJL7TraLCOVcL.
404. OeXJi+poves…OvaWTOoTrv) Elmsley well paraphrases the
line, e&#39;va iTarpl(ovrtv ol epcores Ol e;XyovreS TaS fp vac rev Ovr-t7)V
&#39;the haunt of the love-gods who soothe the heart of man,&#39;&#39;where for man&#39;s joy the gentle love-gods dwell.&#39;
406. The manuscript reading rIdckov O&#39; av appears to present
insuperable difficulties. By the eKaTOcrroarooL 3ap3pcpov rroraplov
poal avolpOpoL which &#39;fertilise&#39; Paphos, we cannot understand any
stream in Cyprus, for in the days of Euripides, (as at the present
time,) the description given by one of our own travellers must

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I59

have held good, that the brookes (for rivers it hath none) rather
merite the name of torrents, being often exhausted by the Szunne
(George Sandys, Travels, p. 221, ed. I615, quoted by Joddrell).
We can apply them to the Nile alone, as described in the
opening words of the Helen, NeaXov tv ac&#39;ue KaXXL7TOdpOvoL oal,
ov cvrT &&#39;as ~EKaoS Alyv&#39;rrov arseov XevKrs ra8cecrrls avours vypaLvex
yias, and in fragm. 230 (Archelaus), NeIXov XLtvT KaXXO-Trov;K
ya aS Vr;p Os tK feEXaI3Lporoto 7rXqTpoVTra poasE AlOtorLnos y jr, r77VK&#39;
tv raK X&#39;cov. This involves us in a geographical difficulty, to
remove which Mr Paley is driven to conjecture that &#39;Euripides
may have supposed the fertilizing current of the Nile reached even
to Phoenicia, and that Paphos and Cyprus were parts of that
country.&#39; The only other passage, so far as I am aware, which gives
us any hint as to the extent of the poet&#39;s knowledge with respect
to the position of Cyprus, is in He. 148, where Teucer, who
has sailed from the island of Salamis to the delta of the Nile,
informs Helen that he proposes to consult an oracle with a view
to getting a fair wind to take him to Cyprus, orq vrEOe o-rreXaoiL&#39;
av oproov 7TTrepv esr &#39;yv cvaXlav Kirrpov,-on which it may be
remarked that had the outflow of the Nile been sufficiently
strong to &#39;fertilise&#39; Paphos, Teucer might have trusted himself
to the current alone, without waiting for the breeze to fill his
sails. Hermann, who omits Tr and makes IIdaov depend on
veftovraL, meets the difficulty by understanding KapmriCovOLv of the
enriching of Paphos by its trade with Egypt (&#39;opes indicat
omnigenas, quas trabe Cypria mercator Paphi congerat, per
Nilum cum orientis regionibus commercia exercens&#39;). Reiske
proposes adpov, suggested probably by its mention in the prologue to the Helen, but in no way specially connected with the
worship of Dionysus or Aphrodite. Schbne conjectures 7reaov r&#39;
EvO&#39;, and Meineke, xOdva O&#39; aiv, both referring to Egypt; m
Tyrrell nHacov 0&#39;, av O&#39;, but it may fairly be asked whether in
such a case we can understand av as equivalent to r&#39;v re yi&#39;v Irv,
though the harshness of the ellipse is undoubtedly softened
to a certain extent by the further alteration of alvo(3pot to
avop43pov. Dr Thompson&#39;s suggestion yaiav 0&#39; ay gives excellent sense, but appears open to the objection that it would

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(4o0,

involve making the first syllable of &#39;trav (in the antistrophe?
long; an Epic usage, not found in Greek Tragedy (v. Ellendt&#39;s
lexicon to Soph.).
409. KcaXXLoTrEvoli&#39;va) &#39;deemed most beautiful&#39;, pass. as in zcfei.
947. &#39;The Muses&#39; famed Pierian haunt, the hallowed slope of
Olympus&#39; (Mocro-a &#39;OXitrrta 8o/LaT&#39; C&#39;Xov-aL, 1/. 2, 484). Pieria,
the district north of the o-rFvdC KXLrTS &#39;OXuPWrov, bounded towards
the north by the Macedonian river Haliacmon, was the birthplace of Orpheus (Apollonius Rhod. I. 23) and of the Muses
(Hesiod, Theog. 53). This region formed part of the Macedonian dominions of Archelaus, at whose court the play was
composed, and who himself established "Olympian" festivals
in honour of Zeus and the Muses. These were celebrated with
peculiar splendour by one of his successors, Alexander the
Great, who according to Diodorus Sic. XVII I6, gvo-iar /iyaXo7rprEiTr&#39; TOLES Geois cTvvereX ev ev Atc rls&#39; MaKeaovlas tual o-KrqvLKovr
aycovas Atl Kal Moiucra&#39; ovs &#39;ApX;eaos 6 rrpof3aor&#39;iLXo&#39;as 7rpcorTo
KarioEL^e, cf. Arrian Anab. Aler. I, i, rc TrE Ai rT- &#39;OXv/1rr;t
rIjv Ovotlav rtv a7r&#39; &#39;ApXeXdov Ert KaOeo&#39;rTo&#39;av EUrOe Kal TO aycowa ev
Alyals BierKpe Ta&#39; OXv&#39;0,L7ta&#39; ol 8E Kal raut Movt-atg XEyovcrtv ort
ayo)va eTroLr7o&#39;e. Kal ev TroVTr) yyeXXerat rO &#39;Opfios rov O)aypov TOV
OpaKos atyaXlza Tr EV HtIELpL8L Bppoaat vvEXE-. For another complimentary reference to the dominions of Archelaus, see 560 -75.-The massive breadth of Olympus, rising to 9754 feet above
the level of the sea, would stand out boldly in the Pierian landscape towards the southern part of his dominion.
412. OrpopaKXiLE) a word invented for the occasion. the
effect of the exceptional word in Greek may be kept up in
English by some such rendering as &#39;Vancourier (in the sense
of &#39;leader&#39;) of the Bacchic throng.&#39; 414. IIdOos, an abstract
divinity (cf. &#39;O-ia, 370) personified as son of Kvrrpts in Aesch..Sztfil. o040, and mentioned (as here) with the Graces in Ar.
– ves 1320, Pofppa, Idio-, daiLpoo-(al XdpLTEr. Cf. Gray,&#39; the bloom
of young Desire, and purple light of Love.&#39;
419. EipqvCav KovpoTp64ov) This epithet of Peace who is
here described as &#39;tender nurse of youth, boon goddess of
increase,&#39; comes from Hesiod, To-rks and Days 226, ELprrj7 (Y&#39;

Page  161
-427 XO TES. I
a y?711V KOVP0po&#39;(posjJ. The poet&#39;s love of peace may be illustrated
by numerous passages, e. g. th iefageto h Gs/ots
462, Et&#39;pqiva /3aOlr7rXovTE (cf. O&#39;X/3)&nEtpaV) Kal KaXXLOTra FWKa1PWJV OEcoY,
<qXocg (tot JE~OEv, CO&#39;, XpoviEtg v7r-Fpf&#39;Xy7 pe -ypaq, 7rp&#39;4v T-&#39; XOptLEO —
oav o)pav wTPOUL8lELV KU&#39; KaXXI.XOpjo O~t UOL&#39;lC r/LXOO-TEc/JVGVVrTe KEOJL-OVg.
/LO1 j~t iOTrvu, 7ro&#39;Xtv, 7TaLv 8 EX69pCLv eTa-raat Etpy&#39; aOW ULKCOV 7av /Latvo/fiEval 7- "Ej)W OqK7-c( TEp~ro/IEvav oL~aipcp (rendered by Browning in
Arist. Afiol. p. 179). Cf. Ar. P(1% 308 (ELipq&#39;vqv~) 7-,v OECov za-L
_/1E&#39;/t(TT7V KaL 1T/LXa/I7rEXoraLLrqv.
Elp~ivn, here described as loved by Dionysus, is also associated with him in works of ancient art; e.g. in a vase-painting
copied in M~iller-Wieseler II, 585, among the figures surrounding Dionysus are EIPINNH, a winged boy named IMEPo0., and a
seated forin with a torch resting on one of her hands and a
r/hytonz in the other. Similarly another vase-painting,, ib. 584,
represents Dionysus seated, caressing IPJINH who is softly
approaching, him: among the figures in the upper part of the
same vase is a winged boy beating the tynifanzuiz, hearing the
name of no~ooZ (also in 0. jaha&#39;s Vasenbldla&#39;r iii, plate 2).
421. to-ct, or i&#39;o-av, &#39;in equal measure,&#39;-both to the wealthy
and to the lowly. 423. T&#39;rP+ILV dXirrovl fragm. 889, (~&#39; co) 74ro
Trip4&#39;LV TU&#39; E&#39;Xcovet, ELXmWt U7E, sitfira 280, 7rcuJEL…vTs
427. crTo&#39;v S&#39; c!rE&#39;XELV 7rpzMlrC~cL fpE&#39;VCL r TE rpL~ro-WV wctpa f+WTIZV)
"tis wise to hold aloof the thought and mind that come from
those wvho are over-clever.&#39; roocfa&#39;t is the manuscript reading
(altered into o-o/ab&#39;v, with the Aldine edition). aLTFE&#39;XEfi is sometimes used where we should expect adWE;XEOOaL, e.g. Aesch. Ag-.
350, iavaraT&W dremxpas,, while in Od. 22, 3i6, we have KaKC5LI
U~r XE"pa" EXE(TOaL (L. and S.); and in the present passage
a rEXetv may mean &#39;keeping, off from oneself.&#39; ooa&#39;v &&#39; (&#39;1TrEXE
is the correction printed by Elmsley and Hermann, the latter
of whom gives the rendering firocul liabe scaien;Clamn a unu
do etis Iomi~zbusjofectam..rrEp,.o-o-~v -trap&#39; -ofewier/hats c. &#39;r
xELVI,&#39;to keep the mind aloof from…&#39; For the sense, cf. fragm.
96, p ) /Lot XE~rTO)1) Oly-yave /lbmJv, 4,vXi T 7 WrLo-a&#39; ()JpovEiv; L~ /.V
/IEXXELL /JAuvrveo-OaL 7rap&#39; o&#39;ioocv.-7rpairrSa, tiough rare in singular,
also occurs niifra 999, ftamfliua 7paWr1&#39;8, and in a fragment of
S. 13.

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EA CC1114 E –

(42 7

Pindar.-Of the last words of the chorus Hermann justly remarks: &#39;quomodo TOae rot Xiyt to&#39;f significare possit, T iDE – oIt,
Lapto-rv ttvaL?.YOt/1&#39; vo, neque ego video, neque facile aliis persuadeatur.&#39; He himself prefers Xcyobiiav (pass.), i. e. To02e T-oL
Xf-1oL&#39;u~V 1V01L~EtV Kal Xpijo-Oat. I prefer accepting Kirchhoff&#39;s conjecture, T(dIE Trot 83EXot/LavJ. For the sense, cf. fragm. 642 (Polyeid.),
7rAOVTE4r, Ta&#39; 8&#39; a"NX a /Aq) 80&#39;onE vv~tiva&#39; IE&#39;J/ r6 -yap X/t~ ravxO&#39;Tq
EVEOTL TLg, 7r~za U ooq)Lav &#39;EXaXe &a~ To&#39; eIvo-TvXis (v. 7. OvyyEIEviv
436. &#39;A gentle creature too we found our quarry.&#39; the
wvord Np is used to keep up the notion of tiypa in the first line of
the&#39; speech. Cf. also lufr-a, 922.-439. d~rd1YELV is almost a
technical term here; it is constantly used in the Attic orators, of
sumnmary arrest, rapere li i us. So also in Plato, Gorg. 486 A,
et lTL~ O_0V Xa0&#39;13IVOE.V.. C.9 7- To &atlE7cTw7pLOV airaya&#39;YOL.-lt is apparently the present passage that is rendered as follows by
Attius Bacclzae XT (i8)..-.jraesensfigraesto irrideles (leniiter) Nob/&#39;s
stiqe&#39;-factis scse) ult;-o ostentimn ob/ulil. From a similar
scene in the Lycurgus of Naevius XI (25), we have the line dic
quo facto eum Jiot/ti (sitis): fiugna(- ne) anr dolls ~?
4410. &#39;roip&#39;LCiv EUV&#39;rp (.rrE&#39; 7TroLo,1JJEVOS) &#39;making my task a seemly
one,&#39; instead of causing an unseemly scuffle by his resistance.
This would seem to be a tolerable explanation of the manuscript
reading, hut several editors (Elmsley, Paley, Tyrrell) accept the
alteration ci&#39;rpeirIE&#39;-, though in the three passages in Eur. or
the phrase ev&#39;rpE7lr, or cVTpME rEV, 7ronEio-OaL occurs (iplh. T. 245,
Herc. F. 497, Electra 689), it implies &#39;gctting something ready
for one&#39;s own use&#39; (Paley). Another punctuation is that given
by Hermann, e`&#39;t~vf TE rot/-tOv, fV7PE7TE.V rrOtOV~fVOV, eXS/ectabat, it/
ego ineum ojjiciuiifacerem~i aratzin id minil reddens: ego vera
p udoe tachus (&&#39; ailoit), inv/turn me eurin abducere dlxi. j&#39;ai
thought it best, on the whole, to accept the emendation cEdTETr4
(Nauck). An equally good sense would be given byFEdXEPig or
el4Lap~s (Paley). —442. Aesch. P. V 3, 0oo&#39; b&#39; XPI jlauv (45o)
f7r~tOTOXa.V av aot Ta~ P~JLO(3)
447-8. &#39;Their bonds were burst asunder of themselves,
And the gates unbarred by more than mortal hand.&#39; Nonnus
44, 2!1, avrobiarot KXq3LE.V a&#39;VotLL}VVVTO 7wvXaiWV, Kal aoXt(ov&#39;, 7vvXeWvL

Page  163
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X&#39;0- TE S.

i 6 -1)

faT?7v EWEfaX~ov o~qav7O 7EPLOLT 6Epda7rovJTE Eptap~aivorTEv ai~TaLS, i
45, 78-8, t5r~ opo(~X~yy (3 rapo-63Y XaXKo/3ap&#39;. rpo~&#39;c~oua
7i-O&.WZ EoG-XL&#39;ETo 0ETEL&#39;P?7..KaL (TKOTLOV 7rVXEW6VEV a~vE7mT)co-oPTov IEpiopoV
auroLa&#39;ToL, Ovid JIIt. III 700 (Of the release of Acoetes, imprisoned
by Pentheus, like Dionysus in the play before us) sJ~onit suae
_Patuisse for-es, lalsasqzte Zacertis sy/ioute siut fama est mizllo
solvenzte catenuzs. Acts of the Apostles XLI. 7 (of the miraculous
release of St Peter) E rE Eo-Z av3roi at a Vo-EnV EK TV XEtp(OV, 1o
(7i~X?7) aih-o~Aa&#39;T?7 77&#39;voL&#39;Xt97 aUTroig, XV1. 26 (of St Paul and Silas at
Philippi) a (3Eo o-TEct/o-,0 EYE&#39;VETO /LeyQE, WOTE. oTQXEv6pOL Ta&#39; OEpLEXTaroV 8(3EO7IWTqt&#39;~V&#39; a6Cco/XOY-a&#39;v T-E 7rapa~pfi7/a al OUpaL 7raoat, Kai
7TLvwv~A 7a ad&#39; e07Ja a&#39;v&#39;Oq (all these passages, and more, are referred
to by Joddrell). The manuscript reading SE~ C..rro&cv (altered
sometimes into 7rE8,ov) is defended by Homeric hymn 7, 13, 7(J
(3 OV&#39;K 1O-Xave lEO-/Ia&#39;, XV&#39;yot (3 d7ro&#39; T7-X0o(e WL&#39;TrTOV XELP6V 7)(3E&#39; iruiliV.
451. The manuscript reading tialmEaOE g ives a fair sense: it
makes Pentheus say that the account just given of the escape of
the Maenads and the reference to the miracles of their captive
companion, prove that the attendants themselves are mad.
In the Laurentian Ais (c), examined by Mr Mahaffy for &#39;Mr
Tyrrell, &#39;the regular space for a stop&#39; may be seen &#39;between
the words FLaive0O-e and XEtpc~v, and in that space the mark of
punctuation&#39;; and, in accordance with this way of stopping the
passage, that Ais has the explanation 4i~oZ written over TQV3e.
&#39;This&#39;, as ir Tyrrell admits, &#39;would put ya3p out of its place.
H owever, I 7ap occurs in the sixth place in Soph. Fhill. 145S 1,
KatpOE Kai 7wXouv 0&#39; &#39; E~rE1-yEL a&#39;}zp, and in the fourth place in v. 477.&#39;
Xa&#39;Cvo-0, the correction written above the text in the Palatine
Sis obviously suggested by 503, and is as obviously refuted by
that line, as Pentheus would not have been made to exclaim
&#39;seize him!&#39; in the later passage, if he had already given orders
for him to be bound in the present. Closest to the manuscript
reading is the ingenious conjecture /IaLLveuY XELpoV TroVR (Bothe,
followed by Kirchhoff and Nauck), &#39;Ye are more mad than he;
but the prisoner himself (whatever may be said of his captors)
has shewn no signs of madness; on the contrary, he has proved
himself uncommonly calm; the warmth however of the king&#39;s
I I – 2

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language may be defended by &#39;the keen resentment (rovTvOvov)
and right royal temper&#39; assigned to him in 671; and this applies
equally to the abrupt exclamation iaviea0c, the reading of the
Laurentian MIS. But I feel some hesitation in supporting that
reading, as there seems no sufficient reason why we should not
have had the obvious words xFLpcv Tr-8&#39; instead of roOF.
Besides, the plural,/aiveoroe, addressed to all the attendants,
seems out of place when only one has shewn his &#39;madness&#39; by
his speech. This objection does not apply to the ingenious
correction proposed by George Burges, pLeOaee -e XELpcv roU8,
because more than one were holding the prisoner fast, as is seen
from Xadvo0-O already referred to; cf. Ifih. T. 468, iEOere rcv
^cvwv X/pas, oS OZvrTE lEpOL, IlKEirK (aOL aoelot. This conjecture
(which I venture to accept) admirably suits the context: &#39;let loose
his hands!&#39; the king exclaims, &#39;for hemmed in as he is, by my
toils, he is not swift enough to escape from me.&#39; Then, after a
pause, during which he takes a survey of the stranger&#39;s figure,
which would have been out of the question, had not the
prisoner been let loose first, he continues; &#39;So then, you are
fairly handsome in your form,&#39; &c.
453. So in fragm. XlI (I4) of the translation by Attius,
formaefgurae nitiditatem hospfes geris and similarly line 455 finds
its parallel in XIII (9) nazflori crines video eipropessi iacent.
455. &#39;Thy hair flows gracefully from lack of wrestling.&#39; ov7rarX?7 must be taken as one idea, equivalent to dyvLvaa-cas (Porson
on Eccl. I15), as in Hizp. 197, &&#39; darerpoovvrPv aXXov /3dTov KOVKdonrrod tv (=KadXvi+Lv, KpV&#39;+Iv) rTV vrr yatas, where Monk quotes
Hec. 12, q oa-rdvst and Or. 93 I, o o-rrdvLt ( =abundantia). Cf. infra
1288, &#39;v od-Kxapo, and Thuc. I I37, 7 royv Trcv ye/vp&#39;3v ov-t&aXvOw.
The athlete&#39;s hair would naturally be kept short, as it would otherwise get in the way in wrestling, and be oppressively hot for the
shoulders. Wearing long hair was not an Athenian but a
Sbartan fashion, and it was only as an affected imitation of
the Spartan mode that it came into vogue at Athens after the
end of the Peloponnesian war. In the present passage the
flowing locks betray that the wearer of them is no wrestler. In
El. 527, the strong growth of Orestes&#39; hair is contrasted with

Page  165
-466) NOTE S. 165
the hair of his sister, EIreLtra xOLT&#39;7- 7 7r404&#39; o0vvo04ETaL IXO&#39;KOS&#39;, 0 /4EY
7raXacdo-rpatg avptpr ev&#39;yevo~v4 Tpa(c4Ei4, O&#39; 6U KT-C-MGff/4 0xv
In Greek art ejizebi and athletes are usually represented
with short hair, slightly curled. &#39;Palaestra,&#39; as personified in
Philostratus imiag-ines 11 ~ 32, has short hair. Cf. Lucian Dial.
A/r E,3 avx~i rrKfKap/Ltcvos9 c1oo7Tep OL 0-laa~p~~ ~
dO0Xqp-6iv (K. 0. MUller, Alncient Art ~ 3330).
457. &#39;Thy skin too is, for a set purpose, white Not with
the sun&#39;s rays but beneath the shade, In quest of Cypris by thy.loveliness,&#39; 688, O1qpav KaO&#39; iJXqv Kv&#39;rrpwV, Plat. Phaedr. 239 C, Stobaeus 97, 17, xe1(v &#39; &#39;0YK1EiV oT()/ia Oep/L&#39;O&#39; tY 4LdOV T0$EV/~aT&#39;
ULE /47 o-KLarpo ~vLvv.-L ~~c-Eu1jv) i~e. &#39;for the furtherance of your object,&#39; namely &#39;A/1po&r7v O17pc&#39;)pvov. Antiphon,
or. 6 ~ i19, /417 E&#39;K 7r/JovoLa- pL778 E&#39;K 7rapaO&#39;K-v?74&#39;V -yEVIE(OCLaL TrOv Ovarov,
Lysias, or. 31 I 30, LV aaOoi 7rpOOv/4i~vraL -y&#39;vc-EOaOU Ktr~U-E1
Thuc. i, 133 dw waa -ev
460. So in Aesch. frag"m. 59 (Edloni), Lycurgus addresses
the captured Dionysus in the words, Tr~7rora&#39; O&#39; -yVPVLr; TL4. 7rarTpa;
461. &#39; That may be lightly told; &#39;tis no grand tale: Haply
thou know&#39;st, by hearsay, flowery Tmolus.&#39; Virg. Georg. i 56,
croceos ut Tmiolus odores… mitt it. The range of Tmolus runs
from east to west, and mainly lies to the south of Sardis; only one
spur of the mountain-range faces that place on the we,.st, while
along the north extends the plain of the Hermus; so that tile
poet&#39;s reference to its &#39; surrounding&#39; Sardis is not very accurate.
465..rro&v) not &#39;from what place?&#39; but, as the answer shews,
&#39;on whose prompting?&#39; &#39;Hoze. came yozz then to bring these rites
to Greece?&#39; (cf. 648). The only way in which a local sense can be
here given to 7ro&#39;Oev is to suppose that Pentheus takes the Lydian
Sardis for the birthfilace only of the stranger, and wants to
know what the place was which he had left last on his way into
Greece; but if so, the answer scarcely fits tile question.
46.dT&#39;P71&#39;) not El4&#39; 7r&#39;rv &#39;EXXa&#39;aa (as taken by Abresch, to
whom the emendation is due), but EI4 mra 7-EX7-ra4&#39;9= initiavit; so,Furtr,~pt, initia. Orph. A 40!Oa Ka&#39;L &#39;p-yia ~lL7a cV
app-q7-ra /3pO7-LGIW, a074iev0L fiO-Erip17(av, Ammianus XVI 3, 365, in

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ducendum = liziliancizm (Lobeck, 4,-abzmS 74 note). Cf.
Virg. Eel. 5, 30, tlziasos induecre Bacc/iL
467. Pentheus in his reply catches up the last words of the
previous line, d&#39; Toi Ato&#39;v, with the enquiry, &#39;Have you a Zeus
Ihe re, who begets new gods? &#39;-to which the stranger replies, &#39;No,
but &#39;twas he who wedded Semele here, not another Zeus, but
the Zeus of your own local legend. Hl~e. 489, AL&#39;v 6&#39; EXE$E waiad
&#39;1v 7rrefVKE&#39;vat. aX?I T ErtL Zqpos Q&#39;voli&#39; &#39;Ewcv a&#39;vq&#39;p NdLXov 7rap&#39;
9xOav; ef&#39; 1a&#39;p oYE KarT oi&#39;pavz&#39;V.
469, &#39;jVci-iMOWv) &#39;pressed thee into his service.&#39; &#39; By night,
or oenl, di heim}ress thee.&#39; Thuc. VII 58, 3, vyo-o
aTrpaTEov7-TEC, and VIII 24, 2, c7rL/3ava TW6v O7TXLTO~v E&#39;K KaTa),~ou-O
ava-yKao-Tov 5&#39;.
4170. "Twas face to face, and he gave me sacred rites.&#39; Clement of Alexandria, who uses the strongest language against
the mysteries of Dionysus elsewhere (Protreti. ii), fancifully
applies this line and 471, 472, 474, 476, to the mysteries of the
Christian religion (Stronzaeus IV 25, p. I372 Migne).
4:72-.4. Theocr. 26, 14, " pyta BUiKXOV… nra a&#39;o OVXOvrOP11i34aAot. Catullus 64, 259, _Pars obscitra cavds celebrabant orgia
cistis,, org-ia qitae frustra c76zfiiiint azidire Jirofani; Statius, Ack.
11 137, Bacchzeaferentes o~~-ia.
475. &#39;A pretty tale, to make me to long to hear.&#39; It is hard
to keep up the literal metaphor from base coinage contained in
CKL(38?)Xevo-av; the words &#39;tinselled,&#39; &#39;gilded,&#39; varnished, give
the same general sense in English.
476. i~e. You may not hear them, &#39;for the rites of the god
hate him who lives in sin.&#39; Diodorus, Sic. III 64, xaraaciaL ae"
KaL T-a 7T~pL Tag 7TEXEa5&#39; Kal /.eraa6Ov~aL T-Ov pO-TqpL&#39;O3V TOLS&#39; EVOrej3EO&#39;L
i-ov 1VOp(OhraOV Ka1l 61&#39;Kaiv fioV a-KO~utL. Naevius, Lycurgues xiv
(9), oderunt di hzomines iniuros.
477. &#39;As you clearly saw the god, what like was he?&#39; 478.
&#39;What like he pleased; &#39;twas not for me to dictate.&#39;
47. pXETcrIE a metaphor from an vIp OXT7y iverting a channel of water from one part of a garden to another.
Suidas, 7rapoXETEVELt ailro&#39; ETE&#39;OV v4pi)y0v EL5&#39; ETEpOV Ein/,3aXFe, 17
IUeraofci~E TrO awcp. The corresponding metaphor with ourselves

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1 6 7

would probably be one borrowed from fencing, &#39;Well parried
there again yet answering naught.&#39;-480. Fragm. 89i,…otlK
aiv JvvaLpj-LJV7 /11) yoTTEY a 7r~LrXa&#39;vat, uTovo~ fravirXcv alv~pl ~q -o)
X6uyovg.-485. (Maetznier ad Antiphiont. P. 221) Shilleto, adv.
486. V&#39;U&#39;KTrcp) Hence the epitbet E&#39;vvv&#39;Xtov applied to Dionysus in A//Il. Pal. Ix 524, VVKTELog in Plutarch de EL in Del/1 iIs,
P. 389, and Ovid Mlet. iv 15; according to Pausanias I 40, 6,
there was a temple of Dionysus, under tbe latter name, at
Megara.-487 —8. Fragm. 528 (Meleager), i yI&#39;p K&#39;7ptv 7r&#39;c/?vkE
Tp6 O-KOT6-C TO&#39;X ckor q)98 ciayK) WpTTLO?(OL cuct~poYeiv, the former
of which lines justifies the fears of Pentheus, while the latter
disposes of the sopbistical reply of Dionysus. In Orphic hymn
54, we have c&#39;pyta VVKntc/aP reETaiv a&#39;yiatg aivqat&#39;ov (of Silenus).
491. &#39;How bold our Bacchant; how well trained in wordfence!V8&#39;KXO. is here simply the votary of Dionysus, and not
the god himself, whose identity with his follower is not made
known till near the close of the play, 1340. The word (/aiKXosV
does not occur in Homer or Aeschylus (who however has f~ciKXaL):
and the god was not commonly called by that name till a comparatively late period. In Soph. the wordl is found only once,
0. T. 211, O T kVO xv-~rav…ovra BdKO EvLO, as a name it occurs in the oracle quoted in Dem. Meld. ~ 52, jijv~Ta Ba&#39;KXoLO,
Hlz)575 560, Atoyo&#39;voto Bd&#39;KXOV, Ij5h hA. i o6 i, Kpar~pa Ba&#39;KXOV, Ilk/. T.
i6i, Ba&#39;KXOV Xot3 1ag.
492. This and some of the following lines are fancifully
interpreted by Horace, EFt. i i6, 73, vir bonuts et safiiens audebit
dlcere &#39;Pentlhem, rector Tihebariul, quiid me _Aerferre patique
ilidig/lnum coges /&#39; &#39;adlmam bo/la.&#39; &#39;/nemhe Pecuts, rem, lee/os,
aroe/ltll. tollas licet. &#39; &#39;i/i manicis et co/nfiedibuts saevo te sub
custode tenelbo&#39; (497). &#39;ilpse deiis, si//ul a/que volamn, me solvet&#39;
(498). 0751/or hoc se/lilt, &#39;mnoriar.&#39; m/ors ulimi//a fllea rerum
est. Cf. Arrian Ef iceadset 8 17 dx drpVvo pE
roOE &#39;S XX ar(EXs&#39; -r&#39;; -r&#39;v Tpa&#39;X?7Xov, and lb. I9, 8.
493. ci&#39;ppiv P0&#39;orpvXov) Cf. Callistratus quoted on 235-494.
The practice of consecrating the hair to a god and cutting it off
at a solemn season in his honour is also referred to in Aesch.
Choe,-k. 6, 7TXO&#39;KaLov &#39;IvaXcp OpEcrrjptov, Philostratus i//laglues

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i 7 ~ i, of Memnon, O&#39; 7-(v 0oOTrpV&#39;Xcov alraXvg ou (oc&#39;~au) NEL&#39;Xca
Erpc/JE, Pausanias, VIII 20, 2, E&#39;Ipe/Ev 01 AIF~KM7r71-O KUMTJZJv T&o AX4EL6. The Athenians used to dedicate their hair to Apollo,
Plut. T/ies. 5. Diphilus, ap. Athenaeum, P. 225 B (quoted by
Elmsley), E&#39;vraZOa yoi~v Eto-i-w 7ts Vdirfp7Korn-LK(0, KI?7V rp/c~Uow,i&#39;V
VTpCOTOV L&#39;E(MWL TOy OEOV~, 6,&#39; q~qOL&#39;V&#39; 01)&I TovJTO y,auxX io-ftly/i~voq,
irpo roy /X4TIrw7ov 1rapamrirao/~&#39; vrL EXIEL. (Becker&#39;s Gliaricles,
SC. xi.) The words LEP&#39;s I IrXO&#39;4Saeqoe in a difficult
epigram of Callimachus, XLIX (48), il4i/h. Pal. VI 310, which
apparently describes the dedication to the lI1uses of a mask, or
other representation of Dionysus, by Simus, possibly the actor
of that name; eu&#39;lla~bv 7/Tr LTo &laouE. J4 2LtLOV O ML&#39;KKOV TOLE IOV&#39;oa~ 2 ~F~aicoEOKC)E ~locav aV WXyov /.Eya &opov. E&#39;y5 &#39; a&#39; &#39;P
TPJIE KEX?7VCO5&#39;) KEL/Lat TOO 2ajluov &7rXOtov, O&#39; Tpay/LKOE Iratlaplcow &o&#39;vv0o0E ElriJKCOOE. Ot U~ XE&#39;yOVOTLV, &#39;1po&#39;. d&#39; 7rXO&#39;Ka/iov,&#39; rov/O&#39;po&#39;v Petap
4tt(see Otto Schneider, Callimaclhca, I P. 438). Virg. Aeni. vii
390, viol/es libi sunmere lhiy-sos, te las/ae clioro, sacrum tibi
joascere crzzemi.
494. Ep0,S) is here necessarily trisyllabic. There is no
passage in Greek tragedy where we cannot scan it as three
syllables, and there are several where that is the only scansion
possible, e.g. Lhpa&#39;, at the beginning of an iambic line, in Soph.
P/il. 943, Here. F. 922, and lon 1317; ciep&#39;/ in the same place
in )fih~. 1&#39;. 1452, and lastly Plioei. 840, OaKoW-cv f&#39;V tiEPOiLOi.
Hence it appears that the dissyllabic spelling tlp/ir, oftenl found
in Dindorf&#39;s Poe/ac Sceuzici, is -never necessary and is best
avoided, being inadmissible in the above passages, whereas the
trisyllabic spelling, lep/iEv, will always stand (R. Shilleto).
499. &#39;Not till thou call&#39;st him, &#39;mid thy Bacchanals,&#39; i.e.
&#39;Never.&#39; 4E&#39;0TW?)V i~n Tragedy is used in the same sense as EOT,)Vlf
II stood,&#39; but in prose it is a true passive and is limited to
inanimate objects, e.g.- buildings, trophies, statues.
502. Callimachus Agbollo i i, cd&#39;rrdXXowv olJ 7WavTl L~aEt&#39;vEra a&#39;XX
TLEOXEK.Tr.X.
503. KOcTO-4povEZ FLe. The usual construction has occurred ill
i99: the exception is noticed by the Scholiast on Ar. Ra/n. 103,
0E Tau &#39;P &#39;TK E L OZJTL TroD ao&#39; &#39;ArTT1ko. o17/EL1)TEOL&#39;o roLvvV

Page  169
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169

~It &#39;ATrtK0&#39;L KE&#39;XPV7Tat T)TLVO LTOL.KLE~trj L
BaiKXaL~v KaT-a(tpovei /IE Kal eii3ag Obe (EImsley).-505. KVPLLI~O
o&#39;Ov, &#39;But I who have bctter righit than thou say, Bind!&#39; oE&#39;OE
is gen. not after Kv&#39;t~poL&#39; hut after the comparative.
506. &#39;Thy life thou know&#39;st not, no! nor yet see&#39;st who thou
art,&#39; ie. you little know the full import of your life, no nor even
of your very existence. Persius III 67, quid sumus aut quidinani victuri gi,,zgniur; Persius as a careful student of Horace
would have his attention directed to this play by his predecessor&#39;s paraphrase of the context of this passage (note On 492);
hence the words above-quoted are probably a direct imitation of
the line before us. A fainter reminiscence may possibly he
traced in Catullus, who specially studied this play, XVII, 22, i~hse
gui sit, utrun.: sit an non sit, id quoque nescit. The only emendation of the line which appears to be necessary is Elmnsley&#39;s
f"e&#39; for o&#39; 0~&#39;06r L. E.-Pentheus, not grasping the full meaning
of the remark, thinks that it only implies that he does not know
wh eiand accordingly gives his name in answer, whereupon
he is reminded of its ill-omened significance: see note on 367 and
Chaeremon there quoted, also (with Herm.) Nonnus XLVI 73,
addressed to Pentheus, UOL ~raia 1ia ~vfEPT 7PAaVT vopV/a
Moipat t4Leri-4ov (wvrongly used for uo6) Oavadroto 7rpoayyEXov.
507. &Svmrv0..Xijc-L) &#39;a very proper name to bring bad omen,&#39;
bed. &#39; in name thou art fit indeed to be luckless ther-ein.&#39; Rhioen. 727,
Ev~vo-7vXr)oaL 8IEI.0VfoLP&#39; EL/pVqr Kv&#39;Eqlav. The verb is one of many
instances in which the compound in Greek has to be split up
into its component parts in translating into English. This is
often the case with verbs compounded with l&#39;v; e. g. Herod. ix i,
E7rLt?78aE(0&#39;)Epos- &#39;EvO-2-paro7reE~3v&#39;cTO0at, ib. 25, ib. 7, E&#39;7rLtJ~8E6)TaTolJP IEETTL
E&#39;II/.aXc&#39;ToOa& Lo TOeptao-tov 7-Ealov, VI 102, 1E&#39;rLT7q3EwLraTov ivLtrTIEVo-aL, PI. P/taedr. 228 E, El~Lavi-ruv o-oi &#39;E/l/IEXEav (to practise ufion)
7TapEXIELL, (many other instances are collected by Cope on Aristot.
Rhiet. II 4 ~ 12, jlEi oTVL&#39;&a-ya-yEZV Kat aTvv&#39;&?7fkEp~vL-aL). Cf. également
the exceptional use of E&#39;XXEi~raW in Soph. El. 736, E&#39;XXEXEL)LLEL&#39;vv
(left in), Eur. El. 609, on&#39;8&#39; &#39;EXE&#39;XotWOav AXmWb, and Thuc. V iOm,
EL TOEc&#39;r1~~TLT~ctPl NcEo-av ov&#39;K 4EXXFL&#39;7rE1.
509. &#39;Liru7LCaZS ~oA&#39;LTVLaLV) &#39;On the left of the palace, but in

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I

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close contiguity to it (Julius Pollux iv i 25, cItpocTr/ 4 Xaua{),
and between it and a KXto-Lov representing the stable, wsse
the entrance to a dark and gloomy dungeon (55o, o-KOT-i&#39;atg EPV
E pKTOaig, 61, EE TTEVaE OPKcwag).&#39; T/zccirc of the Grc/s
p. 294. The stable, however, was probably itself used as a
dungeon (6i8), as in Orest. 1448.
510. (rKOTLOV ELoTOPCL KVEiPcLS) Soph. 0. T. 419, /3Xoropra…
o&#39;KUrov, and Eur. Plwen1. 377, O-KoTrov aEaopKC0r. Seneca Ep. 57 (Of
the Plcdig~rolta, the great tunnel between Naples and Puteoli),
nihi/l i/to carcer-e onl-us, ni/iillI//s faziicbits obsciirizs, qziue
ziobls,braestant zion ut Aici- tenebrczs videamitis sod itt i/5sas.
Milton P. L. i63, &#39;No light, but rather darkness visible.&#39;
513. KCX Upa-&#39;qS KTiUrous) explanatory of Uo~rov.-d-OLVwm(5i6)
in general apposition to /LETEUtL AiO VVO-or OE. So in Pindar Ist/inzi.
viii 6, aiVEy/ELpa&#39;TCo KCO/IOV, &#39;Icr6~Lta&#39;8ovrTE PL&#39;KYv7Erotva, A/c. 7,
O1&#39;JTEV&#39;ELV…7TLOV6 a7roLV 4VayKao-Ev, {5I. T&#39;4,oTav ~opa&#39;raY7 XEC4
-riv o-i.v o-(ay~. 5&#39;rrotva, El. ji So, aT7-otvJ i&#39;FLo~v 7rq/LarTWv, sufrla 346.
519. &#39;Hail! Achelous&#39; daughter, lady Dirce, happy maiden.&#39;
The nymph of the fountain is addressed as daughter of the
Achelous, because that river was &#39;the patriarch and eponyme
hero of the whole fresh-water creation of Hellas&#39; (Mlure&#39;s Tour~,
I p. 102, where it is described as &#39;a noble river, by far the finest
in Greece&#39;); cf. Acusilaus (f. 13. C. 530) M-uller&#39;s Jirag-m- 1hlstor.
p. 101, 12Kc~avoEi bU yaLEi TiqOiiv EUav-o~ cl(&#39;EX(/J4v/ T(O~v yiyVorrtU
TPO-LXOL 7ro-ra/io` &#39;AXeXd~og COOa cVi -EG~aog KaL TETL/I?7TaL
/tLa&#39;XL~ra (quoted by Macrobius Sat.l 5, i 8, io); see further, on
1. 625. So Herodotus tells us that a tributary of the Asopus,
the stream Odrod, had the local name &#39;Auanoro~ Ovya&#39;r7p or
15Acor &#39;g- On Dirce, in whose waters the newborn Dionysus
was dipped, cf. HI gpi. 555-562, P/ioen. 645, KaXXLWtr0ra/.og v~arov
Lva TE 1&#39;OTI.V E7rEpXETaL pVT(IE LAL(JI~I XXo~7pfr&#39;povs /3a~vo-7rop~vv -yv&#39;ag,
Bpo&#39;4uov EPIVa 7TEKETo, and lb. 825, quoted on 1. 5.-523. -Trrvp&&#39; ki
d0aVcdTov) Cf. 8-9. &#39;W~hen, from the undying flame, Zeus his
sire rescued him (and placed him) in his thigh.&#39; Fpa~p, a local dat.
526-9. &#39;Come, my Dithyrambus, come, Enter thou thy
father&#39;s womb, Lo!~ to Thebes I now proclaim, lBacchic. boy, be
this thy name.&#39;2 By the name is meant ALO6&#39;payq3ov, a word of

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doubtful derivation, which Eur. here apparently connects with
~s, or AtIOS, tpa and Oaivetv, referring it either to the babe being
shut up in the thigh of Zeus, or to the double birth by which he
twice passed the doors of life; Etymologicum Magnum, s. v.,…7 o10 roy Ov o 6vpas 3SatLvev, rfv TE KOLltav T?7s jirLJrpoV EIE;Af7E
Kai TOV firl7pOv TOO AltE" oT ro 5 ro eUrTepov TETEXOatL…lV 9 6&#39; &#39;s
OvpaQE ~eIY3KOe (Sch6ne). But the quantity of the first syllable
is against deriving it in any way from 8sk, and is in favour of
connecting it with Ad, as in At-roXta, At-(LtosE. Donaldson,
New Cratyl/s ~ 319, after a long discussion comes to the conclusion that the word came to mean &#39;a chorus or song celebrating the birth of Bacchus,&#39; from originally signifying &#39;the
bringing to Jupiter of the Opiov or leaf-enveloped heart or body
of the god.&#39; However improbable his explanation of the word
may be, one thing is certain that the name was elsewhere, as
here, specially connected with the marvellous birth of the god,
e.g. Plat. leg. III 700 B, XXo (efZosE bjS) ALOV o-ov 7e/vEO-L, OLoat,
L&OVpaFtoS XEyo6(Evos.
526. a&#39;po-va v&#39;l8vv) Nonnus I, o1 (of Dionysus), po-rcv
yacTrpl XoXE~Ve 7rarTp Kat 7roTrvla TJrT7p. 532. ev aroi cannot be
taken literally, even if we understand it of the stream whose
nymph is here invoked; it appears rather to be used of the
surroundings of the stream which the chorus invokes instead of
calling on Thebes itself.
533. TrC.&#39; dvaCvEL;) &#39;Why disown me?&#39; For another use of
dvalvooat cf. 25I. 534-6. &#39;The day will come, I swear by the
clustered grace of Dionysus&#39; vine, the day will come when
Bromius shall find a place in thy heart.&#39; For &#39;ri cf. 306.
537. otav otav o&#39;pycv have nothing answering to them in the
corresponding strophe, hence it has been sometimes supposed
that the first line of the chorus has been lost; mais il semble
better to regard the line before us as an interpolation due to a
copyist who, mistaking the construction and supposing that X0ovIOV yeLvoF EK(vs T~E 8apKovrTOsE rore IIvEOevs was nom. to ayvaalvcet,
thought it necessary to supply an ace. after that verb. By
omitting the words, we have a perfectly intelligible construction,
&#39;Pentheus betrays his earth-born descent, betrays that (lit. &#39;and

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(537

that&#39;) he sprang from a dragon of old, Pentheus begotten by
earth-born Echion to be a monster of savage mien, no mortal
wight, but like to an ensanguined giant, foe of heaven.&#39; the
constr. of dvau>alveL, EK4VS is like that of 8r-Xovv c. particip., e.g.
Soph. Ant. 20, aqrXOLs yap rL KaXXalvovc&#39; 6&#39;rOS, cf. Soph. El. 24,
cra.pj rorlEi~Ga (pa;vlets crOXbo els jufts yeyc7S.
In the Laurentian MS (C) the line has written against it the
word rrtpLo-o-v, which at first sight might be taken to mean that
the whole line is superfluous, whereas it more probably refers to
the unnecessary repetition of otav.
Pentheus is compared to one of the Giants, ylyavrt y^yevEfra
rrporo-dotoos (as some one else is called in Phoen. 128), not only as
son of the earth-born (X6twfos) Echion, but also as a foe of
heaven. The battle between the gods and the giants (who are
sometimes wrongly confounded with the Titans) was the subject
of a piece of sculpture at Delphi, described by Euripides himself in Ion 206-I8, where Enceladus and Mimas and other
giants are at war with Zeus, Pallas and Dionysus.
550. &#39; Dost thou look on this, O Dionysus, son of Zeus, dost
thou see how thy prophets are in conflict with oppression&#39;
eo-op&a may possibly be a corruption of E&#39;fopas, used often of
standing calmly by, looking on with indifference, at the troubles
of others, e.g. Soph. Trach. 1269, 6cwv OL (vacravrTe KaL KX-?oLevo
7raTrepe roitar&#39; e(opC(cr 7rdrir, and id. El. 825, ei TaVTr&#39; E(op)VT7s
(ZFes Kal "HXtoV) Kp7Trrov-tLv e&#39;KrjXo.-For rrpoqTsras, referring to
the votaries of Dionysus, cf. Rhes. 972, where Orpheus is called
BdKxov 7rpofi1rrqS.-For CdvayK.s, cf. 643, eaeOrols KarlqvayKiaaftevos&#39;.
553. xpvcwtra o &#39;porov) &#39;Down from Olympus, come! 0 king
Thy golden thyrsus brandishing.&#39; The thyrsus is exceptionally
described as gleaming with gold, because Dionysus is addressed
as a king (;Iva) and the thyrsus is his sceptre. This is better
perhaps than understanding it of the hederae fores quorum
croceus color est (Hermann). So in the account of the gorgeous
procession held in honour of Dionysus by Ptolemy Philadelphus,
the god, on his victorious return from India, is described as
urr;eavov KLO&#39;aoV Kal adrrE&#39;Xov XpvVoovv EXov, FeXeL v Ev raiTC XFpa
Ovpca-ooyXov Xpvoroiv (Callixenus ap. Athen. p. 200).

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554. 6vaL is best taken as voc. of Jvt,, and not with rrwfl&#39;arov (as in 8o), nor as -= clvcrrrl&.-KaT*" &#39;OXUpSrrov, &#39;down from
Olympus,&#39; (one of the haunts where the chorus suppose the god
to be lingering), makes better sense than Kar&#39; &#39;OXvrTrov.
553. &#39;O where, I marvel, in Nysa, the lair of wild beasts,
art thou wielding thy wand o&#39;er thy revel-bands?&#39; Several places
of the name of Nysa are mentioned in connexion with Dionysus;
a mountain in India, in Aethopia, in Arabia felix, besides places
in Cappadocia, in Caria, in Lycia, in Thrace, in Helicon, in
Boeotia, and in Euboea. Hence it was once happily described
in a professorial lecture as &#39;in fact, a mountain which attended
Dionysus on his travels.&#39; The very name of the god is sometimes connected with Nysa. According to the Homeric hymn
26, 2, it was there that the Nymphs nursed the infant Dionysus,
K(IL EPVKiE adrlraTXXov&#39; Nvarjs Ev yvaXots. Cf. Soph. fragm. 94,
quoted on 1. Ioo, and Virg. Aen. 6, 805, Liber agens celso Nysae
e vertice tzigres, Lucan I, 65, Bacchznmve avertere Vysa.
557. Oupo-ocopEts OLroovs) So in Herod. II I68,;&#39;opv(bOpEov TOV faliXea (ib. III 127); Kiihner, Gk. Gr. II ~ 409 p. 260.
559. By KopvaZi KoopVKia are meant the rocky heights near
one or other of the famous caverns of that name, either that on
mount Parnassus, or that on the coast of Cilicia. The latter is
referred to by Strabo as KWpvKoS aiKpa (XIV p. 670), and is
elaborately described by Pomponius Mela, I c. I3, grandi
hiatu patens montem litori apposit/um…apaerit….r2irszis specus
alter aeperitur…terret ingredientes sonitiz cynzbalorunz divinitus
et magno fragore crepitantium. to/us autem auignstus et vere
sacer, habitarigue a dis et dizgzls et creditus, nihil non venerabile, el quasi cum aliquo numine se ostentat (ap. Joddrell).
The coins of Corycus in Cilicia sometimes represent Dionysus
on the one side and the Corycian cavern on the other. If we
suppose that by Nysa a mountain in Asia is meant, it would
be not unnatural to understand the poet to be here referring to
the Cilician promontory; especially as, according to the prophecy
of Teiresias (306), the god has still to take possession of Parnassus, and it was not till after the doom of Pentheus that, according to Aesch. E 1m. 22-7, he claimed the Corycian cave on

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(559

that mountain as one of his haunts; aE4Sco e vvyLfqasa, vOa
Ko)pvKiE rerrpa KOl7r, (ft)XopLvL, aatLioPvWv dvaarpofq&#39; BpoLtors &#39; e&#39;EL
rov X(po ov, o&#39;8 d/ivrllOPC, et oure JfaCKyxas ecTrparrTyrlCrev Oe6r,
Xauy 38LKr7V IlevOe Karappdafrs Io(pov. Nevertheless, it is more
probable that, as the scene is laid at Thebes, the poet means
the well-known cave on the not far distant mount of Parnassus,
thus referring by anticipation to a haunt of the god which in
after times was frequently associated with him, cf. Soph. Azntig.
I125, (of Parnassus) Ev6a KopVKKLaL vfla&C orTetxOVcTL IaKXI8eE)
and Strabo IX p. 417 A (quoted by Schine), ifpo7rpe7rris &#39; e&#39;crT
7rads o Hapvao-ors, EX jov avrja TE KaL aXXa Xcopia TL/uif(Feva re Kal
adytrrevoLveva, WOv EcrO yVrwpLzraTaoV Kal KaXXLTro v To Ko pvKLov
vvuc4wv &#39;ivrpov, 0ofpovv1lov Tr KtXLKAi. The cavern on the way
up to the heights of Parnassus, the actual summit of which is
nearly five hours&#39; climb above the cave, is a vaulted chamber,
300 feet long by nearly 200 wide and about 40 high in the
middle,-large enough to give shelter to the greater part of the
inhabitants of Delph&#39;i at the Persian invasion (Hdt. 8, 36). Il
was formerly dedicated to Pan and the Nymphs, though the
inscription to that effect can now be seen no longer.
560-4. &#39;Or haply, in the teeming forest-haunts of Olympus,
where in the olden time Orpheus struck his harp, and by his
music gathered the trees around him, gathered around him the
beasts of the field.&#39; In another play, acted at Athens at the
same time as the Bacchae, we have similarly an allusion to the
legend of Orpheus, IUph. A. I211, el iEv rov &#39;Op(feSW elXov, J
7rarTp, Xoyov, TIelOeLv eiraaovr&#39;, w oaf dotoaprev fLOLt 7rrpas, KrXELv
re rot? XOyolcrtv OVS eI3OVXOb5rv, EvraLO&#39; av &#39; Oov.
With the epithet woXvkevSpco-orLv, cf. Virg. Georg. 281, frondosumr Olymzum, and Hor. Carmz. 3, 4, 52, op5acus Olymplzs.
The mountain, as already remarked (on 41 ), lay to the south of
the dominions of Archelaus, and the view from the site of
his ancient capital &#39;embraces not only the mighty mass of the
snowy Olympus, but the wide plain of lower Macedonia.&#39;
Tozer&#39;s GeograpJiy of Greece p. 203.
OaXdi.ats, the regular word for &#39;lairs of wild beasts&#39; (Hesychius explains OaXdalr by rTpCyXT?, KgTraVt-Lt). The fact that the

Page  175
— S65)

NO TTES.

175

manuscript reading OaXa/LoLr is a corruption of OaXdatats is proved
by rais in the preceding line.
565. For picKap fern. (Hermann&#39;s correction of the manuscript reading LaKKatpa), cf. Hel. 375, iaCKcap… KaXXtiroi. the
mention of Orpheus and his ovTo-a naturally leads up to the
complimentary reference to Pieria, part of the southern dominions of Archelaus already alluded to in 409, and to the subsequent mention of the swift stream of Axius, and the river
Lydias, on the heights above which, that king&#39;s capital was
situated. For the Axius, cf. 1. 2I, 158, &#39;ALto 0 OS KU(XXL(TOV
i,8wp Eoi7l yaaav iLoL, 2, 849, rlXodev $eA &#39;AfzvSavo da7r&#39; &#39;A)/ov iev&#39;pv
p&#39;ovros &#39;Atiov orv KaiXXLt-rov vasop eTrLKtgvaraiL alav. Just as Homer
calls it KadXLto-ro, so Eur. in his complimentary allusion refers
to the swiftness of the stream, while the matter-of-fact Strabo
assures us that it was a turbid river (C;K roXXkv 7rX7rpov4Levos
7roTaIJWV OoXepoS peEL, Eustathius on 11. /3 850, Strabo VII Epitome
~~ 20-23). Leake, crossing it in Nov., describes it as &#39;rapid,
deep and swollen with rain, though not so high as it usually is
in winter,&#39; Northern Greece III 259. Philostratus, imzag. II 8
adfin. (thinking probably of Homer&#39;s lines), gives it the epithet
7rcyKaXos.
For the river Lydias, cf. Herod. VII 127, Av8tew rTe 7ToraLOV
KC( &#39;AXadKfovos, ol o&#39;pO^ovor( y1/v rrv BorrtutCi-a KCU MaKfeovi8a,
e TivrTO peteSpov TO &#39;Bop -vpptVIfLLryovreS. On this stream lay
Aegae (or Edessa) the ancient capital of Macedonia, identified by Leake with Vodhena, which &#39;in the grandeur of its
situation, in the magnificence of the surrounding objects, and
the extent of the rich prospect which it commands, is not
inferior to any situation in Greece,&#39; u. s. III 272; reference
is also there made to its &#39;rocks, cascades, and smiling valles,&#39; and to &#39;its lofty, salubrious and strong position.&#39; Bien que
Aegae still continued to be the royal burial-place, the seat of
government was afterwards transferred by Philip (?) to Pella,
where he was himself brought up, and where Alexander was b9rn.
The later capital stood on a height about halfway between
Aegae and the sea, but separated from the Lydias by a muddy
marsh referred to in the epigram in which Aristotle is attacked

Page  176
t s -~~~P&#39;*" -Ad r

I76 PA CC~/IIAE. (565
by Theocritus of Chios for leaving the Academia to live at the
Macedonian court; tE &a rt)v aCKpurrj yarTpoS (v;aLv eLXero vaiELV
upT&#39; &#39;AKa5rfelasi Bop/3opov ev rrpoXoas (Plutarch, de exilio c. io).
571-5. &#39;Father and giver of wealth and blessing to man;
who, they tell me, enriches with fairest waters a land of noble
steeds.&#39; The reference in the latter part of this sentence, even
if we read rrarfpa &#39;r, is probably to the Lydias, otherwise it is
possible to explain it of the Haliacmon, a much larger river,
which is joined by the Lydias shortly before falling into the sea.
Nearly the same language is used elsewhere of the great
Thessalian river Apidanus, Hec. 451, (PaOtLos, e&#39;va KaXXAlroTv
vi8arwYv raTrpa )aotlv &#39;Artaavo&#39;v Syvas XtIral&#39;vev. The Apidanus
however cannot be referred to in the present passage, as Dionysus is here described as coming from the north to Pieria, and
thus crossing the rivers of Jfacedonia, first the Axius, next the
Lydias, and possibly also the Haliacmon.-O{Sao&#39;L KaXXCoTroLs
is a complimentary phrase, since the stream was really muddy
and turbid, as is shewn by the reference to its fertilising effects
(XiTralvetv). Similarly KaXXorov a&op is used of the Nile in a
play of Eur. named &#39;Archelaus&#39; out of compliment to the king
(fragm. 230). The modern names of the Lydias, both in Turkish
and in Greek (iauilronero), mean &#39; Black Water.&#39;
The reference to the noble horses of Macedonia is illustrated
by the coin of Archelaus engraved in the text, where a horseman may be seen on the one side, and a goat, in allusion to
the name of the king&#39;s capital (Alyat), on the other. The horses
of Archelaus are mentioned in Thuc. I I OO ~ 2.
576-603. The choral portions of this KOftLO/S between the
chorus and Dionysus may be either distributed among the
fifteen members of the chorus (as in Paley&#39;s Edition); or, better
perhaps, assigned (with Wecklein) as follows: lines 579 and
59I-3, to the leader of the first rjiL-tXplov; 582-4 and 596-9
to that of the second; 585-590, and 600-4, to the Coryphaeus,
whose call in 59o, -e/3erc vt,, is, according to this arrangement,
answered by the whole chorus in the words ario/pev c. the
Mss, however, indicate a somewhat different distribution by
assigning these last words to a rjpl6ptov.

Page  177
-6o6)

NOTES.

I77

579. Scaliger supposed that this passage was the original of
a fragment in Varro:-(Cho.) quis me iubilat? (Bacch.) vicinus
/ttis antiquzss; and that the reply of the chorus was to be found
in a fragment of the Bacchae of Attius (v 17) preserved by
Macrobius (vI 5, I I, o Dionlyse p(zler oftimze vitisator Semela
gecifhis EzihicZ; but the resemblance is too distant to allow of
our being at all confident as to his conjecture.
585. wrsSov X0ov6s&#39; Gvoc-L TrorvLal &#39;Oh! floor of earth! Oh!
awful earthquake.&#39; It seems better to treat these words as two
separate exclamations, than to assume (with Hermann) that
7r3eov is acc. after the substantive eVoo-L.
588. &#39;Soon will the palace of Pentheus be shaken to its fall.&#39;
SctaLvdtercaL fut. mid. in passive sense, like QvXa4eram (Soph.
Phil. 48), -crTcpr-erat (Soph. El. I2IO), rTLi-Tera and 8&a6MoeOrOa
(AIzt. 210, 726).
591. &#39;Did ye mark how yonder the marble imposts on the
pillars were parting asunder?&#39; C&#39;)uoXa is followed by KLOOY, in
the same construction as the corresponding participle e1/SE3Xq,-,iva. It refers to the marble entablature in general, including
the architrave or rrLcrrvXtov. Horace Carme. 2, 19, 15, tectaqzue
Penthei disiecta non leeni ruina. For 8&dapo/ia Milton needlessly
conjectured &adrpoza (cf. I88 n).
594. &#39;Light the lurid levin-torch, wrap in flame the halls of
Pentheus.&#39; So the King&#39;s palace is doomed to the flames in the
LycurgTus of Naevius xx (23)… tt vi&#39;deam Volcani opera haec
flammis 7fora fieri. With al9ora Xao7rldaa, cf. Szfipl. 109,
aLOo0rL t Xoy-o. The epithet Kpav&#39;vtos points to the flame, here
kindled afresh, as having first been lighted by the thunderbolt
of Zeus, when Semele was slain, as is shewn by the first four
following lines of the chorus, cf. also szubra 6-9.-With ACou
Ppov&#39;rs in 599, cf. 8, Aiov 7rvpos, and for O&#39;VO) KdaT) in 602, see 349.
606. The Mhss have the unmetrical line &artvdaavros &p3aj
IIHevtco&#39; aXX&#39; eavIo&#39;TaTre which is corrected by Musgrave into
ra Elv6ewos IoraT dXX&#39; av&#39; vTarre. The present line and the next
are bracketed by Nauck, partly on the ground of the corruptions
they contain and partly perhaps because they spoil the symmetry
of the dialogue; if they are left out, we get the conversation of
S. B. 12

Page  178
178

BA CCHA E.

(6o6

Dionysus and the chorus, from 604-6I5 inclusive, into exact
correspondence. Nevertheless, as the chorus is prostrate in fear,
some words of reassurance are wanted to encourage them to rise
to their feet, and we are therefore unable to reject the lines in
question, especially as the alterations required to correct them
are very slight.
612. T&#39;s IoL XcatS iv, Et rv &#39;vupopas,rUOLS;) This sentence
does not fall exactly into any of the common types of conditional
construction; but it is readily explained by the consideration
that the chorus is here referring to the fear they had felt in the
past, which, if expressed at the time, would have naturally taken
the form, rtVs /lot jvXaa Ec&#39;rat (or v E&#39;r), EL V ( o&#39;vf rIJopai rtUXOtS.
In repeating in the present time this expression of fear in the
past, the conditional part remains unaltered, and the tense in
the principal sentence is changed into the imperfect (without
(tv): &#39;who, methought, was then my guardian, if thozu wert to
meet with woe.&#39; Cf. IfPi. A. 1405, fLaKaiptLOv f TIr OECv fE/eXXE
BifrEL, EL r rXOLILL c(Tc yaiowv, and Herc. F. 467, arv a&#39; frOa
(=ele?fXXe e&#39; erflat) Oqrl(ov Tr1js (lXapl arTov Sva$.
617. O0LyEV…i;+aiT&#39;) &#39;Dr Elmsley observes idem sigtzzficant
e&#39;Oyev et ljaaro. Not exactly, we think. BLyyCavei is to toz0ch
simply, aTrreaOat is to take hold of, to fastenz own&#39;s hanzd to alnyMingl, Iliad 2, ISi&#39; (C.J. Blomfield, l1ILusezum Criticznm 2, 664).
iXtrricv 8&#39; Ep3o-KETO) &#39;but on idle fancies fed.&#39; Similar in
verbal expression, though different in general sense, is Phonz.
396, al a&#39; EX7rTTLBe J30TKOV&#39;tL (vyadas, tc X)oyos.
618. The delusion of Pentheus which leads him to mistake
a bull for his prisoner has some colour lent it by the fact that
that was one of the forms in which Dionysus was supposed to
appear. (See note on 1017.)
619..repl pp6XOVs p3aXXe) The tmesis is here worth noticing,
as the division of TrrEpitEaXX into two words makes it possible to
use a-form which would have been otherwise inadmissible, compounds of rrEpi and da4/l followed by a vowel being avoided in
Greek tragedy; thus rjtLF(eo-IvosE, however tempting a word in
Greek verse composition, is really a Comic, not a Tragic form

Page  179
-6251

VO TE S

&#39;79

(Ar. Ecci. 879). But for this principle, Eur. might easily have
written Tl~) 7E rEptE/3aXXE 8IIEO7ICL.
623. 6&#39; BI&#39;KXOSl is probably used by Dionysus with intentional
ambiguity, meaning either (i) the B~acchant (as in 491) or (2)
Dionysus himself, in which sense the word is used by Soph.
0. T. 21 1, quoted on that line. Porson&#39;s remark, Eurz2idsaat
no0n utcbanz/ir v. fa&#39;KYv~x hoc scnuis (i); forsaut0 fa K XE lS (Kidid&#39;s
tracts P. 225), is refuted by the line already quoted from this play.
625. &#39;AxXfiov) Here the name of the great river of Acarnania, the largest in Greece, is used of water in general. So in
And. 167, (in Thessaly) C&#39;i Xpv(q~aTco TEVX(EG)V XEPL O-7TELpov(TaJ
&#39;AXFXW&#39;ov 5p~ouov. Macrobius, Sat. v i8 ~~ 2-I2, in illustration
of Virg. Geoiug. i 9, piocuulaqute jinventis Ac/icloia miscuit uris,
quotes a parallel from Aristoph. fragm. I30, o,3 dt&#39;cav irc,&#39; &#39;AXEXWCOw and a passage from Ephorus ascribing this use to the influence of the oracle of Dodona, not far from the source of the
river: aTXEIo&#39;v y/ap l&#39;v aU7ra(TLV (U&#39;7T0L (SC. TO~9 Xp?7cr(LOL) 7Tp00TLa1TTELZ&#39;
0Eva OE&#39;AX EXCOio. OVELY &#39;o-rGe 7roXXoL voJIL~VTEI 01) T-OP 7oT0TalOZJ TOvPLA
TiJE &#39;AKapvaVLav PEovP-a adXXaL ToN o-vvoXop iop &#39;AXEXc,)ov mh7ro ToO
XP?1l:ITiJ0 KaXeioTOat, LL/Lo~vV-tL TOaE Toy OEovU 7rpoo-q7yoptag. OIALE LOP
83E 0O7t 7rpO&#39;, TNo Oeio dv aVC4EpOV7E. 0UTC0) XE&#39; YELV ELLO`OU,~LEV. p.a&Xto-a
-yap 7-0 &#39;&p &#39;AXEX5ov 7poo-ayopEV&#39;O/aEV El) TO~V O&#39;pKO~L KaL El) TaiLL
-EVXaLLE KILL El Tail OvoTL&#39;aLS airep 7r-avTIL 7TEpL ToVyS 010o1)1. Di&#39;dYmuis
(he continues) g-ranziaticorum ovmuiuim fazcile erudi/issimius,
j5osita causa quam sitjerius Etlior-us diuxil, al/cramn quo que
adiecit his verlis; UM4LELVOV &I E&#39;KFLPO XEyE/ILV (0"T-) &Itcz T-o 7I(IVTCOP TOO&#39;
7rorajicov 7rpe-Of3VTroT ELZ&#39;IaL &#39;AXEXpo PO i /LTv a&#39;7rovE/~ovPTI aLS&#39; IVTO) Tov&#39;l
avOpC0O WOvS&#39; 7raIvTaL airXo,1 TaO P~jIOTa Tpa IEKELVOV oPoELaTS 7rpo0-aylopEvctP.
0 yoiv &#39;AKovo-i&#39;XaoS&#39; MNL TijI 7rpa)T?7S&#39; Lo-ToptaILS&#39; E~lIXCOKEV GnT
&#39;AXFX(ZoS 7raIvrTovl TioV I7TOTaILOwv 7rpEoj3v7-aT-o. E9~7 a~p ~2K~a~oS&#39;V
70/ytELe Ti7Oi~v EILvToL) a(IEX(/fl7l), ral)v 8IE 7Lvprl)at T PtoX LXtot 7roTIaL/tO, &#39;AXEX6p01 IE&#39; ILVTOJc P72mpE(TfivTIaToq KaL TETLJ &#39;X IL taXfTa. He concludes with a lhue fromi Eur. fragm.
753, (of a river far frolm Acarnania) 8fEL&#39;$0.I ~zv &#39;Ap-ydoLo-TL &#39;AYEXqoov A&#39;ouv. Servius ad Georg. 1. c. sicut Or lhiens dicit genera/i/er
onmnem aquamu veteres Aclieloum nonminant (where however it
may be suggested that Orfiheus is a misreading for L_)horus4
I 2-2

Page  180
iSo BA CCIAE. (625
Something like it is to be noticed in the passages in English
literature where the name of an important river is put for
&#39;water,&#39; as in Shakespeare, Cor. 11 i, 53, A cup of hot wine wit/
not a drop of allaying Tiber in it, imitated by Lovelace, &#39;To
Althea from prison,&#39; Wirhen flowing cups run swiftly round
With no allaying Thames.
630. 4dacr-F is an emendation for ~/(r. In the Homeric
hymn 7, 45, quoted infra IOI9, ar-tara q(ahuov is used of the
god&#39;s successive transformations into the form of a lion or a
bear.
633. o-vvwrep:voVaT) &#39;lies in ruin,&#39; shivered to pieces; a word
never used elsewhere, (explained by Hesychius, -rvrninrrroK);
-the sense however is shewn by Eppr)fEv, and by the analogy of
crvvOpav&#39;co, e.g. Orest. I569, TOrSe pjLYK Kpara avvepavora cOeoev.
Lycophron 664 has Opavva-o-ELv,&#39;to break in pieces.&#39; The supposition that -Opavovv and OpavcLV mean the same thing (Elmsley)
is doubted by C. J. Blomfield, Alus. Crit. 2, 664, who says
"Opavovv is to level with the ground, from Op.vos &#39;a footstool,&#39;
or possibly &#39;to beat,&#39; cf. 6paIJov a form or bench upon which
curriers stretched their hides."-On rrLKpo&#39;raors cf. 357 n.
635. craLpE&#39;ZaL) Cf. o-taoLrv 7rapeLttevaL in 683.
636.;Kpas Eye is a good and sufficient correction of the
corrupt reading;eK iKxas alycov, and it is supported by &#39;W,
/3/3co, zifra 646.
633. &#39;And methinks, at least I hear his sounding footfall in
the house, I-e will soon come to the forefront.&#39; For,oekE
cap29Xr, cf. Theocr. 7, 26, Tracio-a Xos Trraotroa 7or&#39; dapi/VXLI8ra
daiS&L. frpovorria, followed shortly after by 7rpovcW7rtos, 645, reminds one of a similar word which Eur. was (according to Aristophanes) over-fond of using, namely etWrilo Thesn. 881.
6A3. &#39;Lightly can a wise man&#39;s temper keep a sober selfcontrol.&#39; HYziS. Io39, rYv ECL)V 7TTreroLtOv evopyrQ&#39;ILa 4v.Xv Kparjo&#39;ELV TOV TEKOVT aT&#39;ltcaaCaO.
647. &#39;Stay! let thy rage advance with gentler step.&#39; Lit.
&#39;suggest to your anger a quiet step.&#39; The repetition of 7ro3a
may possibly be a carelessness due to the play not receiving
the poet&#39;s final revision. r(rtXov fSad-v has been proposed,

Page  181
-662)

&#39;:-O TES.

ISI

for which we may compare Aesch. C(o. 452, rao-,y~X pevu5v
(eacrEL.
648. For r-6o0v &#39;how came you to…,&#39; cf. 465.
650.,robs X6yovs yCd? ELcr4eELs KLLVO&#39;S dC i) a good instance
of what has been called &#39;the tertiary predicate&#39;; Donaldson Gk.
Gr. ~ 489-(Ion, 1340, o fJLvos eEZvriVEKTrat vfos) Shilleto, adv.
652. cveti&ras 8 Troiro ALOVwio-? KCaXov) It is clear from the
cTrrXoUvOla that a line has here been lost. It seems best (as
suggested in passing, by Paley) to assign to Dionysus the
line that has been preserved: it gives a very suitable answer
to some random taunt of Pentheus at the evil effects of the
juice of the grape, which had been suggested by the previous
words of Dionysus, who now parries the taunt with the line that
is usually wrongly assigned to Pentheus. IPh. A. 305,;lIav
EcrraTOTcarL 7rLarTO Fl I KaXoiv yE LoL rou;veL8os E)owSEL&-as, and
Med. 514.
661-2. &#39;where the bright flakes of white snow never cease.&#39;
Phoen. 803, 2, aaOe&#39;v rera&#39;Xcov 7roXvO6rp6rarov varroS, &#39;AprefLBto
XLovorpo oov otlia KtUatpco&#39;. cavecrav appears to mean,
&#39;never pass away,&#39; i.e. there was always some unmelted snow
resting on it. It has been remarked by Col. Mure, Tour
in Greece I, 264, that &#39;unless the climate of Greece has greatly
changed since the days of Euripides, he must be presumed to
have taken a slight liberty in describing the snow as lying
throughout the year on Cithaeron. In summer or even in the
more advanced stage of spring, it now disappears from every
part of the mountain.&#39;
EcUayLEts) &#39;pure,&#39; &#39;clear,&#39; &#39;bright,&#39; possibly the same word as
that used in Parmenides ap. Clement Alex. 732, e3ygoS JfeXl~oLo.
In SuPPbl. 652, rrvpyov evaay? Xa/3yv, and Aesch. Pers. 4.66,;apav
evay) o-rparov, the sense passes from &#39;clear&#39; to &#39;conspicuous.&#39;
fvaygts in the sense of ro-lto is generally regarded as a separate
word, connected with ayios, ayor, Soph. O. T. 921, Ant. 521;
and a third word is sometimes recognised in the sense of
&#39;quickly-moving&#39;; but brightness and rapid movement are
closely connected with one another, and the meaning &#39;bright&#39; is
applicable to two of the passages quoted under this third head

Page  182
182

PA C CM E.

(662

in L and S; viz, those where it is an epithet ofu Xua-a-at (Az n/i. Pal.
Ix 404, 7, Antiphilus, XaYL EaEE K Ev `vOEoL 7rotfia&#39;veo-OE),
and of 5~60OApjot (Aretaeus); but not to the third, where Hip
pocrates uses it of iUApcwrot.-To improve the rhythm, /. EV KF
aveio-av xLh&#39;vo~ has been proposed, hut we have several other
instances in this play of the trihrach beingr exactly coextensive
with a single word, Cf. 261i n.
663. &#39;irpocrTrLOEIS) SC. 7rp&#39;.V- TJ&#39;77KEV, &#39;of what important tidings
may you be the hearer?&#39;
664. IroTVLQ.MS) Hesychius s. 7&#39;., at&#39; ~~3sKXat&#39; a&#39;vT-&#39; roZ Matvad&Fs
KLAvo-o-d&r. It was at Potniae in Bocotia that the mares of
Glaucus were seized with madness and tore their master in
pieces; the epithet is thus specially appropriate in its application
in the present passage to the wild revellers of the same district.
&#39;Who from this land, With frenzy stung, shot forth with
gleamning, limb.&#39; The bare white feet of the Bacchanals would
be displayed to view, as they ran wildly to the hills. GYCI. 73,
(&#39;A(~po&(zTav) qpCeVWV 7rE7(&#39;pav f~a&#39;KXatv OUVV XEVK0&#39;7rOO&#39;LV, and liifia
863. For KcXOV C&#39;r7Ko&#39;vuaav cf. Iftih. T. 1369, KOX&#39; air&#39; a&#39;I~iV biV
vEav atv ap Cv7 0wXEvpa&#39; Kal 7rp&#39;,v &#39;7rap?JKOVTi~eTo (of a violent kick).
667 is rendered by Attius IX (2&#39;,;ieque sat_ f~igi iiCoie lici
joes ro mauonilate; unless prhaps thiscoe from his
translation Of 273, 00K a&#39;v 8vvailliv p./yeOos- E&#39;$EUrEZV 050-0o Ka6d&#39;
669 4)daw. rfA6~Lfe~cL) For the combination of sing-ular
and plural, cf. }j5/. T. 348-9, T&#39;ypso0&#39;YEda a0o0c~a, him io8, 251,
321, 391, 548, 596-7, 1250, Kilbuer ~ 430 i. d; Cic. Jr;o ri~nJ.
Git. Pom. 4 7 (these references are due to Prof. J. E. B.
Mlayor).
671. (Qu. Plat. Prof. 338 A, Tro Kama jopoaJ.?d&#39;av) Shilleto adv.
673. For ron&#39;- -yap alKalo~is 01oVAXL Olo~udat XPEWov (rejected by
Nauck) cf. fragm. 289, Toiv 7TptypJao-W, Ya&#39;p oVQX&#39;L iOvfzoihOat XpEowV.
677-774. Here follows a brilliant description of the revels
of the Bacchanals, one of the finest passages in Greek Tragedy.
678. 1V7rE~t&#39;KPLtov) The general structure of the context is
somewhat in favour of taking this as first person singular,
which would thus correspond to d&#39;p6 in 1. 68o; while the use of

Page  183
-67 8)

NO TES.

8s3
I

EfaKpLierV in Or. 275, e;a&#39;cpLer aiOepa 7rrTposr, and aKpL&#39;iov in
fragm. 574,=;tKpots 7rTO(Tov e7rLopevoLevos (Hesychius), is somewhat in favour of making it intransitive. The ordinary way of
taking the passage, while regarding the verb as intransitive,
makes it a third person plural with foctK,/iara for the nom.
&#39;The herds of pasturing kine had just begun to scale Cithaeron&#39;s
steep, what time the sun shoots forth his rising rays to warm
the earth, when, &c.&#39; It was just as the herdsman and his
charge were passing along one of the ridges dividing the upland
dells of Cithaeron from one another, that he caught sight of the
Bacchanals in the dell beneath. The pl. instead of sing. after
3SoorKlLara is defensible by the rule of usage stated by Porson,
&#39;veteres Attici hanc licentiam…nunquam usurpabant, nisi ubi
de animantibus ageretur&#39; (Hec. I I4I, cf. Jebb&#39;s note on Soph. El.
438). But 16oaXwov seems too far removed from foa-K&#39;jara to be
taken as gen. dependent upon it, and we either expect some
gen. after XE&#39;rav, or after vrro in VneirKpLOov; hence Paley suggests that the meaning may possibly be the "&#39;herds of cows
were making their way uphill away from their calves&#39;; So
pfocrXoLi in v. 736 will refer to the calves that had been left in the
pastures." I doubt, however, whether this distinction can be
drawn, as Eur. there mentions the ro&#39;ptv, the ac3taXat and the
Trapo& in the same context as the /IoO-XOL, which seems to shew
that the calves had not been left alone in the lowland pastures.
Hence I conclude that the calves were not separated from the
rest of the cattle, and that therefore uO(rXcov cannot be a gen.
after Vn3eri6KplCov; I also conclude that the herds which the
herdsman was driving to the upland pastures did not consist of
calves alone, and that therefore the words ayeXaaa 3oar-Kqlara are
a sufficient description of the herded cattle, and that,6xo-Xco is
unnecessary, besides being (as already remarked) too far removed from the word usually supposed to govern it.
I accordingly propose instead of o&#39;rXoo-v to read 30oatKCW
which at once removes all difficulty. In cursive Mss the difference between jp and /3 is often extremely slight, as has been
already noticed in the case of LeiXov and /3eXor in 1. 25. The
Tragedians, it is true, seem fonder of the metaphorical than the

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184

PA CCHAE.

(673

literal sense of /3OCrKELV (as in 1. 617, &#39;X~r&#39;o-tv 8&#39; E&#39;3&#39;O-Krro); but the
use of the active voice in its literal sense is fully established by
such passages as Ii. i5, 548, El,LA7L.O&1 f&#39;~c~X /3U0-K&#39; 6 HIEPK Wry,
and the cognate acc. proposed is exactly parallel to that in
Gyc. 7, roLpag…7roqwatzoum~v Musgrave must have been feeling his way towards some such emendation as that which I now
vnueto propose, when he suggested a&#39;-yEXaV &#39;,yow j30Uoq&#39;jara,
observing: bonim in collemz ascenslo j~raeler necccssilatenm et
dlescrititionis ornandae causa conizwemoratur; quod.. in oet
d~ramzatico Jarumn venustuz est. The strutctur:, of the passage
as now restored (a&#39;yEXaa,LEiv f300K /-LaT-a /000 KLOv apTrL…V7rE$?KPL~IW..pV6 &) exactly corresponds with that of the beginning of
Pentheus&#39; speech, f&#39;aqo 6W&#39; 2E&#39;v 71)T&#39; e&#39;7u-vyavoV xeov04, Kcxv&.)
b6&#39; K.r.X (2i5).-Hesychius has U&#39;7rE$ KPL~ov&#39; if~pt)ov (?)
679. Naevius Lycurcgus xxiI i i) an so/is a_-S/ut Candor
cumn Ziqiesceret.
680. Theocr. XXVI, quoted on 1. 29, and Prop. IV 17, 24,
Pentiheos in ttzjzlicesfunera grcata greges.
683. cr6&#39;jLcLCrLV 7rCLPIELFLE&#39;VcLL) &#39;They all lay slumbering with
languid limbs,&#39; lit, tired in their bodies; for the dat. où le
ace, is more common, cf. Soph. 0. T. 25, (~9ivovo-a I~iV Ka&#39;Xu$~
cyi~ap7roL.9 X6oI&#39;T, Xen. Hma. ii I, 31, r-oiv a-olA~wov dabvvai-oL, raLs&#39;
+IvXa4s avo?71-O Compared with IV 1, 2, Tcov T-a cTcO2aa,… TcW TaikVXa&#39; Ev&#39; 7TE/VKO&#39;TOw.
6684. The constr. is vcar&#39; &#39;pdoacaa-a 7wpo.9 EX-&#39; ~,T4377y, i.e.
either reclining on the piled-up branches of the fir, or more probably leaning against the lower boughis that sweep the ground
in the way that is common with trees of this kind. Theocr. 3,
38, &TeVLpat Iorl Tra 7WLT-vy COW V&#39;rOKXLVOSL(. The fir and the oak
are mentioned with perfect accuracy of local colouring, as the
characteristic trees of Cithaeron, cf. IIo.
687. Ani instance Of o-LXX,74L, the common term wlva
being combined in a literal sense with Kpa~pt, and in a metaphorical sense with Xcor-oi 4&#39;4p~q. Heracl. 31 1, &4/aT&#39; OLK?7c7?)TF
KTL/20ya 7rarpos&#39; (see Cope on Rihet. A 4 ~ 6). The &#39;intoxicating&#39;
effect here ascribed to the flute is illustrated by Aristot. Pot. viii
6, 9, OV&#39;K C&#39;0r7rw o av&#39;Xov 7)61LKo01/ aXXaL 4XX0ov cp-ysamUT&K0, and Soph.

Page  185
___ – __, ":, – __ r-P_

-695) NOTES. z8 5
Trach. 217, alelpoMi&#39; oV irco&#39; droo/Aat rov a?, Xv, co nrpavve -ra e/.L
dq~peFv0&#39;. 10&#39;oV La8oV) j. alvarapa&#39;o-o-E, EVOL 0 KLO-0E alpr fPaKXL&#39;av l&#39;,,o0opfEocov a&#39;/ALXXaLv.
688. &#39;Alone amid the woods, in quest of Cypris.&#39; &#39;p~4coyE&#39;vag~ has been unnecessarily altered into q7&#39;v&#39;iwuias-, one of the
m~ss having &#39;prpco,~E&#39;Vas-, by a slip of the pen easily made, while
the other has Lc~jopiEvav, which is clearly confirmed by 222,
&&#39;XXq7v JaXXooT elv 4prflLLav 7rZ-c)o-o~ovoav.
632. ea.xepv VSrrvov) &#39;refreshing sleep&#39; (Elmsley), &#39;balmy
sleep,&#39; &#39; somnus, qui est in ipso flore, i. e. altus sopor&#39; (Hermann).
The idea of fresh and flourishing growth that underlies the
word (cf. OaXUco), and the use of the word in the present passage,
may be illustrated by the Latin alma quies.
693. &#39;a sight of wondrous grace,&#39; lit, a wonder to look upon
by reason of their modest mien.
635. &#39;Tied up their fawnskins, where the fastening bands
Had been unloosed, and girt the spangled fells With
zones of serpents that e&#39;en licked their cheeks.&#39; dio-atv-t is best
taken not after v3pilav&#39;, but as the relative to the subject of
aveo-Te -Z&#39;o, lit. &#39;all those for whom,&#39;iwhscae&#39;o fr
76i, The following are the corresponding lines in the Bacchae
of Attius iv (1 2), Tunc silvestrum exruvias laevo tic/as la/ern
accommodaizi and xv (i o), delnde ab iuguelo ec/uis glaucoftamzfiino olbnexae (eg-unt. The fawnskin would be fastened above
the shoulder on one side, passing across the chest and falling
below the waist on the other side; it would thus have to be
fastened both at the shoulder and near the waist, the former
iS expressed by d&#39;veo-rEL&#39;Xavro, the latter by xarec~o-av~-o. the
serpents are represented as harmlessly coiling about the upper
part of the Mlaenad&#39;s body from the waist upwards and even
licking the women&#39;s cheeks, cf. 767-8. Nonnus, 14, 233 (Of
Dionysus himself) Kap &#39;vov 1lrX0K0V COiccoo-e ~taOrLG3PXC
&FcOJAL), 2si6 (of the Nymphs), EurLpca&#39;)0qaav Ex&#39;Xvva&#39;Otot Kopl/L/3O0r,
340 (a Bassaris) Ixt~valQP KcFrLX?7v e &~o-arO o- 356, c,~Aoo/%peiw
IE~Fv~fv 6r&#39; avuXE&#39;,v 8Ealka" 8paKt1vrcoYJ, and 44, 41 0, Kr(j~aXT7 KVKXCOouaro Kaia/iov lrp? ~ V J1O&#39;LS&#39; Kal -yX5o-oa 7rf&#39;pt~ XL&#39;Xaa0,Ev ~7vV Cf.
Naevius Lycitrgus II (17), al/cejuba/os angucs iii sese gerun/.

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I E., 6

PA CCHAE.

(69)

639 —701. Nonnus 14, 361, aXX,7 o-KV&#39;,UVOV c&#39;xova-a aao-voT~pvwo
XEauvqv aiv~toFLEo(p yXar1y&#39;EvrTL PVO9 7rt(rTo o-a7o _aLaw, 45), 3 04 rroXXaI&#39;
6&#39; apTLtrOK010 J1E70XXLGo-0v~c TEKOvoG-q.V rTEa 3ao-vo-7EpvoLO TLijOql~aavro
XEaLv?7r. Fragm. XVI (20) of the B~acc/ice of Attius, indc~coral&#39;i/1/cr alleizos a/nut, is possibly a rendefring of the present passage.
70. On the iv crwn see 8i n; on the oak, i10 n; and on
the smlilax, ioS n.
706-710. &#39;Another shot her feruile to the ground And
the god shot up for her a fount of wine.&#39; For the passages in
Plato and Horace, referring to these miraculous strTeams, see
note on 142, and cf. Nonnus 45, 306, A&#39;XX7 &4kLOV OL~av EWEfKTV~rEY
O$~E&#39; Ovp014 aLKPOV (i&#39;iovrWXi)$ao-a VEOITXL8~E&#39;Sv aiVTrOEX77 8 oivov Ep&#39;O
FLN Kpalvai 7ropq)&#39;fTp0 7rrp&#39; 7 (cf. 48, 575 7,X~31L~V&
yaXaKTro a&#39;pao-o-oILEZ)Tl a~ro&#39; 7rE&#39;7pl7$ 7rLalKEg V&#39;T-oXVToLo-Lv EX ~ LPJVT &#39;EOpomr, Diodorus Sic. III 66 (in Teos), TET&#39;a/LE&#39;voig xpcJo&#39;VLI
EJ T 7r6X~t 7rqly&#39;jv ai To/Ic TG)s EK TIry tO p V E&bL & CfpovTOSr
Pausan. VI 26 ~ 2 (in Andros), 71apL&#39; E&#39;Tov p-EW otvov ai ro/laTov &#39;EK
Tro? LEtpoV (Pliny N. H1. II ~ 231, XXXI ~ i6), also Philostratus
quoted on 1. 3 and II 36.
704-5. Pausanias IV 36 ~ 7 (of a fountain between Pylos
and Cyparissiae in Mlessenia), &#39;v~vat &&#39; ALoJ&#39;V(T&) TO&#39; V&*)p XE&#39;Yovo-t
Nipo-cp wrXrjavrt E Ti)? &#39;ylV, Kal E&#39;7TL 7Tour(c)5p AoIJv(ota(a Jvopai~ovort-r&#39;i/
710. -yMLXa.KTOC E&#39;GafoVi&#39; &#39;rich store of milk.&#39; Philostratus, vit.
So/hi/si. I i9 (quoted by Porson), Tai. a&#39; E&#39;vvotav 3&#39;a TE KaL 7irapa80&#39;$0VS&#39; EK82u)WOLV c1)o-Tep 0? IOaKXEZoL OVPTOL To&#39; )IEXC Kal Tov&#39;q Ei(pLov
TroV yUtXaKTov. A metaphor from the hive, like our colloquial use
of the word &#39;swarms.&#39; In late Greek this metaphor became commoo, e.g. Lucian JLeicx /Lc 7 cTKXI-EEX~TOUO
co -10V (sic)…4oVXtaCOV. Dobree quotes o-rcp&#39;vov t-fag (Plato Cral.
40I E), Jo-~kt, X&#39;Ycov (Rsy5. 450 A-n3), and 7rachra Eu/W,4v i/40viE C&#39;i/pTi// PVO ayeLv (Basil, d/c lG.. libr. p. 92, 2, where Grotius
renders the word ayttara/um).
711. Aelian dc uzat. animial. V 42, E&#39;v M?8&#39; 3bE alwoo-raiC~j TcO~v
UEV8pG)V aKO&#39;CO ILE&#39;XI, CdV d &#39;pturi8qvjraT Ba&#39;KXatv E&#39;v T7- KOatpckt
OIIi/LV EK TWO) KXa&#39;ov -yXVKcEt&#39;av o-TT-1yava airioppELv (Elmsley).
717. &#39;Then one, oft truant in town, and skilled in speech.&#39;

Page  187
-736)

A70 TE, S.

187

This description of the herdsman, whose short speech is on the
point of being quoted, is thrown in to lead up to the rhetorical
flourish with which he addresses his brother-herdsmen in the
words: &#39;0 ye who dwell On the dread mountain-terraces&#39;; he
also accounts for his taking a prominent part in the debate of
the rustics. In the debate described in the Orestes, after an
account of the speech delivered by an advqp W&#39;vp0&#39;y)coo-o-ov, the
rustic orator who follows next is described in the words, 03X~ya&#39;KL.V UOTV KaYOP&V Xpat&#39;VCO&#39; KV&#39;KXOV (219).
721. Xdpw…OcI4&#39;Ev1 Either &cS/LEv or Oo)uFLO (as Elmsley remarks) would be a more usual expression, but as 8LU&#39;vat xa&#39;p~~
is &#39;to grant a favour,&#39; and Ofcrat Xaptv &#39;to do a kindness,&#39; the
latter is!more suitable in the present passage (A11useuml Griticiunz
2, 665). Cf. Hecc I 21 1, Xa~ 01o&#39;OaL, El. 6 i, Xa&#39;PLTa TLOEIEP1
723. cu`roi&#39;s for isaoV&#39;. &#39;Hoc pronomen omnnium. personarumn commune est&#39;7 (Porson on Or. 626); for examples in
Aesch. and Soph. see Jebb&#39;s note on Soph. El. 285, or Kuihner
Gk. Cr. ~ 455, 7 b, where Thuc. i 82, Ta&#39; av&#39;rw~ a/ia CK&#39;T0pL~COJIEOQ,
and other instances are quoted.
723. Triv -rcryCLE&#39;.Vvt apcav) &#39;at the set time,&#39; Aesch. Eum.
i09, W&#39;vov c~pav oiJ&#39;Vo0V KOLVT)V 0EOECW. In the sense of hour the
word is not used till the time of the Alexandrian astronomer,
Hipparchus, B.C. 140. 725. cdOpdc o(ro&#39;jLcvrL, &#39;in pealing chorus.&#39;
726. (Longinus) 7rep&#39;L U"ovv i 5 ~ 6 (speaking of qmvauTao-a),
-irapa (Lc-v AL&#39;O-XV&#39;Xe 7&#39;rapa& o&#39;~w Ta&#39; Toy AvX0l&#39;PY0Vouao-LXELa Kara TTJV
f7rupa&#39;VEtav roZ A~L0VViNTOV OEOcfrOpELTat, EovoUtLLL 8&#39; 8CO/.La, f3aKXVEL f7E3?7 0 L6 Ei&#39;porilqv To&#39; av&#39;ro&#39; ToL IET pco,
W4cJJTfELraV & o-VVEPdKXEUV Spos.
730. gKpVr&#39;wrojJ.Ev) The correction Ef&#39;KPV7rT6/17V (suggested by
Barnes, approved by Musgrave and accepted by Brunck) is
unnecessary; the plural obviously refers to the whole body
of herdsmen (722), and there is no difficulty in the use of
the singular U&#39;4lav (cf. 744, f&#39;o40QXXovro… 8.E&#39;Mav).-731- For Spoi~LdSea tribrach coextensive with asinole word, f 8jv~-v
736. XCLPO&#39;S dg-LSq&#39;Pov Imc%) So Naevius Lycurg-us Xix (i6)

Page  188
i88 IJACCHAE. (736
sine ferro fiecua ut manibus ad mortem mneant (J. Wordsworth&#39;s
Spbecimens of Early Latin p. 578).
737. Ei601qXOV wropLV) &#39;a cow with swelling udder.&#39; The same
adj. is found in a play of the same date, 5/ih. A. 580, Et&#39;OjXot U
rp~bovro j30oe. 738. `riv p.~v appears to refer to Agave in particular, hence the dual Xepolv, which would probably have been
plural had rq)v Ftcv been only general in its meaning. IJ xf-poL
&LKa is the reading of the Miss, for which it has been proposed
to read 5L&#39;Ka~ or & a. In the latter case we may render: &#39;Herself you might have seen with her twain hands Hold a deepuddered heifer&#39;s legs asunder, Bellowing the while.&#39;
ext 6Lx&#39;X is apparently to be understood divisam tenere,
&E-LXjyLj1E&#39;j/7v, not &#39;tornz asunder,&#39; &hao7rapaK&#39;r0V (1 220). The latter
sense seems more than can fairly be got out of the words and is
less easy to reconcile with pv~wwic&#39;vi7v, as we cannot suppose that
the bellowing cow would continue to expostulate when her limbs
were already &#39;rent asunder.&#39; Yet something very like this meaning is intended in the following passage of Arnobius, chap. v,
Bacchanalia etiamn fraetermzittanus izinzani a, qztibzus nomzen
Omnohhagiis Graecum est, in qzdbusfurore mzentito, et sequtestrata
fi5ectoris sanitate, circumjaliatis vos anzguhlbus, atqzic ut vos
p lenos Dei nurnine ac maiestate doccatis, caprorum reclamantiuni
viscera, cruentatis oribus dissifiatis.
739. For the general description, cf, Catullus 64, 257, Pars e
divulso iactabant mnembra iuvenco. Lucian III 77 Dionysus ~ 2,
T(lv 3 ovVy 7!ro; 7as Au~pirao-OaL M73 VITO TO)v yvvaCUK(OJ Ka&#39; 8LE(T~ra(T0aL
Ert CWVra Ta&#39; OpqL/saTa&#39; cD&#39;po~ayovv ya&#39;p TLVa~ avralr EU&#39;at. Antk.
Pal. Vi, 74, 3~aca-aupiv Ev&#39;pvv6&#39;~L7 OKOITEX08pO/LU~r, 71 7TOTE Tavpoow
IrxAM TaVVKpaL&#39;pcOl UTTCpVa XapaOaO~tiv7, I 77 aLEC KayXa&#39;Couo-a Xeovr-o4ovi (ItP, ~ Ia&#39;vo 7&#39;TvOj~~ocaid7,IX 774 (On
the Maenad of Scopas) a&#39; I3acXa llapt&#39;a ILEv EJ/EIUXwo-(e (3 o&#39; yMv&#39;r~ar
TrO1 XLOoy-dV0av6J&#39;0)KFL (&#39; Cos O3pofuta~opiEva. I co ~Kowra, aS~E7TL3
(SI7rLrov) i/L&#39;7I-aTo TE&#39;(Ya OavjJ.a, XqLaLPO(PoV0V OVLU&#39;aa,Iavop.e&#39;vaV.
Callistratus Stat. 2, p. 892 =147 (on the same statue), adX~a
rt o-rba-ytov&#39; 1/ypu/ cr ev&#39;a&#39;(ova-a, ITLcporTpav /La&#39;Lav oTV/L/3oX01J(36 86 v xtaia rT 7rTkifo&#39;ia. Nonnus 14, 377-80, and 43,
40-51 the conclusion of which is taken from 740, 8C&#39; XOv

Page  189
-749)

NO TS.

I89

JLOpacrLv K.T.X., 7roXVO-Tpo0aXLyyL e pi rr7 t pOLov e(TCaipwoe-v esi
tjepa 8(lvya XrlXv. For representations in works of ancient
art, see description of the woodcut on p. 76.
743. &#39;the wanton bulls That erstwhile glanced along their
maddened horns, Fell tumbling, with their bodies dragged to
earth By the multitudinous hands of the young women.&#39; Cf. le
passage in /ecl. I558, KVprTOv Tre vOra KelS KfpaS wapeuoXlTrv.
els KipaS OvLiXo 0at, is imitated by Virgil G. 3, 232 and Aen. 12,
104, irasci in cornua; cf. Aelian hist. anim. 2, 20 and 4, 28,
v/pleCv EZs Kepav. Donaldson, who refers to the above passages
(New Calt, ~ 170), thinks the preposition in all such instances
may be explained from the idea of &#39;looking towards&#39;; which
undoubtedly suits the passage in the Helen. Here, however,
it may possibly imply the gathering and concentrating of the
rage &#39;into&#39; the horn.
746. &#39;And the flesh that clothed their limbs was stripped
asunder Ere thou could&#39;st drop the lids on thy royal eyes.&#39;
Cap.Ks is explanatory of EvSurdc, like fvvUra /YEpl&ov (III).
This seems to be better than understanding it &#39;the skin that
clothed their flesh.&#39; 6vvral in either case is literally ace., as
O&4as in 744.
OacTov…i aov $vvanat!S (without t1v) is supported by Hizp5.
I I86, Kal Oaaoa-ov 7 Xeyot rts (Elmsley). Cf. Aristot. hist. animn. IX
12, tLEVEL XpOVov OVKc iXarTTova i} osrov 7rXO0pov EiXOOL TrS. One of
the MSS however has ca $vvaiait (accepted by Matthiae and
Madvig), as in I286, 7rpUGcrOv U7 ae yvoploat.
748. oi-T&#39; 6v,3WLs pOeLo-aL) The Maenads are compared to
birds, because in their hovering flight they scarcely seem to touch
the ground; like Virgil&#39;s Camilla, ilia vel intactae segetis per
summa volaret gramina (Aen. 7, 808).
749. The fertile plains, stretching along the streams of
Asopus, north of the range of Cithaeron, are elsewhere
spoken of as,rvpoopa….&#39;Adivov 7relca, Phoen. 643. Hysiae and
Erythrae, here described as &#39;nestling &#39;neath Cithaeron&#39;s crag,&#39;
are mentioned by Herodotus in connexion with the movements
of the allied Greeks against the Persians under Mardonius
immediately before the battle of Plataea: Ix 15, Trapzfce e at&#39;ouv

Page  190
Igo

BA CCHA4E. (4

(749

(sc. Mapa5oviov) ro&#39; Orparo&#39;lrecov aOp$LZM4Evov ainro &#39;Epv~pE&#39;Owv rrapA
&#39;YO-LaU KareTreme &I CEE Tv IXarmat~a -yv, 7rrap&#39; ~-riv &#39;Aa-woir&#39;,7rora/LWV Teraylievov, ib. 19, cO&#39;. &I a~pa adrrTtKovro (sc. the allied
Greeks) 7r~. B~ou~rtav 14 &#39;EpvOp~ir, efta0v -re 83&#39; rov&#39; f3apf3a&#39;povv
E~rI 7-63 &#39;A~ro5,reo o-TrpaTo7TE8C-VO1LEVOv9, (/praT&&#39;Vrev IE" ToOUo a&#39;vTE7-aooOVro Er&#39; 7- V7rCOPELrJ&#39; TOV Ktdaypcivog. Ervthrae was noted
for its bread, Archestratus ap. Athen. iiI 77, &&#39; q),pEo-aO/Xo~v
EpvOpais&#39; E&#39;K KXIq3a&#39;OV &#39;EXOow&#39;, IXIEUK6OI, af,3patE OLLXXCw (OpaLL TrEp4&#39;E
7rapa&#39; &iE7rvoV.
752. The emendation c04 &I 7roXqtdotv (Kirchhoff), would place
&#39;YT-LaL r&#39; &#39;EpvOpi&#39;I 0&#39; in apposition to WrE&IUov vi7ro3-aoa-eF. the
txas it stands, involves making them acc. after F7ELO-7rEo-ovaat,
and coupling 8iLfrJ&#39;ooV to XQIpoVJL by means of the first 7TE after
&#39;YO&#39;Uaif.
754. t7prcLov &#39;EK 83&#39;fLWV T&#39;KVCvr, K.Tr.X.) Imitated and expanded
by Nonnus 45, 294, a&#39;XXi7 NI rpte&#39;ri7pov aq&#39;faplra$~o(Ta TOK77O9 U&#39;TPOFLOV
(L(TTV(/)ELKTOV Aali(T)ULOV tUfrO&#39;Ol/ cC&#39;O~Lw LO-iaro KOVC/Lovo-a JpqI?7X6ra
7rai~a OvE2at-v, fECi;41l&#39;OV 7YEXoCVT-(L Ka)l 01) r~t~rTovr KOVLJ17. Ce
parallel shiews that Nonnus read &#39;rfKva and disposes of the
emendation r~Xq~ proposed by M;advig(,.
~r~ooa mnay be intended to lzhd the 7-iicva, but cannot
apply exclusively to them. (as Nonnus appears to have thought);
as we find in partial apposition to it the words, ov&#39; XaKO od&#39;
/lIqP4. It is not improbable that something may be lost before
the latter words (Tyrrell, or more probably before ol7rooia
(Hartungi).
755. oZircp Z Vizo) These words close the Laurentian Mis
at Florence and the copies in the library at Paris. Pour le reste
of the play we have to depend on one Ms only (the Palatine Ms
in the Vatican).
757. birl Si fPocrpaSXOLS 7r~p 9c1Epov1 &#39;Virgil Aeli. 2, 686, ecce
levis sitmmo de vernice visus hulifunder-e lumen qj/ex, tra ctuque
iunoria;uolli lambere flamina comas el circum tempora fiasci.
760. Ipih. T. 320, ov&#39; lIq&#39; rO&#39; 8ILv(Ov 7rapa&f&#39;XEVo-/.L?~K0v&#39;cajtev.
761-4. Nonnus 14, 394 (of the battle of Dionysus against
the Indians), 13alKXI l&#39; adptaXdXa~E, Kal a&#39;/I7rEXo-o-cav a&#39;KCOKr/iJ3ar —
0-aplg?)KOV1rL~,, /.LEappz&#39;vov UI -yEviOXqI (Ipa-eva 7roXUa&#39; Ka&#39;plpa aaiLEro

Page  191
-76 -)I

NO TE, S.

19I

OIJXE NOWp c….,TXvcJraijiv~c Ul 7rerri/Xco Ie&#39;vropa KLOflTO&#39;V lEIEZ
a&#39;XoJtqr~pa 0L&I&#39;pOI).
767. VCta.vTo 8&#39; aL&#39;L(icL) This is the first instance, in the present
play, of the omission of the syllabic augment. With the exception of a very few passages which are probably corrupt (Aesch.
P. V. 305, C/to. 9I7, Soph. Philz 37i, Eur. Hcc. 58o, A/c. 839),
all the instances of this omission are to he found in Jlesseng-ers&#39;
sficeches (a&#39;yyi~covw &#39;au-i): (I) once in the middle of the iambic
line, hut at the beginning of a sentence, viz. iVf-a II 34, 7
LXvov avraig a&#39;p3v&#39;Xatg.YVtLVO~V7o 84E: (2) oftener at the beginning
of the line, as here and infra io66, KK&#39;KXOv7-o, i084, o-b-YqO-f, Similarly in Aesch. P. V. 368, i-P0owovTrO, 408, 7raiowr&#39;, 450, KVKXOZVz-o,
498, lriwro0V, Soph. 0. T. I1249, YOFa70, 0. C. i 6o6, KTI&#39;r77OT-, 1 624,
OOcov~cv, Track. 91I5, (~pot&#39;povv: also (3), in the following instances,
where however the previous line ends with a long vowel or a
diphthong, and thus allows of the possibility of explaining the
omission of the augment by at/tacrcsis, Soph. 0. C. i607,
j~yqrrav, El. 7I5, (~opeW&#39;, 716, (EttLONVro Track. 904, f3PVXaTo and
Eur. Hec. II53, Oa&#39;KOVV. (Kdihner, Gk. Gr. I P. 503). It has
been suggested that this omission may he due to the Epic
colouring of the messengers&#39; narratives, but if so, we should
expect examples of the omission of the temporal augment as
bien. The subject is discussed at length in Hermann&#39;s preface
to the Bacckae, where he endeavours to reduce it to a question of rhythm and emphasis, and comes to the following conclu-&#39;
sions: (i) vc-rbumfortius, int quo aztgmentti accessio aizapaestum
facit, in tirintczifio versus /iosihtum, ac/di augutentum Postitlat:
EyIEVOV7-o AN~ eEO-7tacL L rp6r 7rapOivot (Ifik. A. init.). (2) r&#39;erbuo
fort/us, in quo augmienti acccssio ito/ fac/t antafaestum, lit rtilciA/ao versus hos/titi, carere fiotcst augutnento: O-L7T7OE — 8&#39; aiO&#39;mp,
K7-v7r?70TE pEV Zdr&#39;. XO&#39;tv 7rat&#39;owr, E&#39;Opavov* 76rrov 8&#39; ir&#39; a&#39;XX77koto-Lv.
(3) elusdemnmodi verbumil, Si intcibit seittentiam videtur el/am in
YnZedlo versu carer-e augm-iento Posse: quale fordl ilitid, ea, qua
supra dictum est coditiione: yv~Lwofvr7o bN 7rX~vpa&#39;L ow7ap~ayjpoLv.
(4) verbum mzizus forke, sivefacit aug-menti accessio ana~aestum,
sive nont facit, lin.,r/nci.~io versus positunt, si ultra hrimum
Pedem fiorri~gitur, caret augliento: yoiiro- 0(&#39;v$,Ev. (5) eiusdemn

Page  192
192 BA CCHAE. (757
modi verbitnz si non ultra primum pl:diet por;orrizgitur, tu delrac:o
augmento pa-rum numzerosunz, ant vitiatl, uzt Ka&es (EKavis
Choeph. 930), aut curn alia formz cozmmutatur, Uit KaXfi cIzu;
KaXEl. But in rule (i) we can hardly admit that EyEvovro is a
verbumfortius unless we understand by that term an ordinary
verb in an accidentally prominent position with no true emphasis of sense; and the chief value of the rest of these rules is that
they bring out clearly the fact, that all the instances of omission
are at the beginning of the sentence and almost all at the beginning of the line as well.-In the present passage Hermann unnecessarily alters the text into viLaiL roo&#39; aTjia, objecting that
vla&#39;ro ought to have been viTrrovro, and also remarking: &#39;si
finem factum dicere voluisset poeta, 7rAuXv 4xoupraav scripsisset.&#39;
But we may reply, that the imperfect XoC0povv well describes the
slow andgradual retreat of the Bacchanals to the spot from which
they suddenly started forth (E<IVTvi7av 7rToa), that vL&#39;+avro expresses
the momentary plunge into the fountain which washed off nearly
all the blood, while the subsequent imperfect F;ecaiapvvov indicates the continued process by which slowly &#39;from their cheeks
snakes licked the gore-drop clean from off the skin.&#39;
775. TO;s X6oyous iXEv8epovs) &#39;I fear to utter forth the words of
freedom&#39;; bed. words that are free, the position of the article
shewing that a predicative sense must be given to the adjective;
cf. Donaldson Gk. Gr. ~ 489 and suzpra 1. 65o.
778. o-rrcT p vcdrrCTaEL) (I) &#39;To set on fire&#39; in Or. 62r,
VtJqFj 8/~ at dvU)aL&#39;Trr 7rvpi (and ib. I6I8) and Tro. 1274, TroXLT
v(arrreraL rvp: (2) &#39;to kindle a fire&#39; (as here) in Ar. Thesm. 730.
This reading is restored from the author of the Christzs Patiens,
and makes better sense than the manuscript reading, cf)a7rTEra,
which would naturally mean either &#39;is impending&#39; or &#39;is reaching us.&#39; The latter sense is however not impossible in the
present passage.
779. cs "EXXklvas) &#39;a great disgrace to us in the eyes of
Greece. (&#39;aliter scribendum foret "EXXto-. eadem ratione Plato
Gorg. 526 B, EXXytiLos els ro&#39;s aOXXovv "&#39;EXXq/va, Symipos. I79 B
ubi vid. Stallbaum. Thucyd. VI 31, es rovs,Xovs cEXXYvas riP

Page  193
— 7 -981

NO TTF S.

193

&Et$LV, VII 56, KaXO&#39;V Cr4OLGV Ev -rois &#39;EXX,7vag T0 aYw&#39;JVLcT/a (bOavEUTo9at)
Shilleto, adlv.
780. The Electran gates were south of the city, and therefore
on the way to Cithaeron. It was by this approach that in the
time of Pausanias, as at the present day, the traveller from
Plataea entered Thebes, Pausan. ix 8 ~ 7; S0 Sir Thomas
WVyse, Imgbressions of Gr-eece, p. 295, describes a drive from
Athens through &#39;Cithaeron&#39;s woody folds,&#39; down into the Plataean plain, and so &#39;by the Electra gate into Thebes.&#39;
782. CLriwovTrV) i. e. &#39;to muster.&#39; The verb, though reserved
for the second clause, has to be taken with the former clause as
bien.
785. o~ ydip cdXX) &#39; Nay but this is past endurance!&#39; See
Shilleto on Dem. Fals. Leg~. App. C adfnenm, Ar. Ran.- 58, 192, 498.
786. &#39;IrELaTOFJiEr09…7rrO.O)(OLEV…1rtE(0EL) The last verb, though
different in sense, seems to have been suggested by the sound of
the first. (7r EL&#39;OE I post 7r~ta-of1LEo-O&#39;. Dem. de F. Leg. P. 368 ~ 98,
Arist. Etlh. Nic. III 7 =5 ~ 7, Xen. A nab. I 3 ~ 6) Shilleto, adzv.
791. &#39; Bromius will not brook thee Driving his Maenads
from the hills of revel.&#39; Cf. An1d. 7I1, Osbc dvferatO ri-LKTopras
iX~vr Fr ~cvcUL v cf. mount Eu&#39;av in Messene, Pausan. IV
31 ~ 4. 7-EXra. EV &#39;L&#39;ovv has occurred in 2-38.
792. &#39;Don&#39;t lecture me! thou hast escaped from bonds, So
be content!-else I must once more doom thee.&#39; On ot&#39; I.), see
note on 343 cTE Wr8) Soph. El. 1257, /1&#39;Xis – Y&#39;P -o i
EXEVOEpov roTAa. $VA&#39;flfl.LL Ka"Yo) ToLyapovv orCO)Cov To~&#39;&E.
794. &#39;I would slay him victims, rather than in rage
lKick &#39;gainst the goad, a man at war with god.&#39; Pind. Py//h. II
t73, 71oTl K4V-pa XaKTL&#39;CEMEV 0&#39;XLOO)pOEq 0L`FLOt~0,, Aesch. P. V. 323,
TrrpoV Ktivrpa Ko)X0v EKrTEiEL Ag.07 i633, Eur. fragm. 607, r KVp
/Lq&#39; Xa&#39;KTLCE TrtE Kpar~o~aL&#39; oov, Ter. Pizorm. I 2, 27, izam quae
ilnsci&#39;tia est advor-sitn stimnulumn calces, Plaut. Tritc. IV 2, 59
and Acts of the Apostles, xxvi 14.-For the general sense, cf.
Naevius Lycurgus xiii (i8), cave s/s tuarn contendas ir-ar
contra cunt ira Liberi.
798. cdo-wC(Sms OU&#39;Paro~oL BCLKX(ZV GkrIerpE&#39;rLv) Explained in L
and S, &#39;to turn shields and fly before the thyrsus.&#39; We may

S. B.

1 3

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194

P4 C CCHA E.

(798

accordingly render, "twere shame to turn away Shields wrought
of bronze, before the revellers&#39; wands.&#39; It has been suggested,
however, that &#39; the sense of the passage is, it is disgraceful that
they with the thyrsi of Bacchanals should beat down anzd ttrn
away your brazen shields&#39; (C. J. Blomfield, lMus. Crit. 2, 666).
The easiest way of clearing up the passage is to alter 3aKxCYV
into 3aiKXar, which would thus become the acc. before e&#39;KrpEgrv.
800. &#39;An awkward stranger this, we are hampered with.&#39;
Donaldson, Gk. Gr. ~ 491.
802. – rav) Soph. O. T. 1145, Phil. I387, Eur. Cycl. 536,
and frequently in Aristophanes and Plato. c &#39;r&v&#39; rpo&#39;pr/qla
rtLr)tKrs X$ECOEI&#39; XyTyratL e Kal en&#39; elpcovelta rroXXaKt (Hesychius).
It is supposed to stand for Erav=e;riv, voc. of er&#39;dls (eTrl&#39;s),
connected with crsv, a &#39;relative,&#39; or &#39;friend.&#39;
814. Dionysus, by asking Pentheus why he is so eager to
see the Bacchanals grouped upon the mountain-side, arouses
misgivings on the part of the king, who replies; &#39;With sorrow
would I see them drunk with wine.&#39; Dionysus enquires once
more; &#39;Yet, would&#39;st thou see with joy what thou must rue?&#39;
Here the words a o-oL rLKpc (like much besides in this dialogue) are intentionally ambiguous; to Pentheus, they are only
an echo of his own word Xvrrpws; to the audience, they point
to the bitter end of the king&#39;s espial.
819. ayC&#39;Liv like eipoolev (949). (iyo /ev…y&#39; (820), silg. et
plur. 512, 514; 6i6, 617; Hel. 99o, ioio) Shilleto adv.
820. The manuscript reading is rov Xpovov e &r&#39; ovJ qfov5,
in which case o-&#39; would have to stand for -rot, which cannot
be thus elided. Hence the emendations, (I) roi Xpovov 8e
oot (Nauck) i. e. &#39;I grudge delay,&#39;-&#39; we must lose no time about
it&#39;; (2) roi Xpovov 8&#39; ov&#39; -ot (Dobree) i.e. &#39;Lead me there with
all speed, but I do not grudge you the time,&#39;-&#39; you are welcome
to take your own time, eager though I am to go&#39;; (3) rov Xpovov
yap ov f8ovc or 8&#39; oveLas 066vos (Kirchhoff). Cf. with (2) and
(3), Hec. 238, &#39;,eofr&#39;, pa;ra&#39; rov Xpovov yap ov (POov(c.
821. pvo-or(vovs 7rrXovs) &#39;Array thee, then, in robes of finest
lawn.&#39; Theocr. II 73, o3dpreuv J3 Bvooco KaXoYv o-potiaa xcrva.
These robes were not of &#39;cotton&#39; (as sometimes supposed), but

Page  195
83 7) 95OTS
of &#39;fine linen.&#39; B-ysszs or &#39;fine flax&#39; did not grow in Greece
(except in Elis, Pausan. v 5 ~ 2); it was imported through the
Phoenicians &#39;fromn the Hebrews&#39; (one of whose names for it was
bzhz:,), and from Egypt. Herodotus, II 86, says the Egyptian
mummies were wrapped round with o-va&Jvov f~voo —Lvqv 7rEafo-L0,_
which are now ascertained to be bandages of fine linen, not of
cotton. For the latter (Pliny&#39;s gossijiion), the Greek writers have
no special wvord. In Hdt. 1I 47, linen and cotton are mentioned
side by side, O &#39;pqpa lXtvEov K1EKOO/LJF11E&#39;VOV XPVO-CO Kat Eptot-t d~ro&#39; $ivfnv. )
822. Nonnus 46, 82, jkaipEa KaXXcEN+as /3ao-LX1&#39;a TE&#39;TXaOL,
)IEvOaE, OI7XEa 7rirrXa (/JE&#39;pELlJ, Kal 7WEcoO ~Xvsv (v. 1. Ovuah) &#39;Ayaivr1
~078&#39;E O771pEVOVTa 7rapat oot-LyvvaiKE~.9
828. c~rToX~v;..OrXvv) In poetry, O~Xvv is not unfrequently
of common gender, Mced. 1084 E&#39;YECW~ 6q-Xvv,, Iliad 19, 97, &#39;Hpa
OqXv~v EOVOCa.
833. ir~rkm~ roUjpELs) Aesch. fr. 64 b, Edonzi, U&#39;a-rtv XrrTovav
f3ao-oa&#39;pav re Av~ag "EXEL 7ro8 &#39;pet, Nonnus 46, i 1 5 (of Pentheus)
XELP &ou&#39;OcTOV EL9E&#39; ILLETEPXOI.LEVOO E K~a 7"&#39;L L LXVEV7l7PL
VTrOV E~rEcT~fJEo rapop.
~Ikrpcl) Hence Dionysus himself is called e7Xvj~t&#39;T-p?7 in
Lucian III P. 77, Dion. ~ 3, and Xpvo-opLLr7prj in Soph. 0. T.
209. The word has a variety of meanings; here it appears)
to be either (i) a band or snood, carried through the hair and.across the forehead, like that with which Dionysus himself is
often represented in works of ancient art; or, more probably,
(2) a light cap, like the head-dress of the Bacchanals in the
vase-painting copied in the introduction to this edition. I-Ic.
923, 7rXOKa~Lov davaUErotg IL&#39;T-pato-t ippvO/It~6fL17v, i1fra 929. It is
sometimes used of a royal diadem, and also (especially in Latin,
as in A en. 4, 216; 9, 6i6) of the Phrygian head-dress.
836. The line quoted by Plato in the story already referred
to in the note on 3I7.
837. altpLc OaaljcEs So in Ion 1225, e&#39;v 7- dva&#39;CT~o &#39; jJo)&#39;oi
-rtOFioav, I26o 0, Joi&#39;7roKTrevao-1&#39; ae irpoarpw-ratov allia 0170ELE-, and
Ijit. A. 1418, &~ 5o-Cja,LrXav dv3pi)v 70,6aea seai frov, in
which last passage however (as suggested by Vecklein) the
poet may have been thinking of the common phrase d~yc5va
3-2

Page  196
i96

FA C CIIA E.

P J3 7

-rt~izat. Also Or. 833, /L?7TpokTrlol) aqipa XELp&#39;L Occr~aL. Several
emendations have been suggested, such as aiq&#39; &#39;)q hhffFLV (Reiske),
etpaL Oq7O-ELV (Tyrwhitt), a&#39;tia 8EI0V&#39;-fL. (Wecklein), even aLl/La OIJ(TELV.might be supported by 796, but none of these alterations seems
absolutely necessary.
839. KdCKOZS OrJPcdV KCLKc&#39;L) &#39; quest of endless ills,&#39; pursuing evil
ends by evil means. Here. E. I076, VrP O KaK0L4 KaKa /LTJLTeT(U,
1213, KaIKa&#39; KaKIOZL~ o-Vval&#39;tL.
843. The manuscript reading fgXOO&#39;P7&#39; (dual), followed by
IOovXevc&#39;oIoat, involves an anacoluthon, which may possibly be
explained by supposing that Pentheus, after referring to their
returning together to his palace, reserves for himself alone the
duty of deliberating as to the best course to be pursued on their
return.
848. Pentheus. having left the stage to array himself for
his adventure, Dionysus tells the chorus that the toils are fast
closing round their prey: &#39;women! our man comes within
cast of net.&#39; Cf. lihes. 730, I&#39;r~ i E4 /3oXov rTL EpXETaIL. Alors
of a fisherman with his net, ready for a cast L?), Theocr. I40,
fz~ya 6&#39; KTVOV EV j30XOl &#39;EXKIEL. Cf. Hesiod Scut. Here 213, E&#39;LXE
XePtrv &#39;XO&#39;ot aCI~t X/Q71o-pov, a~roppcIoYTL EOLKC r (and Aesch.
A4g. 1382; see however Per-sae 425, and Eur. El. 582).
847.~EL&~ CicLS " OCLVO~V 8wEL 8CK&#39;rjv) This extension of
the acc. of the j5lace to which, to that of the Aersons to whomn
one goes, is somewhat exceptional: the fact that it is an extension of the same principle, is proved by the subsequent oVT
The slight harshness of this collocation may, however, be removed by conjecturing 6c&#39;L BaiKXatv Ill) OacIJoVy &CII-,tE IL&#39;K?71&#39;
&#39;he will go there where, by dying, he will pay the penalty
to the IBacchanals,&#39; as in line 62, eyw 8E Ba&#39;KXatv Et&#39;g KIaypcvov
7lrTvXarv aXL,~ ~ ofv Cf. also Here. F.
74,WXEV XPI&#39;VP /5EV OV 8LKq7ZJ &O-ITEV Oalv(D&#39;.
851. &#39;VEIS EXCLPCaLV XiiooV) &#39;instilling flighty madness.&#39;
r~T-av &&#39; O&#39; 8az&#39;uov anV8pI ropcTv`vy KaKa&#39;, viwv vovv 9f3Xa~te 7T( TOV co
f3OVXEFV&#39;ETat (Tr-ag., incert. at. sehol. ad Soth. Ant. 622).
852. oZ 1A~ OeeX~jc A strong negative; see Goodwin&#39;s
Moodis and Tenses, ~ 89, i (quoted in note on 343, sufiira).

Page  197
-872)

No TE _.

1 97

853. ggw 8&#39; E&#39;X.&#39;5vwv &#39;roii 4)POVEtV Aesch. CG10. 1022, J5a-,,
V U&#39;TWiOLV?)vL~apo(/)o) (IpOLov f&#39;$o)rE&#39;pw ()E&#39;pOV-tL ya&#39;p PLK&)/IEVOV
(joE&#39;vcv Uv&#39;ap~crotL and P. V. 883, f~(o 3U &po&#39;pov p61Epo,~a Xvo-o-qjr
mreJ,Ewt/L /Lapyp.
860. C&#39;v &#39;rre&#39;XEL) &#39;Who is in the end&#39; (i.e. if provoked) &#39;A god
most dread, though unto man most gentle.&#39; We should have
expected a more sharply contrasted pair of clauses like that
in A/ed. 809, /3apEiav E&#39;Opoi4 Ka&#39;l (LjXotOtv EV/LEfVq7. This contrast
is gained by the conjecture, Tr E&#39;(qvcv/E E&#39;vLa-raLra OEOv 8Etvo&#39;TaTOS,
EFVVOOVOC 8 l77TMco&#39;aTov.
862. &#39;Oh! shall I ever in the night-long dances plant my
gleaming step in Bacchic revelry.&#39; XEVUKOV zr68cL, cf. note on 665.
In the dance the &#39;gleamning step&#39; would he especially displayed,
a point which is happily caught in the Homeric phrase papp/zapvya~v OqE7uro 7ro&5v (Gd. 8, 265).
864. 8Upav…&#39;irwrOUGc) &#39;Tossing my neck into the dewy air.&#39;
As the chorus compares itself to a fawn, this expression is quite
allowable; so in Pindarfragm. 224, liavi&#39;at T&#39; aXaXOL T 0&#39;ptoaihvcd!JIt~aV&#39;XEV O1J&#39;V KXO&#39;Vq) (apparently of horses tossing their necks in
an excited procession), where &#39;tinJa&#39;~~ sports the text against
the proposed alteration 8opa5, since revoked by its proposer; cf.
also (with Mr O&#39;Connor) Sen. Troad. 473, cervicefusam dissz>5ans
zacd -comlam.
866. XXOEpCLZS XECJILKOS ~jSovcats) by enal/cige for XXoepov, &#39;like a
fawnidisporting herself in the joyance of green pastures.&#39; El.
859, OE&#39;, ELI&#39; XoOPv " o 4P~ CO o/p05&#39;V Ov&#39;pa&#39;VLOV 7r&#39;7&fLia KoW4t~ovcaao-&#39;
aXa`.-(~of3epov OrpaI&#39; would be descriptive of vc/3po&#39;r, and nom.
to fwyy &#39;what time the trembling quarry flees out of watch,
over the well-meshed nets.&#39; But I prefer the other alternative,
0of3Epa&#39;v Opav, leaving vEI3po. &#39;itself as the subject, &#39;flees from
the fearful chase.&#39;
869. 9EW +VXaKciS, i. e. &#39;away from the watch set upon it,&#39; Xen.
Venal. VI 12, OvvLo-Taivat Vr aPV KaL Ta &iKrva, cov EtpTJTO /iera
6r oVTo, TOY&#39;P /1EV apKVCOPO&#39;V et&#39;at E&#39;v OvXaKy~.
872.crv-rEvflSp&#39; (jLc Kvv) &#39; braces his hounds to the top of
their speed,&#39; cf. OavvT6vov apotk17Lao-t (1o9I). 873. If we retain
ILOXOOLV T&#39; (0&#39;KUaPO/109r T airX a t, we may render: &#39;while she, with

Page  198
198

PA C, CIM -E.

(S72

la bouring steps and fitful bursts of speed, boundeth along the
level river-lawn.&#39; W~ith C0&#39;KV8P0&#39;LOLI adiXXatsr, compare the epithet
(1eXX07orrg used (of Iris) in the Iliad (8, 409; 24, 77 and 159), andL
once in Tragedy, Eur. Hil. 1314, Kovpat aeXXO7roaEs-. But this
gives an unusual sense to 6&#39;EXXa, though in He. 19,we have
o-pcv&#39; w&#39; a&#39;iXXato-t; on the whole, I prefer accepting the
emendation po&#39;~X~mg r &#39; COKVi8PO/ILrt dEXX64, an adjective found
in Soph. 0. T. 466 a&#39;EXXdaIOW~ Zur~rcov and Soph.frag-m. 614, adEXXa&#39;8EI9
( covat&#39;. For Opca(rKcL 7rEBLov, cf. note on 7r?7&ovra 7rXa&#39;Ka (307).
875-6. &#39;rejoicing in solitudes by man unbroken, and amid
the leafy branches of the shady forest.&#39; Adjectives compounded
With -K0oAwr are favourite forms with Eur., dCP6&#39;K0,U0.q, t5EV8pUK0.Loc,
~Xwapo0o/LC0P, v&#39;10KO/LOV, 1A&#39;tLKO/,IO, Oc&#39;~Lqg (Wecklein).
877-88-1. These five lines recur as a refrain below
(897 sqq.). &#39;What is the (truest) wisdom, or what amorag
mnortals is the boon of heaven, that is fairer than waving the
hand victorious, over a fallen foe? What is fair is ever dear.&#39;
The words last quoted by the chorus gain fresh point from the
legend that they were the burden of the song of the Mluses at
the marriage of the founder of Thebes, Theognis, v. i5, Moio-om
K1 a&#39;pr KO~fO a Z~r Ka, ev yal~ov e~ovo-at, KaXo&#39;v
aeto-ar Erog OrtL KaXu&#39;v, (~LA fo-i ETL, TO&#39; 6&#39; ov KuXo&#39;v ou&#39; qL&#39;Xov
E0AtTL cf. Plato Lysis p. 21I6 C, KLvIJvvEV&#39;Et KaTa&#39; T7-v 7raXatav 7rapot/iav
ro KaXo&#39;v 4tLXov Elvat.
882. &#39;Slowly, yet surely withal, the might of heaven advanvces.~
Eur.f/ragM. 223, &Ka rtO t3LAca Xpo&#39;viocg, aXX&#39; O&#39;J.LCO) VO7TEITOUO G-,EXaOEV,
orav&#39; 4FXII TLJ&#39; do-E(3r) /4pTo-r, ib. 797, (OEo&#39;) &#39;.v iray 7XoVo-t Kay pa
vwow x0v, v 0 ii ad r 420. 844. a~cnU~vVIEl, KOXa~EL
(Hesych.).
888. &#39;In cunning wise, they lie in wait, for a long lapse of
time, and hunt down the impious one,&#39; fragmn. 969, (77 A tin)
o-L-ya Kal %3pa6EL 7ro6L o-7TELXovaa Ia&#39;p#EL Tov&#39;v tcKalCVE, O5,av 7TV&#39;X. For
iroLKLXQ)S, &#39;craftily,&#39; rather than &#39;in varied wise,&#39; cf. Hl. 711I, ~0
do&#39;tV ~.k/V 7I 7OL~icXop, and Ar. Eq. i96. Kp-uwrTE1UovcrL, intr. as in
Xen. CYr. IV 5, 5. Scipov x(p6vovu.1r68c) The same metaphor
occurs in frag-Mi. 43, Kal XpomYv 7rpoV/3aLV1E irou&#39;.v, and as the
Bacc/zae is not referred to in the Ranae (which was probably

Page  199
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NVO ITES.

199

exhibited before the present play was put on the stage at
Athens, after the poet&#39;s death in Macedonia), it is the fragment above quoted and not the passage before us which
Aristophanes finds fault with, as an over-bold form of expression: Ranae Ioo, oarLs (O;y,/eraF rTLOVTroVr L rrapaKEKtlirP eviLevorv
alOEpa AtioS co/LaTLoV I XP povov Tr8a, and 31I, 7tv&#39; a;irtaLCwolo OeC)v
/A&#39; droXXv&#39;va; alOepa-i Xpovov 7rola. Modern taste would probably be on the side of Euripides; in Shakespeare, at any rate,
a large part of a scene in Asyou like it, III 2 320-351, consists
of variations on the very same metaphor: the lazy foot of Time…
the swift foot of Time…7Time travels in diverscs aces with
divers persons. I&#39;ll tell you who Time ambles withal, who
Time trots withal, who Time gallops withal, and who he stands
still withal.
891. Cf. the legal maxim, Neminem oportet safiientiorem
esse legibus. Soph. Ant. 454-5. 892. yLYV(OcrKEtv and IEXET&v
are here contrasted as &#39;thought&#39; and &#39;practice&#39; respectively.
893. &#39;It costs but little to hold, that that has (sovereign)
power, whate&#39;er it be that is more than mortal, and in the long
ages is upheld by law and grounded in nature.&#39; For Ko4cI
yyap Sarciva (sc. Corl) cf. Pind. Isth. 8, 93, rreTl KovUqa o0o0-t dCvapi
(To(b… &#39;r7Tos EL&#39;7roPaT dya0o vv vv opOv co-aL KaXov. iVOcrEL i&#39;ejuKs, cf.
Soph. Phil. 79, OLaa, rat, ()vretEL re f r 7re<FvK6ora roLavra CL bveV.
902. &#39;Happy is he who from out the sea hath fled the storm
and found the port; happy also is he who has reached the
crown of all his toils.&#39; The first clause introduced by Iev appears
simply to compare the happiness of victory over toils, to the
happiness of finding a safe haven from the storm; just as in
fragm. 1034, arras pe/v d)p derc 7repatrlioo, a7rao-a 8e x)cov dvSpt
yfvvatla 7rarptr,-and it is perhaps too fanciful to trace (with
Lobeck, Aglaophamus p. 648) a reference here to the form of
words used on the occasion of initiation into the mysteries,
&#39;qbvyov KaKov evpov afitvov (Dem. de cor. ~ 259).
909. riretla&#39;av) often used of &#39;turning out&#39; well or ill; also
absolutely, of &#39;succeeding,&#39; here exceptionally of &#39;failing,&#39; bed.
&#39;passing away.&#39; Something like it is Andr. Io2I, drroe (f01&#39;fevo
Pe/3aoi, of the kings of Ilium who are &#39;dead and gone.&#39;

Page  200
200 BAGG HA E. (910
910, &#39; Him do I call blessed whose life is happy day by day.&#39;
r KaT" 197ap, an adverbial expression, also found in Ion, 12.
Cf. Hee. 627, KELVOE 0f3LG`Tarog, O7TW KaT TJ/.Lap TrvyXaVEt JYrpIE KaKOP.
E73 cop~ and jIaKapL~w are similarly combined in 72, uap.,EVLab LOP.LaaP
913. ow6cuSov-rc r~ ctu-o&#39;Soisrcg The same phrase occurs in
iph. T. 20!; this combined with the fact that the speech of
Dionysus is a line longer than that of Pentheus has led to the
suggaestion that the present line may be an interpolation
(Tyrrell). If the line is omitted, the construction &#39;of the acc. is
like that in Soph. A11t. 441, u&#39; 6, o-&#39; rT)v JJEVOOO e7ri3o Ka&#39;pa,
hit, and Eur.. He?. 546, o-E&#39; 7i4 0&#39;peya 83ELVOZJ LXE/A. (v)v
if retained, it is like Herc. F. 1215, a-E&#39; TOP&#39; OaTo-o-oTU 6voT17VOlJL
`8par a1&#39;86, j)&#39;XotoLV i&#39;uja 8ftKYVvat – To 00.
916. R~&#39;qrPO&#39;S TE &#39;TTL~S V-1S KC.L X6XoV KCL.drcTKo-Tros) XUJXov may
stand without the article, just as in Herc. F. 140, -T&#39;V &#39;HPdi1XEL0V
7rarepa KaLI ~uvvcopov, where as here, Kal couples an anarthrous word
to one which cannot refer to the same person. In such cases the
repetition of the article, though often found, is not necessary.
917. &#39;1rp47rELs) =0 oItoL et&#39;. Herc. F. 548, vEp7TEPoLv lrpE1rcoov, Alc.
12,Aesch. SMAJ/ 301. IFop~i, &#39;ii shape,&#39; though close to ~,a,
obviously does not go with it; to get rid of this very slight
ambiguity, which would readily be removed by a very little care
in the delivery, /Lop,~)v has been suggested (by M~usgrave).
918-9. Referred to by Lucian Pseiidclog. iII 177, Toiiro 8&#39;
T6 E&#39;K TJL Tpa-ypa)& GO).E&#39;v I1X&#39;OUS Q&#39;0.V aOKOLO-L Sua-a-d.S SE&#39;E &#39;TPas.
Cf. Virg. A&#39;ell. 4, 468, Eumzenidlum 71e/uli dcunicus v/c/ct 0gminia
Pent/tezs et solemz gem/inuvi et ditblices sc os/ender-e flL/ics;
where, in the first line, Virgil has applied to Pentheus what
would have been more appropriate to an Orestes (Aesch. Clio.
1057) and it has therefore been ingeniously suggested that for
Eumeniduz wve should read Eu/iac/an (S. Allen, ap. Tyrrell).This cn is also alluded to by Sextus Empiricus ac/v. Log/o
I 192, OrE qi jLEpL?7ic4) 6L0TLEa&#39; 6Opd~ T-a&#39;t Ei/3a Ka&#39; Lo-o-ov LfarOJTUE-rat
TW?XLov, and by Clemens Alexandrinus(Porp.xi.24
an.)d Pedfa~g. II 2 P. 417 ed. Mligne), who, somewhat carelessly,
speaks of Pentheus, not as mnad, but as intoxicated.

Page  201
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NAOTES7&#39;.

201

919. Kadl Iro6Xo-L&#39; i&rTo&#39;r-T&#39;oIov) &#39;that city of seven gates,&#39; Knl
introducing an expansion of Oe/~as. Herc. F. I5, &#39;ApyEZa TrcIX
Ka KvKXo7relaV 7rrXV.
920-2. The king&#39;s fancy that his escort has assumed the
form of a bull was probably suggested to the poet by the legends
of the transformations of Dionysus which are more directly
alluded to elsewhere, e.g. 1017, (cairv L racpos, cf. note on Ioo.
rerctvpcooCaL yap ouv, &#39;thou hast, at any rate, a bull-like mien.&#39; the
horned Dionysus is a form under which he is sometimes represented in works of ancient art, as in the engraving given in the
text.
923. EiuLevTs) a term usually applied as here to the &#39;graciousness&#39; of a deity, as contrasted with the kindly feelings of man
for man which is expressed by Edvovs, ELvoLa, &c. 924. Ionz 558,
vPY opas a Xpr j opav.
925. P. &#39;What like am I, then? Have I the stately port Of
Ino, or Agave my own mother? D. When I see you, methinks
I see themselves.&#39; (The sense of these lines is strangely missed
in Milman&#39;s rendering.)
929. This line is slightly in favour of understanding Eirpa
not of a &#39;snood&#39; or ribband passing through the hair, but of
a cap resting upon it. See note on 833, and cf. I I5.
The line is sometimes suspected (e.g. by Wecklein) on the
ground that it breaks the regularity of the stichomzythlia. But it
may be suggested that, after the first line of the reply of Dionysus
(927), the player is possibly intended to make a pause, of about
one line in length, during which he takes a leisurely view of the
king&#39;s attire. Thus, the duration of the single line in which he
replies would, including this interval, be equivalent to that of the
two lines of the king&#39;s question. After this pause, Dionysus
starts the conversation afresh, with a couplet (928-9); whose
Pentheus answers with the same number of lines. De même,
after 934, where Pentheus has only one line assigned to him,
there was probably a pause equivalent to one line&#39;s duration,
while his head-dress is put right by Dionysus.
936. -TroXiSEs) &#39;folds.&#39; Pollux VII 54, eirt (&#39; atv rS Kal t-roXLS07OS XLT(rV OX&v&#39; aro Ls o lcarv al E7rlTFTrSeS 17aTO oE/O yLVLofEvaty

Page  202
202 BA CCHAE. (936
ara T rTe TiX Trol XLtrWCtv E7rTrT7VXaL, /iXLt-ra VroTT hX v tmr LovrKOV (Wecklein).
938. 6p0Js rapd TrEvovT) &#39;straight along the step,&#39; or &#39;anlde,&#39;
of the left foot. Cf. Med. i6, revor es opov o/JLavot O-KOToV943. In using a stick, the most natural movement would be
to advance the left foot, while the stick is held forward in the
right hand; Dionysus, for the sake of humouring Pentheus in
his fancy that the Bacchic wand must be held in some special
manner, tells him to do just the opposite, and advance his right
foot instead.
In 14, we have some slight reference to &#39;the reverent handling of the narthex,&#39; but I have observed nothing elsewhere,
in literary or artistic representations of Bacchanals, to confirm
the directions here given by Dionysus; it is probably a pure
fancy of the poet, to put Pentheus into an attitude calculated
to excite the pity, or the amusement, of the spectators.
951. &#39;Nay! prithee do not ruin the shrines of the nymphs,
And the haunts of Pan, where he doth hold his pipings.&#39;
The reference is to the little shrines carved out in the face of
the rocks (as notably on the north-western side of the Acropolis
at Athens, Ion 492-502), in which images of Pan and the
nymphs were placed: P1. Phaedrus 230 B, (on the Ilissus)
VVLXpv TE rEvPov Kal &#39;AXcX oov pO Tlrro TOW KoptKv re Kat ayaX/raTo
EOlKEV evaL. In Plutarch, Aristides ~ 11, the Delphic oracle
promises the Athenians victory at Plataea, on condition of their
offering prayers to Zeus, to the Cithaeronian Hera, and to Pan and
the Nymphs called o-paytrias-. Cf. Pausan. Ix 3 ~ 9, 7ro te rvS
Kopv(5S) (roi KLOatprtvos), E&#39;, 7&#39;TV 3OlOV 7t rotovYratL 7TVTE wOV
iaXtarra KaL &eKa v&#39;7roKara3adv&#39;L orTaalovs v,sf()v ocrTTL aJvrpov
K t a p covio)v, 2(paylStov (? 2qBpayLTriao) ILEv voitao61e!vov, cf. 1
34 ~ 3 (of the altar of Amphiaraus at Oropus), 7re4Lrrr (sc. TOy
c/(atovo Moipa) 7re7rolrTat vvLtpatsE Kca I avl Kal rroraAo4s &#39;AXEXO, Kai
Kqtqo-a. See also Wordsworth&#39;s Athens and Attica, chap. xii.
955. In form, the line resembles Iph. A. 182, 8eoL4Lea
U3etv Yv a-e Ea(r-vOa XpEpeov. &#39;Thou shalt be hidden where thy
doom shall hide thee.&#39; This line, like many others in this scene,

Page  203
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NOTERS.

203

is spoken in stern irony, not merely referring to the king&#39;s
hiding-place while spying out the Bacchanals, but also darkly
hinting at his impending doom.
957-8. &#39;in love&#39;s sweet snares, like birds amid the copses&#39;
(supira 223 and Hec. 829). 959. 1vcXa=KaTcrao-07ror.
960. qJv o-u pil X+f9is wipos) may be regarded as an Aside.
This trick of the stage is far from common in Greek Tragedy.
If we suppose that Pentheus is intended to hear it, it can only
convey to him a warning that he must go in his present disguise,
as otherwise he will only increase the risk of being detected
in his reconnaissance.
963. VirEpKdL.VELs) here as before, a double sense is intended;
to Pentheus, &#39;thou only toilest for thy country&#39;s good;&#39; the
spectators, &#39;thou only sufferest on the land&#39;s behalf.&#39;
Similarly Cdywves in the next line means, to Pentheus, the
pitched battles with the Maenads which are to follow his
reconnaissance; to the spectators, his own struggle for life when
torn asunder by the Bacchanals. The emphatic repetition of.6ovos at the beginning and end of 963 is paralleled by Ale. 722,
Hz;6yi. 327, Rhes. 579.
968. Pentheus, misunderstanding the ambiguous statement
that, on his return, he would be &#39;borne aloft,&#39; supposes Dionysus
to refer to his being carried in triumph and replies, &#39;That will
be daintiness indeed!)-dP-3pO6&#39;rT&#39; (&#39;lV XEIYELS is altered into C&#39; oi by
Elmsley, who compares Ar. Plut. 637, Xfcyls /IoL Xapav&#39; XeyELS
jo0 J3oadv.-Even when Dionysus adds, that he will be borne &#39;in
his mother&#39;s hands&#39; on his return, the king is still in the dark,
and answers, &#39;You will force me even to luxury&#39;; &#39;Strange
luxury, indeed!&#39;, is the ironical reply, to which Pentheus
responds; "Tis my desert,&#39; lit. &#39;I am taking in hand a worthy
task.&#39;
971. SELVOS) &#39;Thou&#39;rt wondrous, wondrous, doomed to wondrous woes&#39;; 7rdrO) meaning (i) the sufferings inflicted by the
king, (2) those which he is himself about to undergo.
972. oipavi crnmipCiov is also used of the great wave described
in Hifii. 1207, and in Iliad 4, 443, "EptLs…ovpav e&#39;r ErqptLe Kipt.
The prophecy of the glory of Pentheus, &#39;towering high as

Page  204
T) A /rr / TT r

rF — –

204 Di U L z:1 IL. L )7 2
heaven,&#39; is fulfilled in another sense in the sequel, where the
branch of the fir-tree on which he is placed soars up into the
air (1073, -rrp7pi(roT, and where the god "twixt heaven and
earth, raises a pillar high of awful fire&#39; (1083, VcrTpt(e).
976. &#39;The rest the event will shew.&#39; Plato Th/aet. 200 E,
avrb fEIteL, Prot/ag. 324, avro e~ t&iaLeL, Eur. P/hoen. 623, a&#39;,r
crT7lavl.
977. Ooal Av&#39;o&#39;rls KVVES) The chorus calls upon the hounds
of Lyssa, the personification of madness. Just as in the CdavTppaL
of Aeschylus, so in the Herc. furces, Anv&#39;o-a is one of the characters in the play: in the latter she makes a vigorous speech comparing herself, while doing the bidding of Hera and Iris, to the
hounds that attend the huntsman (86o, odlapreZv os Kvvt^yErn Kv&#39;vas).
So the Erinyes are called KIV~SE in Aesch. C/o. I054, Soph. El. 1388.
It is impossible to suppose that the chorus can here be addressing any of their own body. The Asiatic votaries of Dionysus,
who form the chorus of the play, however spirited and enthusiastic their songs and dances may be, are never allowed to
break out into the frenzy which is characteristic of the Theban
bacchanals.
981. &#39;Against him that is arrayed in woman&#39;s feigned garb,
that frenzied spy on the Maenads.&#39; We may supply ovra with
7rl TOV ev yvvaLKOlAtIaj cr-roXa, and in apposition to this we have
the phrase MaLvaaov Kardao-Koov Xvaacr-orI (Donaldson, Gk. Gr.
~ 407 (a) (a)). The only other way of explaining the position
of the article c&#39;irl 7r..K.Kara&#39;cKo0rov Xvoa~8r71 is to give Xvo(crTar
a predicative force, in which case the general sense would be:
&#39;On! ye hounds of frenzy, rouse the daughters of Cadmus
against that spy who himself is frenzied.&#39;
The corresponding line to MaLvdadov KaarcrKO7rov Xva-crrcoq is
rav aVdLKaTov os KpaTrjocov f3iq, which shews that a long syllable is
lost after Mavda&ov; hence rov (or e7rr) KaardcrKorov, and aOKo7rOV
O&#39;KOfrOV, have been proposed to satisfy the metre: in the latter half
of the line —– corresponds to —– (the normal form of
the dochmiac), just as in Soph. Ant. I308, rL i&#39; OUK avraiav has
in the antistrophe, o KaXXio-r&#39; E&#39;/tv, and ib. 1319, &#39;yco yap a
Ey(3 = 1341, cr r&#39; au rad&#39; &#39;1oc (Dindorf, Poet. Sc. ed. v p. 46 by.

Page  205
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zNOTE S.

205

982. &#39;First shall his mother behold him, as he watches
from smooth rock or withered tree.&#39; Xevpas Tr;rpav and o-KOXoros
partially correspond to O&#39;xOos and the eXdr-r which Pentheus
is described as proposing to climb in Io6I. ro-KXo4 answers
apparently to stipcs in the following much mutilated fragment
of the Bacchae of Attius, as restored by Ursinus, XIX (ed.
Ribbeck) ap. Festum, p. 314 M.m-&#39;(stipes fustis terrae) defixus- — (Accius) in Bacchis: ec-(quem stipitem abi-)eg(n)um aut al (neum………) us.&#39;-In the National Museum
in Naples there is a cameo, almost certainly representing the
Espial of Pentheus at the moment of his detection; dans lequel
Satyrs and bacchanals appear in the fore-ground, while in the
back-ground a man crouching on all fours, with a lion&#39;s skin
over him, may be seen on the smooth and level top of a stone
structure shaped like an altar (copied in Jahn&#39;s Pentheits, pl. I
(d), Tassie&#39;s Gems, 4867, and Gargiulo&#39;s JIusese National, p. 90).
935. The MS has dpLOSpOoyav, for which opLptLOv is conjectured by Kirchhoff. As the word is omitted in Liddell and
Scott, I may mention that it is used by Nonnus 25, 194,
&#39;ApKScaa Karrpov Opl(poiov and 5, 229 (of Aristaeus hunting on
the hills). As Nonnus was very familiar with the Bacchae and
often imitates it, his evidence is of special value in confirmation
of the above conjecture. The metre however is not satisfied
unless we transpose Kaaflel1ov and oplap6icov, and read riLs S&#39;
OpSppicowv Jlaa-rip Ka8tpeov (i.e. &#39;as a hunter after the Theban
revellers on the hills,&#39; the /3aKXaL KaSLEat ofl. II6o) which corresponds exactly to rO roouv ou S Oov6&#39; xatpco O7pevovor&#39;.
987. The reiteration es opos is opos,jLoX&#39; ZpOXEv is in keeping
with the excitement of the scene. A similar repetition has
already occurred in I65, and it is a device of which Eur. is
perhaps over-fond (see Or. 14I4-29, Phoen. 1030 sqq., I567 sqq.,
and esp. the parody in Ar. Ran. I352-5). But Aeschylus also
resorts to it, in some excited lines in the Persae, 98I —iooo.
990. Theocr. 3, I6, vuv E&#39;yvZv TOPv Epora&#39; 3aps OEOs&#39;? pa
ranvas fiaoraov )OiXa(e.

Page  206
2o6

BA C CIIA E.

(990

(Similis divisio Dochmiaci (Xealvars ye rtvios) Ion 723, si
Dindorfii 1. vera. Fortasse in Ion 676 legendum opc aa&Kpva /uXEla
Ka 7TrYvOptos (libri enim pev) et in antistr. (lAat, rrorepa, Trrep&#39; f/iL
8oETrolva) Shilleto adv. Dindorf&#39;s last ed. follows Hermann.
992. &#39;Let Justice advance in visible form, advance with
sword in hand, to slay with a stroke, right through the gullet,
the godless, the lawless, the reckless one-the earth-born
son of Echion.&#39; &#39;EXtovoos rOKOV yrlyevfo is in apposition to the
clause containing the article, otherwise the order would have
been yryev, TOKOV, cf. 98I n. 997. dSciK and rapavoyjq echo the
epithets avo/tov and ao&Kov already applied to Pentheus (995).
998. The MS has 7rfpL 3CaKXL&#39; opyta Laarpos re o-ai, the Aldine
edition prints ercpi ra answering to the three short syllables of
Oiao&#39;ov in the corresponding line (978); IaiKXL&#39; opyta ought
similarly to answer to E&#39;vO&#39; EXovtL in the strophe, and opyLa
must therefore be pronounced as two syllables by synizesis.
The words /arpo&#39;s re aras unless altered into yar (which once
occurred to me, but is open to objection on account of yVyevY
preceding), compel us to take a3dKXL as a vocative, and
this further suggests the insertion of -ra before it, instead of
the ra of the Aldine edition. The reference in this case must
be to the orgies of Dionysus and of Semele, as in Theocr. 26,
6; where the Bacchanals set up three altars to Semele and
nine to Dionysus. Hermann, who prints the line rrepl ra BaKXL&#39;
opy t&#39; us iarEpos, thus making it unnecessary to resort to synizesis
in the scansion of opyta, explains the last two words as a
reference to Agave, who has been prominently mentioned in
the former part of the chorus; Sch6ne, keeping closer to the
MS, prints rreFp ra f3aKXt opyta ra parps asr, where a long
syllable in the strophe is answered by two short syllables in
the antistrophe. But 3a&#39;KXLos is almost always used as a synonym
of Dionysus (see index); as an adj. (=/3aKXeior) it is hardly ever
found, except in Phoen. 655, c3aKXtov Xpevva.
999. The rare singular 1rpmIrCi8 has already occurred in 427.
1001. The MS has rav avlKcarov Ws Kparrawcov t1a. the Aldine
ed. rov, Schone (after Kayser) 0eov, which is metrically equivalent

Page  207
-1005)

NTO TES.

207

to the first syllable of Mawvdbcov in 98I; ra-v a IrKaTov (S KpaTr?7rtC
3Cav makes good sense.
1002. The MS has yvwfoav ofj)pova Odvaros a7rpodaTLOcros s El ra
eG9cv e1&#39;v 3porEip T E&#39;xEtL aXv7ros A3os, the Aldine ed. el ra re OE~v,
and some later edd. (e.g. Matthiae&#39;s) eit r7a re OEcv. The restoration of the true text appears impossible, though the manuscript
reading cannot be far wrong as it nearly corresponds to the
metre of the strophe. To obtain something equivalent in metre
to rrpora vLV XAvpas, we have only to read acooQpov&#39; a OvaroLs (with
Heath and Hermann); we also read /3porelav for fpore(i (with
Elmsley, Nauck, Paley and Wecklein); the sense would then be,
if we invert the clauses for convenience of translation: &#39;Tis a
painless life to keep a temper that is mortal and which amongst
mortal men makes no excuses with regard to things divine.&#39;
For an exact equivalent to 1. 982, we may propose Ovarois Ca7rpo(ao-r(roLs,in the following sense: &#39;life becomes painless if we keep a
temper befitting mortals, a temper which belongs to mortal men
who are prompt in their obedience to things divine.&#39; Ce
emendation has, I observe, independently occurred to Wecklein
(I879). The constr. of aXvrros f3lo (sc. on) = aXvnrov 7rotit rv
3lov, is the same as that of o3paXvs a&#39; v as explained in note on
397. Hermann, who follows the Aldine ed. in having no full.
stop before yv;couav -ctcpova and reads fSporeico —/3 (with
Scaliger), gives the following far from satisfactory rendering:
ut invictam vi sZiperatzrus I iam mentem (Bacchi sacra
scilicet celebrantium), quae mortalibus nullo praetextu in rebus
divinis detrectanda, ad hizmanamque vitam expers mali est,
earn habet. &#39;Quid sit yvWufr7v pporelav eXeiv docet noster Ale.
802, oVrav UE Ovrrovs, Ovr7Ta Kal fpOveiL XpE v&#39; (Elmsley). We may
contrast with this, the loftier view of Aristotle; ov Xp71 8e Kara
rovrS Iapactvovvrars avOpo&#39;rtva (poveLv avOpo7rov ovra ov8e 6vrTra &#39;TrO
vrjro-v (e.g. Epicharmus ap. Rhet. II 21 ~ 6), dXX&#39; &#39; &#39; o-rov Ev8iXEraL dOava7tiEy (Eth. N. X 7 ~ 8).
1005. The MS has ro (ra-oqv oV3 (Q0ovi (so Sch6ne, Kirchhoff, Nauck, Wecklein); i.e. &#39;I envy not (false) wisdom,&#39; the
wisdom referred to in 1. 396, rT cro(ayv ov (rofia. Others prefer

Page  208
208

208 ~~~~~B.,I C1Y/AT.

I005

)A-00vcp, in which case T-O ao~o&#39;i comnes after 0,per&#39;ovaua and 0~
0p96Yvq=cUA~6vco.9, &#39;I delight in the unstinted (ungrudging) quest
of knowledge.&#39;
1007. ra3&#39; P E&#39;rpa pie-ya&#39;Xa (~avEpez -c~v a~i is the reading of the
MTS, altered hy Musgrave into 4avepa&#39; T&#39; OvT&#39; d&#39;ii (followed by
Schbne, who however has ra3&). Ta&#39; 3&#39; Crepa JLeya&#39;Xa qav4p&#39; b&#39;Ovr&#39;
ELis proposed by Dr Thompson, in the following sense: &#39;but
those other matters are manifestly important, that one should
ever he going, in quest of noble emprise, living day and night a
life of piety and holiness, and honouring the gods by rejecting
all the ordinances that are beyond the pale of justice.&#39; Ce
he supports by Thuc. VIII 92, I&#39;vat ~&#39;i TI I~ y/LcaT, jh. A 43
L~vat E7rL l~Xavav, and a passage from Plato (where however the
phrase occurspjassim) o&#39; aCsXoL OIJK EOEXOO &#39;LEVO 7rr T&#39; Ka&#39;XX O&#39;v TE Kal?j3Ltov, Protag. 360 A. This suggestion I have accepted; except that for Ta&#39; 3 I have adopted Ta3&#39;, which is
required, if we retain the manuscript reading 4~Oovc6 (ioo5). the
hiatus in del &`i&#39; may be avoided by proposing aEL 7rTOT, as in
RheS. 26, 7rE`iLrT j5IovV ZE&#39;vaL 7roTL aO&#39;3v X0,xoP, and Mfed. 393,
TO?%lJE ELbLL, 7TpO.V TO KaprEpov.
1009. ci&cYOU&#39;VT&#39; CV&#39;a-EE~dv) Theocr. 26, 30 (on the doom of
Pentheus), aVT&#39;ros EI3a7EOL(LL Kal eaEVlEEOaiTLV al3oL/L. For &#39;TO. 4wa
Vo0.q"F BCKQLS, Cf. 331, Oi&#39;pa~e Tr~ov vdpsicv, and 896.
1017. Dionysus is here called upon to appear in one or other
of his favourite transformations, either as a bull (cf. note on
ravpoKdPcv &9OV, ioo, and passages there quoted), or as a serpent
like the hundred-headed hydra, or lastly as a lion. In reference
to these transformations, the god is elsewhere called aloXd&#39;pop~hov
(0Orph. hymn 50), d&#39;XXo~rpO&#39;aaXXov (Nonnus 14, 170), 11vPtutoP/Jor
"IAnth. Pal. Ix 524, 13); cf. Homeric hymn VII 45 (on Dionysus.and the Tyrrhenian pirates), d &#39; a&#39;apa uoi. Xiciii /IEJJET- &8vo& Ot Vi
(SIELVo&#39;9 EIT dKporaTE /IiEya 3&#39; Zf3paXcv, E&#39;v 3&#39; aipa /.E00o77 aPKTOV fIJOL?70EV
Xa0TLavXEva, 077/a-a ~alv&#39;cov. It is highly probable that by the
&#39;lion&#39; in these passages a panther is really meant, for that is the
animal usually. represented in works of ancient art referring to

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209

Dionysus; as may be seen in the two representations of tlhe
doom of Pentheus in this volume (e. g. on p. 68).
For 7rvpL(fy&#39;7wv 6pair-Oa Xlcov cf. Milton&#39;s P. L. 4, 399-402,
where in the account of the transformations of Satan into a lion,
a tiger, a toad, and a serpent, the first is described in the
words:-about them round A lion now he stalks with fiery
glare. The resemblance may of course be accidental, but
Milton was a careful student of Euripides and may possibly
have been thinking of the present passage.
Mr Tyrrell brackets 8paKov, and thereby places between the
definite references to the &#39;bull&#39; and &#39;lion&#39; a vague allusion to
&#39;some many-headed monster,&#39; a collocation which strikes one as
particularly improbable.
For X;v, cf. Hor. Carm. 2, 19, 23, Rhoetmn retorsisti leonzis
unguibus horribilique mala; also Nonnus, 40, 43 60, dvr&#39; Avalov i
7roptaXtv aloXovorov eyrraiarTovra KtXaVOd&#39;.LOaLvoFevov 86 XEovTroS
f7r&#39;eyolaL avXeva rETfiveiV Kal pacr0v avrt Xeovros ogbiv baac7rXqra
8oKEv0O, and the following lines; where his transformation into a
bear, a boar, a bull, and even into fire and water, are given in
full detail, in an account of his contest with king Deriades.
1020. The MS has Orlpaypora, the Aid. ed. Orlpaypera, Sch6ne,
6Op&#39; dyposora, Nauck OSrpaypeTra (gen.?), while Kirchhoff says,
&#39;malim Oqp&#39; aypevrav! Mr Tyrrell with much probability suggests
the insertion of 0ip, which might easily have dropt out before
the following word; this is supported by the preceding reference
to the various transformations in which the god was expected to
appear, and by the contrast thus brought out between the Op
(Dionysus) and Pentheus the huntsman of the Bacchanals.
Paley considers yEXCYvrt 7rpoo-rrip a &#39;gloss&#39; on some such word as
yEXv, and proposes the following dochmiacs as satisfying the
sense and the metre; l0&#39;, 3 3caKXE, Ofp&#39; aypevrav f3aKxav yeXcv
7r&#39;ptl3aXE 13poXov OavacfLoJlov Is ayeyXav rirEo&#39;r&#39;a Tav /uatvdPav. Xe
should thus be able to take davdia-iov naturally with 3p6Xov. cf.
Aesch. Suppl. 788, FLoprlo-ov /3poXov.-I cannot understand Oqrpaypevra 3aaKXfi (Nauck) if it is taken as Dor. gen.; it is possibly
meant for a voc.; but if so, the last syllable would be short.7reaovra is the reading of the MS and may be understood as acc.
S. B. 14

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2 10

&#39;A CCI4 E.

(I020
The

after the general sense of 7replakaXe fpoXov=a&#39;Lpe, Matthiae (or
&#39;XLo-K, Hermann). &#39;Cf. Aesch. Pers. 914, eoV-tUra, and Choeiph.
411, Soph. Et. 480, Ar. Av. 47&#39; (R. Shilleto).
1026. 8j4,os) We should naturally expect a genitive after
yala, which seems rather bald if left standing by itself. Hence
Elmsley, who holds that, if the text is sound, the order is, os
(fFos ev yala Errepe rTO YrJyEVES paKo-vroS bpos, &#39;who in the land
of the serpent sowed the dragon&#39;s earth-born crop,&#39; proposes
%ApeoS E&#39;v ya&#39;a, comparing Aesch. S. C. T. I05, rrpo;tao-EL, 7raXaiXfwv "Aptr?, rav rEav Cyav; also Phoen. 66I 8paiKwv "ApEos (which
however would be rather in favour of making "Apeoc genitive
after paiKovror), and ib. 941, Ka&#39;L/ w7raXaLiv "Apeosr K JirIvtiarwv,
US y7Y7feve apaKOvrT 7tLcopEl ( OVov. Paley and others (comparing
avOr K 7rpoLnt) take pagKovros o&#39;(eos together, and consider the
combination to be all the more admissible on the ground that
pJdaKcW was originally a participial epithet of the snake. yevos,Pev 06 4Vis, e8os e3 6 0paKtov, Schol. on Orest. 479.
1028. XpOcrToroL SouoXoLs ovut4opd Trd siso-&#39;roTr v is also found in
liMed. 54, where it is followed by the words, KaiKo 7rtirvovra KCa
fpev3v OavbairerTaL. rT. Ti rTrorT1V, standing by itself, is vague, and
requires some such expression as that in the Medea, to help it
out; hence it is not improbable that the line is an interpolation.
There is no difficulty in the ending XX&#39; ouos, standing by itself,
as may be seen by comparing Hec. 842, Or. I023, Ar. Ach. 956,
402, 408 (where Euripides, in reply to the words atXX&#39; daivvarov,
gives the answer aXX&#39; o5/os).
1031. Probably a dochmiac line; the metre may be restored
by printing either Oeos o-v (with Sch6ne) or repeating Oeos (with
Hermann). 1034-5, dochmiacs; eiva is fer. sing.
1036. The conclusion of the line is lost, unless we suppose it
is intentionally cut short by the excited protest of the chorus.
The drift of the messenger&#39;s remark is that the women of the
chorus need not exult over the death of Pentheus, as though
Thebes could boast no men beside lhimz, to make slaves of
them, now that the king himself was dead. Cf. Soph. O. C. 9I7,
KU.L o 7rO6XLV KevavLpov 7) aov aV Eva e&#39;6o~a flvaL KTay t&#39; Loov rW
(&WP. 1038. IELV = aou, power, authority, &#39;over me.&#39; 1039.

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211

ewr&#39; eLp-yyacevoLs, &#39;we must forgive thee; save, it is not noble, Ye
dames, to joy o&#39;er ills past all repair.&#39; Aesch. Ag. 1379, Soph.
Ai. 377.
1043. At this point begins the second Messenger&#39;s speech,
one of the most brilliant pieces of narrative in all extant Greek
poetry. Its opening portion has before now been referred to as
a &#39;description of scenery disclosing a deep feeling for nature&#39;
(Humboldt&#39;s Cosmos II note 12); it will be observed, however,
that the element of the picturesque is confined to a line and a
half, jv 8&#39; ayKos aFdL(lKPuivov iv3aoctv 8Ltacpoxov, rEVKatncL (-vcTKlaov
(1051). But as a vigorous and rapid narrative, displaying great
powers of clear and graphic description, it would be hard to find
its rival. See further in Ittrod. ~ 5.
1043. Oeprvacs, &#39;homesteads&#39;; av&#39;Xvev, TraOfiol (Hesychius).
So also in Tro. 213, ratv eXOlo-rav Oeparrvav &#39;EXiyar, Herc. F. 370,
HIrXtdae Oeparrval. It was also the name of a place in Boeotia,
mentioned in Strabo IX 409 A, (of the parts about the Asopus,)
Ev 8e ri7 Orjraiv ecal Kal ai OepdrrvaL Kai d TevpEo&#39;-osr,-in Miller
and Grove&#39;s Ancient Atlas it is doubtfully placed not far from
the road from Thebes towards the pass of Phyle and near a
small northern tributary of the Asopus, along which a route is
marked leading across the Asopus and ascending a southern
tributary of the stream, and thus reaching a &#39;little rocky table
height overlooking the river,&#39; which is identified by Leake with
Scolus; it was near this last place, according to Strabo (p. 408),
that Pentheus met his doom. There were other places named
Therapne (e. g. in Laconia), and some prefer considering it to be
a name of a place here; but it may be remarked that there is no
authority for such a place in Boeotia except the passage of
Strabo, who may be thinking of the very passage before us; if
however we take it as the name of the place, r7F(rOe OjB3at&#39;a
X6ovos becomes superfluous, as the rustic messenger cannot be
supposed to be anxious to prevent the Asiatic women, whom he
is addressing, from supposing that he could possibly mean a
place in any other part of Greece, such as Laconia.
1044. erePqi.Ev pods) so in Iierc. F. 82, yaTasv a pt&#39; av eki3ailEJ,
Sallust lug. IIo, 8, flumen non egrediar, Liv. ItI 57, Io, rizsquanz urbemz egrederentur, Tac. A wI. I 5 I, evasere silvas.
14 — 2

Page  212
212 I 2 CCrIIA. (1048
1048. ~roLTIpoV:toIEv vc&#39;ros) &#39;we halted in a grassy glade,&#39;
described as a evXeipos vacrr7 in 1084. &#39;The lower region of
Cithaeron here (i.e. above Plataea) consists, partly of steep
swelling banks, covered with green turf of a richness and smoothness such as I scarcely recollect having observed in any other
district of rugged Greece, or with dense masses of pine forest;
partly of rocky dells, fringed with brushwood or stunted oaks&#39;
(Col. Mure&#39;s Tour in Greece I 264). Doubtless many a spot
might be found on the slopes of Cithaeron corresponding with
sufficient closeness to the scene described by Euripides; the
writer just quoted, after translating the first ten lines of this
speech, adds: &#39;here we have as graphic a description as can
be desired of the site of the little village of Kokla, immediately
above the ruins of Plataea, in the centre of an open bank of
smooth green turf, overhung with pine forest,&#39; u. s. p. 266. The
legendary scene of the doom of Pentheus was, however, more to
the East, in the lonelier parts of the mountain-side; according to
to Strabo, above quoted, at Scolus.
1049. &#39;With noiseless footfall and with silent tongues,
That we might see, unseen the while ourselves.&#39;
It seems best to take anrro with yXo-o-r,?, and not with
a-c&#39;ovres (by tmesis). Instead of Ka;, we might have expected a
repetition of rd re.
1051. &#39;There was a rock-girt glen, with rivulets watered,
With stone-pines over-shadowed.&#39; Cf. Seneca Oedipi fragm.
12-18, ibo ibo qua 5iraerupta rrotendit iziga meus Cithaeron…
qua per obscurum nemus silvamnque otacae zallis instinctas deo
egit sorores mater et gaudens malo vibrante fixum praetulit
thyrso caput; id. Oedipus 543, est frocul ab urbe lucus ilicibus
niger, Dircaea circa vallis irriguae loca; and, for Ovid&#39;s
description of the scene, Afet. III 707, monte fere rmedio est,
cingentibus ultima silvis, purus ab arboribus spectabilis
unIdique campus.
1052. o-urKLtdov) lit. &#39;thick-shading,&#39; with no ace. Actually
expressed. The participle is thus virtually equivalent to an
adjective, just as we find umbrans for umbrosus in Seneca,
Here. f&#39;rels 722, ingllns domus umbrante lzico tegitur.-Mr
Paley well contrasts tile &#39;spiry pyramidal outline of the silver

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/VOTES.

2I3

fir&#39; (EXdar7) with the &#39;wide and dense crown&#39; formed by the
spreading boughs of the stone-pine (rrEVKt&#39;).
The pines of Cithaeron are often mentioned by travellers;
e.g. Leake&#39;s Northern Greece II 369 (after indicating the probable
site of Scolus), &#39;we soon afterwards&#39; (while still ascending the
steep side of Cithaeron) &#39;enter a ravine between two ridges of
the mountain, answering exactly to the description given by Euripides…except that the pine-forests do not now extend below the
higher parts of the mountain.&#39; With the description of natural
scenery in the text, we may compare part of fragm. Io68, (of
Laconia) 7roXXqrv i.LEV Uporov70 EK7T0ovv &#39; o0 pda3ov&#39; KOIXrq yap opEOt
IreplpoioS rpaXelad re aUCvEcl/3oXoss BT roXeF/to…, (of Messenia)
KaXXlKap7rov…KaTappvrov re,vplotLo vaYLaaL. This passage was
probably in the mind of the Scholiast on Hephaest. p. 87. 32, Pauw,
who quotes the present line, 8*&#39; ayKos Vi/&#39;KplPvov, opEo1 7rep(apotIov.
1055. KLoCo-&#39; Koi&#39;rTnv, proleptic, &#39;were garlanding afresh A
faded thyrsus till it curled with ivy,&#39; fragm. 202, E&#39;vov Ue OaXa/Aots
/3ovKoXov…K o v r a K t off CTrXONoV Elov Oveo.
1056. Madvig, adv. I 235, writes: &#39;mira comparatio Baccharum cum pullis iugum relinquentibus (et labore fessis); and
quo pertinet in hac comparatione iugi (veri) cognomen 7roLKiXa?
scribendum al 8&#39; Eft7rXKovcat TrotKiX&#39; Jr 7rcXot wvyad, hoc est
multiplices variosque serentes ordines.&#39; But a troop of young
colts let loose from the yoke, might be fresh and frisky enough
to warrant the simile in the text, and the text is defended by
Ou. 45, 7rrTa popaicov, 7rW3Xov c&#39; dan&#39; ~vyov. 7roLKXa is only an
ornamental epithet, as in cipiara 7rotiKXa T xaXKC, often found in
Homer, R. 4, 226; IO, 322, 393, and (without XaXK6) 5, 239; 13,
537; 14, 431; I0, 50I1, rotKiXou EK flqpoto. An Epic usage need
not surprise us in an dyyeXov "pr;o-&#39;.
1060. The;MS has o-ot vowov, and Henry Stephens&#39; fraudulent statement that he found o-aov and fiowov in his pretended
"Italian MSS" has led critics astray and suggested a number of emendations founded on the supposition that there
was real authority for those readings. Mr Tyrrell has done
good service by restoring the reading o2 the only existing

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tB CCHAE.

(ro6o

MS and proposing the emendation o&#39;o-o-ov for go&#39;o,, pointing out
that the same copyist has seven times in this play made the
same mistake of writing a- for ro-o, or v for vv. His emendation
presupposes that (o-otvoOcV was mis-written for oa-oivLroOav. For
the use of the word v&#39;Oor, he quotes Nonnus 46, 207, where
Pentheus says: pq86 8aFirvat Baraapitcov reov vla vuOatis raXaPO(rLv eaors, and compares 7rXaa-ralot 3a<XEiatLrt (218), to which
I may add from the same speech of Penthleus, rpoqaoa-v,Elv
Ws a8 MaLvaSais OvocrKOovs (224). I accept Mr Tyrrell&#39;s proposal,
with a slight preference however in favour of oo-oots voiowv, as
being a more frequent form than o&#39;o-"coty, and a more euphonious combination than that given by the concurrence of the
double v, which might cause a slight difficulty in the delivery
of the passage.-i LKvEatOaL c. gen. is found in El. 612.
1064. On the silver-fir, a characteristic tree of Cithaeron, cf.
note on 38. At Corinth, Pausanias was shewn two rude images
of Dionysus, gilded all over except the face, which was dyed
red: these, he was assured, were made at the command of an
oracle, from the wood of the tree which Pentheus climbed when
he went to spy out the Maenads (IlI 2 ~~ 6, 7).
1065. KcnrTyeV, ^yEv, ~yevj &#39; He caught by the tip a soaring
branch of fir, And tugged it down, down, down, to the dark
ground.&#39; In Greek where the sense of a compound verb has
to be given afresh, it is often only the simple verb that is
actually repeated (tlec. I68, dc7roXerar&#39; cXe&#39;ar&#39;, Med. 1252).
The repetition of,yEv where zve should probably prefer to
repeat the preposition, well expresses (as already remarked by
Reiske and Paley) the successive efforts to bend the branch
down to the earth; so in Nonnus 46, 152, Kopv!3Lov Xetpl
7refc)V fEls r&#39; E rreov s r v elKE, Cf. Cjiristus patiens 660, ovpavo8poto )6coX dvoyov, &#39;yov,,ryov eLs aKpov roE&#39;oS, where otpavo8po6/I and acipov have been apparently suggested by OVpaVLov
&Kpov in 1064.
Fronto de eloquentia, p. I48 Naber (thinking apparently of
this scene, as represented by some such rendering as that of
Attius), quin erzie le el extol/e, et tortores istos, qui le ut

Page  215
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2 1 5

aldetenm aid alnu;nt firocerant inciurvanzt et ad c/iamaetorl(T
detraliuit, va//do cacuitiine excitte (Ribbeck on AttIuS Bacchae
XIX, quoted on 982).
1066. On K-UKXo03T0, cf. note on 767, vt&#39;4tavro. —&#39;FEen like
a bow it bent, or rounded wheel, When peg and cord mark
out its curve&#39;d disk.&#39; The r&#39;npvog is an instrument used to mark
out a circumference by means of a string, with one end made
fast at a centre, and a piece of chalk or lead at the other. the
passage refers to the gradual process by wvhich the circumference is described. It is important to notice the present
participle ypac/5pllvov, as this allows us to conceive of only an
arc of the whole circumference being, marked out on the wood
of the future wheel; the tip of the lofty branch is brought
down not to the roots of the tree, but to the ground at some
distance from the stem. In a fragment, however, of the
Thesezis, 385, an unlettered slave describes the shape of 0 in
the lines, KVIKX o r tvr cO J-0Opv~ct0LV EK/LETpOV/IEV09, OV7-9 8. Clxet
0?7/LEiov Ev piaop ua/~iv, where the present participle appears to
be somewhat loosely used. Mr Tyrrell in a long, but particularly serviceable, note has collected passages bearing on the
meaning of 7r0pvog (Gycl. 66i, 7&#39;r&#39;pvEv&#39; E&#39;XKIE, Hdt. IV 36 and Plat.
Phill. 5&#39; c); to these may be added Plat. Gritias, I I 3 D, Uvo /.aJ/
&#39;Y~g 9aXa&#39;rrg 86 r9Eig (rpoXo?&#39;g) o&#39;LOV TOPVEVCOV E K /IEOq. ~&#39;7Vl
mnioov, Tim. 33 B, 8to Kal oudapo~taf&#39;., EK ILEdOV 7dra&#39;j~ 7rpo
rag TCXEV7aL9 L(ov (IWeXOV, KVKXorEp1F&#39; avuTo&#39; EopvEvmaroT, Aristot.
de imundo P. 391 b 22, 7-o 8& o-L40-~Lavroq oV&#39;paoVZ T1E Kal K60-1I0V
o-(aLpoEuLov o&#39;VT09 KaL KLVOV/LEVOV… &#39;VEIIEXEXO), 8lVO aKLv?7Ta.
a~va&#39;yK?7P EO-TL urqfleta KaravrtKpV a&#39;xXTJXCOV, Ka~ca7Jep T7E~ E&#39;v T-0pV(C)
(a lat/he-c/iisel, here and below) KVKX(4OPOVtLE&#39;JV?7 o-jaipag, and
Aesch. fragm. 54,f30143uK1EV 7-o&#39;pvov K&#39; I~r.ASO, Theognis 805,
TpOV Kat 71VKa" Vv &#39;ov~ovlvoEazpa Oeo~pOV, Plat. P/ill. S6 B,
where it is mentioned, with the KaJI6~i, ata/34i-r and o-7rd.01nL7,
among the tools of the builder&#39;s art in general and Of $vJXOVPYtK&#39;
in particular. Hesychius has To&#39;p0VoV i&#39;pyaXe1ov TrEKTO0Vtk0&#39;V CO&#39; Ta(,urp~y~yvXa oXi7)a-ra. 73EpLypk1baqov~tv (in Bliimner&#39;s Techno/ogle II
232, a reference is further given to &#39;Dionys. Perieg. 157 and
Eust. ad h. 1.).

Page  216
216

BA CCHfAE.

(0o67

XAKEL (corrected into EXKy,) ap4Lov is the reading of the Ms,
which is altered by Reiske into iXLKOspO/Lov (accepted by
Dindorf and Nauck) and into gXKiepopov by Scaliger, who is
followed by Tyrrell. The former of these compounds finds its
parallel in such words as XLKo/SXe(fapos (Hes.), EXtKo/3cTrrpvxos
(Ar.), and EXLKOG+ (Iliad), and it actually occurs in Orph. H. 8, Io;
the formation of the latter, of the actual use of which there is
no example, is supported by XKFXLTrOIo, often used in the Iliad
(e.g. 13, 685); and both of these epithets, supported as they
are by Epic analogies, may be defended on the ground that in
messengers&#39; speeches an Epic colouring is quite in place. the
author of the Christus patiens in the line already cited has the
epithet ovpavopo6/p, which was suggested to him partly by opa&#39;VLOV in 1. Io64, and partly possibly (as Mr Tyrrell suggests) by
some compound epithet of the same formation in the present
ligne. The main objection to eXKcL IpoILov is, that accepting it
involves taking 0are with a finite verb (cooarE=o; being chiefly
Epic), and that, even so, the verb applies to the wheel alone and
not to the bow. The only instance I can find in Tragedy is Soph.
Trach. 12, a(r &#39; caKaCaVros t Ndrov &#39; Bopia Lrs Kv/iara… &#39;3ry, orIM.
For similar comparisons in Euripides, suggested by various
forms of handicraft, cf. Hzi5p. 468 (Kavcv), Cycl. 460 (rpv5avov),
and fragm. Erechth., 362, 12, dpioS irovrqpos OOr7rEp ev iVXC
7rayELs.
The latest suggestion as to the interpretation of the passage
is that made by Mr E. S. Robertson in Herma/zhena III p. 387,
where the instrument referred to is understood to be probably a
lathe of the kind still in use in the North-west provinces of
India, the working of which he describes as follows: A stout
pole of some elastic wood is fixed into the wall, so as to project
at right angles, with its thinner end free. To this end is attached a string, which is brought down and fastened to a pin
in the drum of the lathe. The workman then attaches the
block of timber which is to be turned into a wheel; and he
drags this round…until the string is coiled round the drum
as many times as it will go. This of course bends down the
pole, which is the process described by KVKXoCro… His sug

Page  217
i j r. I c; – – – I~ I P,. ~ -7&#39;, 1II XI-C-ll~*~r C:t —.F11i C —d*_-r8": ~-.,. – ~Csl, l.- c-J-h-*

-1084) VNOTES. 217
gestion is that the simile in the text is taken from the slow
bending of the pole in the process of coiling the string.
1068. dls) An Epic and Ionic use, not frequent in Tragedy.
Aesch. Ag. 930, L 7rdivra 8&#39; Ws rrpda&#39;a-otpv, Soph. O. C. 1242,
~s rs…S Ktal (chor.), Eur. El. I55, ota 8e rtL…S o-~ (chor.).
Mr Tyrrell however prefers cs, taking it as equivalent to ore,
but this would give us a somewhat straggling sentence.
KXAov&#39;…-KaCLLrrT) cf. S ivL o rL7-VoKa/.Lrrjs, Pausan. II I ~ 4, 6
ya)Tcrqs 2mivL Xauj3avoLE~vov 7FLrTUVov 7ryev eS TO Kro o(f&#39;i 07rO&#39; (rov
e!adXyr KparTq7iev, air aurcov a qITav aflrKE aE v ra EvuipOa avow
qS;epe^t.i.
1072. &#39;Gently, for fear the steed should throw his rider,&#39;
dvcaaLrTo&#39;ELE, which is strictly applicable to a horse rearing and
throwing off his rider (Hizp. 1232, Rhes. 786), is here metaphorically applied to the tree on which Pentheus was seated.
The same metaphor is kept up in 1074, varois and II07, 7ro
dafLDarrjv.
1073. &#39;It slowly rose aloft to the lofty air.&#39; The epithet
OpO) is thoroughly applicable to the EXTarq and has already been
applied to the 3Xam-rrq.a (1071); but it is only by a kind of attraction used of the aWrjp. Similarly, for the sake of symmetry,
we find in Soph. El. 742, c;povo&#39; o rXiLcov op6os et$ OpOIv
&(fpwov, where Jebb quotes Phil. 682, &#39;/os rOv &#39;So-oLs davp.
1076. oorov oVirwo 8Xos r)v…Kal) &#39;Scarce was he seen upon
his lofty seat, when…&#39; This use of Ka&, for,Te, is a construction
common in the simple style of Epic poetry, as infr-a 1082, Kal
7rpov ovpavov.
1080. We may regard opyia as acc. either after nrOeevov,
with yeXoAv in apposition to it; or (better) after the single notion
comprised in the words yeXcov rTeAevov.
1083. "Twixt heaven and earth He raised a pillar bright of
awful flame.&#39; Cf. supra 972, n.
1084. a-iytl-cr 8&#39;alieqp) An undoubted instance of the omission of the augment, which Porson endeavoured to remove

Page  218
218 BA CCHAE. (I084
by the suggestion, &#39;trannspsitioone leni retpolr, aWl&#39;p ~&#39; eilya
(Kidd&#39;s tracts p. I90). Cf. supra 767, n.
1084. EUXELLos vcirj) the 7rot7poiv varos of 1048; the epithet
apparently does not occur elsewhere, but it is equivalent to
Homer&#39;s EVXElcov (Od. 4, 607). The author of the Christus
patiens, 2260, who includes this line in his cento, has VXt/ioS
ca7nr7, where the epithet is equally unexampled, but strikes one
as eminently prosaic. Possibly it was due to some error of
ear on the part of the copyist of the Chr. iatienss. Dindorf
actually prints it in his last edition.
1087. 8LiveyKCav Kopas, &#39;stared this way and that&#39;; bizarrement
enough, Kopat is immediately after used in another sense.
1090. rijcroves…gXovoraL are the readings of the MS. the
former makes fair sense, lit. &#39;they rushed forth, not inferior to
any dove in swiftness,&#39; and Exovorai may then be taken absolutely,
&#39;holding on their way, with eager runnings of feet.&#39; To simplify
the constr. of e&#39;ovU-am, atr-ova has been proposed (by Heath), and
as an alternative we have the obvious suggestion, rpeovo-at, or
pa,/Lovoat (Sch6ne and Hartung), supported by C/hr. iat 2015,
OLFaLt, frEcXEla COKVTr7T X TvjaToves 7ro0ov pafoIcrTL vvrovoLs
3potrxtatrtiv.
The simile was perhaps suggested by Iliad 5, 778, al 8e
fa&#39;rrv rp)jpi(pcoL 7rEXELta&#39;Iv 1&#39;ziaO o/Loiat, cf. Soph. 0. C. Io8i,
aEXXala TaXvppoTrov 7TrEXcias&#39;.-For avvrovoIs 8pos/ptao-t, cf. 872
crvvreivl 8poyJlFqa.
1093. &#39;Through the torrent-glen, O&#39;er the rocks they leapt,
inspired by heaven-sent madness.&#39; Cf. Aesch. P. V. 884, Xvao-orrrvkevizart Ldpyco. Sir Thomas Wyse says, in describing the
route from Plataea to Athens through &#39;the inner foldings of
Cithaeron,&#39; &#39;various small torrent-beds seam the green of the
fir-forest, yet in vigour here. Now and then we caught sight of
a dizzy pathway and…sundry mysterious recesses ran up the
glens, amidst half-burnt trunks and knotted roots. Later, the
mountain faces began to close upon each other, and to present
scenery, in its more forest-like character of rock and tree, for
the legends of Oedipus and Pentheus&#39; (Inzpressions of Greece
p. 198).

Page  219
— II14)

O TES.

219

1096. avroZ…ppLriov) Cycl. 5, ptI;io 7TerpOV Taxa aov, I/h.
T. 362, ocras yEvFLov XEL&#39;op pa E5KOVtLa.
1099. 0upo-ovs tEcrav.. IEvOE&#39;os, c-rTOov 8uo-Trrlvov) The constr. of
the gen. is the same as that illustrated in the last note. o-6xov
(Reiske&#39;s excellent emendation for r&#39; oJXo) So&#39;Trqvov, is in general
apposition to the sense of the previous sentence. Cf. 9, 30, 250,
1232, Or. 499,727, H. ). 323, HZipI. 81 5 (Kiihner Gk. Gr. ~ 406, 6).
1101. &#39;For far aloft, beyond their eager reach, He sat, a
poor, perplexed and helpless captive.&#39; Aesch. Ag; I376, -6V&#39;vS
KpElfOTro EK7rrjfJQLaTos.
1103. &#39;At last they strove by shattering (riving) oaken boughs,
To up-tear the roots, with bars —but not of iron.&#39; orvyKepavvooLra,
Archil. 79, avyKEpaVV0oE&#39;l, &#39; thunder-stricken&#39;; Cratinus ap.
Athen. 494, ro0s Ka&srgKovs -vyKepavvoa)o o-Troacov. —acrtiLpoLs is a
&#39;limiting epithet&#39; which makes it possible to transfer 1xoXXoLt
from its primary meaning of &#39;iron crowbars&#39; to its metaphorical
application to the boughs of tough oak here used to prise up the
branches of the fir on which Pentheus is seated. On such
epithets see Cope on Arist. Rhiet. III 6 ~ 7.
1106. cJpE…XdaLpEcr) This combination of the singular with
the plural imperative is also found with cTye, lae, and ci-E&#39;, and
may be explained by regarding the singular imperative as a
stereotyped form which, owing to constant use in everyday life,
came to be treated as an uninflected interjection. Od. 3, 475,
7raaegs fJio0, ayF TqXEzacXl KaXXlrpLtXas &#39;TrovS ev;ar&#39;, Soph. Trach.
821, t&#39; olov c rraiFs K.r.X. Ar. Ac/I. 318, Erl /LOL, rT <aJI6eLaeOa
rTv Xi6Ov, J (E8rqo&#39;rat (Kdhner Gk. Gr. ~ 371, 4 a).
1108. Agave&#39;s fanciful description of the spy as some beast
astride the silver-fir, is intended to lead up to the sequel where,
in her growing frenzy, she regards the head of her own son as
that of a lion. For 1110, cf. Hor. Caim. 3, 25, 15-I6.
1113. For rhetorical effect, the name of Pentheus is reserved
to the end of the sentence, and the pause, at so early a point as
the end of the first foot of the line, is admirably adapted to
express the sudden fall. Milton P. L. 6, 912 (quoted by Joddrell), Firm they mzight have stood, Yet fell.
1114. lepia) infra 1246, KaXkov rT Kvpa… For the pitrpa, cf. 833.

Page  220
2 20

PACCH14E.

r I 1 2 0
The

1120. &#39;Do not, for all;ny errors, slay illy son.&#39;
1124. oW38 9bELOE vL-v) The subject of the preceding and the
succeeding clauses here becomes the object of the short intervening sentence.
1125-1130. Imitated by Theocritus 26, 22, &#39;Iv(cL&#39; 8&#39;EEPq,
oVv WpioXr~ar ILE&#39;yav (i)FLov MI$ E7T&#39;L yno(TTEp)C /3aioa, Nonnus 44, 68
r)/LTO/1wV UEVOTJOV EpELa-aLE&#39;V,7 7ro&#39;8aXa/&l.TX
1128. &#39;But the god himself lightened her handiwork&#39;; this
is added to shew that it was only by supernatural power that
she was able to wrench the shoulder off the body. &#39;No human
force, observes Dr Joddrell, &#39;unaided by artificial instruments
can ever detach the tenacious adhesion of the sinews and
tendons of the human body.&#39;
1129. Ovid M1et. III 722, dexrtizamque Pirecanztis abstulit;Inzoo lacerata est allera rabztu.
1131. &#39;Nihil ex illo 4Ebir-EXE efficias ad Bacchas reliquas aptum.
Scrib. 6&#39;reiye (sic), urgebat et incitabat&#39; (Madvig). The Attic
form would of course have been?rEyand the middle yT7Telyero
would have been more natural than the active. E&#39;7rJiXE, instabat
(Heraci. 847, Honi- Gd. 22, 72, E&#39;7r&#39; 6&#39; aih-op wa&#39;vTre "EcottEv), makes
good sense:-&#39;Autonoe and all the crowd Of Bacchanals pressed
sure.
1132. In apposition to the sense implied in iJv Si wira&#39;a dj.Loi
Po~j (= v 3 pcov, we have 6 Ij.v O&#39;,rwitcaov, and (by a slight change
of construction, as in Her-aci. quoted below) cd 6&#39; AMXcLXov,
instead of at&#39; 8&#39; dXaXai~ovo-at. For examples of the implied subject
split up into its component parts, and each of those parts placed
in the norn. in apposition to that implied subject, cf. Aesch..P. V. 201, orTaOLI T&#39; e&#39;V a&#39;X&#39;X?7XOLGtV cipo6JVEro, OaL Uv OE&#39;Xo~rvre-.oi
87-rov`LmraXLV 01MEV6OVTE9, Soph. Ant1. 260, Xon-yot 6&#39; E&#39;v A&#39;XX,&#39;Xoto-tv,,peo 0VV KIKOL, 4~U&#39;Xa~ E&#39;XE&#39;y)(cav jHUXaKa, Eur. Hera~ct. 40, 8voiw
-yep~wrtOv IE&#39; Grrpa-rt-yfira (~vyq7, E&#39;y&)IiV….Ka-yyaLV&)V….7 6&#39; aii…
Oa(EL P11o,&#39;n. I462, Xen. Hell. 11 2 ~ 3, 01 g. &#39;?o-rv &lI7EVi,0
ITE O vC. ITf~ UrpayXov (Kiihner Gk. Gr. 493, )
1134. -yupjvoiv&#39;ro) on the omission of the augment, see note
on 767. For uZrots dpf~uXc.zs, cf. 946.

Page  221
— 1147) NOTES. 221I
1136. 8LEa4~a~pLtE) Nonnus 43, 5&#39;, 7roXvo-rrpocJI&#39;Xty-yt UI pL7r1~
UfJOtov Eo- (/Jaipcor (E&#39;, aE&upa &Cviya xXO~v (cf. 740).
Philostratus, under the title BWKXaL, describes a picture
which had for its subject the revels on Cithaeron; I extract
his account of that portion of the painting in which the death
of Pentheus was represented (EIKd PIEV i1 i8, P. 394-790):
7E&#39;ypairatcv ~46&#39;, w irau, Kal -r& ev 743 KtGatp~oa, BaLKXCZP XOPOI KcU
UflOLPOL 7T~Tpat Kat VEKTap~ CK 3orpV&#39;WP KclL CI( -yci&#39;XaK7t r 7&#39;7v /%Aov ~ y
Xoralu E, Kali 1e~ou, K47TT6( C&#39;P~ret Kal 601eig o&#39;p 0 1 Kal 06O-pOt KcUL&#39;b&#39;~
01/JaL, /(Xt OcrtSa&#39;OVTC. KCal,jI G-M -q 6 a~i XaLc VCLKVpy ECK
Atoiv6ov lie&#39;yc, 7T67PTrJKE 86 TO&#39;P IIEVO&K adocICeu&a-zq rc~sh BabK~aus iv
~i~c~AE&#39;Q1OS, O 86 M aiCovntL TO 6-pazpa u &#39;jT-p EKIEL&#39;Vq Ka MU xa
g ~ovat Aofv aropp&#39;rylvuoat TaET xe~pag,? 6~ C7FLo-Woo- TOPv vLO&#39;P T771.
XaIt7?1q. ELTOLS 8&#39; a6, Lb)S Kad aiXaXaL~ovo-tV, OV"TWS EaLop avUT~S TO&#39; &#39;CuTOAc.
ALO&#39;UCoS 8 aurTOIS /EVp 6V WEW7q 7 TO6TLWP ECrTqKeP 6/~LTX )G5aCL7-TP rapetuv
x6ov, TdVp 86GG/O&#39; ol-pvrpO~jCZKXEUOTa5 TCaL( -yvPatL~i 01)TE 6pi~00. -YOO&#39; TC&
3pc64rva, KatU 6owac (KeTEV&#39;EL 6 HEVOEVs, XVOPTOs dKOOUEL boU4 &VpXW4,0dvo.
On the death of Pentheus, as a theme of ancient art, see the
descriptions of the illustrations, printed at the end of the&#39; In/rod.
1139. o&#39; 08 r&#39;LBov jtrrLcL) For the acc. in apposition to the
previous sentence, cf. Iloo.
1140. Hor. Sal. 2, 3, 304, quid? cafiul abscissumn dernenis
curn Jorlta Agave uzair i;ife/icis sibi turm furiosa videlur.
Agave with the head of Pentheus is a not unfrequent subject in
works of ancient art; she is generally represented as grasping it
by the hair, instead of holding it aloft transfixed on the point of
her thyrsus as in the present passage. See woodcut on P. 73.
1144. An/ia/I. p. 87, 29. Iyavp~aV Kalt TOvrO /Le&#39;,L40Y7-a. AqA
7IJEp&#39;L lro? 0reoaivov, EV&#39;p. Ba&#39;KXavv. This may be a careless reference either to -yavpovpCu&#39;Vq here or to -yavpoVAEvog in 1241, or else
some actual part of y1avp~iz may have been used in the lost
portion of the play (infr-a I3oo).-Attius Eacch4. fr. xvii (3),
quanta in vnand adjecta est Zaectiuedine.
1146. &#39;Her fellow-huntsman, who had shared victorious
A chase where tears are all the victor&#39;s meed.&#39; The Ais has (
(referring to adypa~), for which Schdne (after Heath) proposed
17, referring to Agave. He objects to the manuscript reading on
the ground that it throws together the words TOY ~v eyar alypav
TOY IKaXXL&#39;VLKOV&#39; which ought (as he thinks) to be taken separately,

Page  222
222 A2 CCIHAE. (1146
but it may be remarked that if we remove r;v KaXXLVLKov from
royv vvEpydra7v a&#39;ypas, we leave the latter not sufficiently distinguished in sense fiom rOv ~vyKKvayov. —&Kpva is ace.
1150. &#39;But sober sense, and awe of things divine,
I deem the noblest course, and wisest too,
For mortals who indeed that path pursue.&#39;
(TorTarToov KrItia, which is accepted by Nauck and Dindorf
(from Orion), seems to me less intelligible than the manuscript
reading Xp/tLa. —The concluding lines of this brilliant p/r-rtr may
strike some readers as tame by comparison with the rest of the
discours; but we here find the same law holding good as that
which has been observed in the speeches of the Attic Orators,
where the part immediately before the peroration is marked by
an outburst of eloquence which in the present instance finds its
climax in the words / aaKpva zLKr17oopE, while the conclusion
itself is characterized by a calm and severe self-control (cf. note
on Ar. Aghet. III I9 ~ I in Cope&#39;s ed.). &#39;In a Greek speech,…
wherever pity, terror, anger, or any passionate feeling is uttered
or invited, this tumult is resolved in a final calm; et où
such tumult has place in the peroration, it subsides before the
last sentences of all.&#39; Jebb&#39;s Attic O-rators, I p. ciii.
1153. Elmsley ingeniously suggests that the part of Agave
as well as that of the &#39;Second Messenger&#39; may have been
assigned to the same actor, and that the short chorus following
may have been introduced to give him time to change his dress.
In any case, it is clearly a dramatic gain for the messenger to
retire before Agave appears, as he would otherwise either become a K(0ov(V 7rpdoo7roov, or be compelled to enter into a tedious
dialogue with Agave, at a point in the play when the interest
of the spectator is excited to the highest pitch.
1157. &#39;rrio-rv "ALSav) This is explained to mean &#39;a sure
pledge of doom,&#39; and as parallels Schoene quotes Ag. Io86,
iKrTJov &#39;ALBov (of the garment in which Agamemnon was entangled when he received his death-blow), and Soph. Aint. I90,
VVlfU(jLov &#39;At8ov KoLXov (of the vault in which Antigone was imprisoned). But the difficulty is really in the word 7rTLTrov which,

Page  223
-II69)

NO0 TES.

223

in such a connexion, has no parallel except Homer&#39;s ces alr&#39;VS oXE0pos, II. I3, 773 (quoted by Mr Tyrrell). K-crtov &#39;"Atov
might be suggested by 857; but, though this would suit rav
1OXvyevIr aroXav, it is less applicable to the vapdr94 with which
it is more closely connected; PaKTpov&#39; "At8ov would be less open
to objection, as the Bacchic wand is called KLO(TLVOU (KiTrpov
in 363. If an adj. is preferred, 7rpo vrrov "AtSav (suggested by
0. C. I440) would make better sense than T-rtadv. Mr Tyrrell
proposes ETraKTro ACaav (a doom brought on one&#39;s self). Kevrpov
*At8ov might also be proposed as not inapplicable to the raipos
mentioned below; the &#39;ferule with fair shaft&#39; is in the hands
of Pentheus a &#39;fatal ox-goad&#39; before which the phantom form
of the bull Dionysus advances, leading him onward to his doom
(cf. 920). Cf. Nonnus, 14, 243, Kevrop OvpaoS, and anzon. in
Etymologicum magnum (MS Flor.) KE&#39;vropt Bacr-oapiwcv. For
7rporqyrJrFpa, Eur. fragm. 813, TrvqXov…rroy77pyTpOs e?7qprTLevov.
1161. &#39;Glorious is the triumph-song which ye have achieved,
ending in wailing and tears; &#39;tis goodly sport to bathe the
hand in the blood of a son till it drips again.&#39; 1166. Ev sLaoTrpoOLs o&#39;oCrOLs) a peculiar use of ev where a-vv might have been
expected, or where no preposition need have been used. Something like it is found in Soph. P/il. 60, (&#39; Ev XLTrIS oTreLXaveTs,
ib. 102, Ev 8oXp a&#39;yeiv, 7Trach. 886 (Oavarov daao&#39;-ara) e;v Tro/
a-ljpov (Kiihner Gk. Gr. ~ 431 p. 404).
1168. For opOois (used in frag. 337, Ti &#39; a&#39;prt rraroTv
XEXroMa-jirVv dpOoi;) Hermann proposes ri A&#39; opoOvves c; the
Epic word OpoSuvewv is found in Aesch. P. V. 200.
1169. &#39;Lo! from the mountain we bring to the hall a shoot
but newly cut, our happy quarry.&#39; The mother in her frenzy
mistakes the head of her son for a freshly-cut branch of ivy
or vine. This passage is famous in connexion with the historical anecdote told by Plutarch, Crassus 32, 33: —(The Parthian general) Surena sent the head and hand of Crassus to
Hydrodes in Armenia&#39;… (c. 33) &#39;When the head of Crassus
was brought to the door, the tables were taken away, and an
actor of tragedies, Jason by name, a native of Tralles, chanted

Page  224
224

B AC CIJA E.

(I I69

that part of the Bacchae of Euripides which relates to Agave.
While he was receiving applause, Sillaces, standing by the
door of the apartment, and making a reverence, threw the head
of Crassus before the company. The Parthians clapped their
hands with shouts of joy, and the attendants, at the command
of the king, made Sillaces sit down, while Jason handed over
to one of the members of the chorus the dress of Pentheus,
and laying hold of the head of Crassus, and putting on the
air of a bacchant (dvai3aKXxo-ar), he sang these verses with
great enthusiasm:q(ppoIv et Opeos
EtLKa IEoroTOov TTrl /fiXaOpa,IaKaplav Orpav.
This delighted all the company; and while the following
verses were being chanted, which are a dialogue with the chorus,
A. rit;ef)6vvaerv; B. uov rTO yepas,
Pomaxathres (the Parthian who had killed Crassus) springing
up (for he happened to be at the banquetS, laid hold of the
head, deeming it more appropriate for him to say this than for
Jason. The king was pleased, and made Pomaxathres a
present, according to the fashion of the country, and he gave
Jason a talent. In such a farce (;e68tov) as this, it is said, that
the expedition of Crassus terminated, just like a tragedy&#39; (George
Long&#39;s transl., slightly altered).
1180. IJiKaCLP &#39;AyaiCl) Sen.fra^i-m. Phoen. I, Fcisx Agave:
facinus hlorrendiim llm anztz Qua fecerat gestavit uit spoliium caput
Cruenta nati Mlaenas in pfartes dati. If actaip&#39; &#39;Ayavrq is
assigned to the chorus, we must understand the sense to be
continued in the reply KkXt6OEi0&#39; v L0O-COLs, &#39;so they call me
amid the revellers.&#39;
1185. &#39;The whelp is yet young and is just blooming with a
downy cheek beneath its crest of delicate hair.&#39; It is either this
passage, or part of the description of Dionysus in 1. 235, that
is translated by Attius Bacch. 8, ei ianLugo flora nuinc (genas)
demumz inrigant. Nonnus 46, 201, U8pKEo ravra yEgvEa vE6orptXa.
Philostratus in his account of the picture already referred to

Page  225
-1206) NOTES. 225
(Ii39n.), describes the head of Pentheus as veroTarrq Kal aCraXr)
TrVv yevvv Kal 7rvpa7r Ta&#39;s Ko5&#39;as.
aXXEL is Musgrave&#39;s conjecture for aLXXtE, which is intelligible in itself (= f;K&#39;fXXFL, vetL, &#39;putting forth,&#39; Paley), though I
cannot find an exact parallel. For the general sense, cf. Aesch.
S. C. T. 534, O-reiXet &#39; &#39;lovXos Uprt 8ta raprjtwv, upas (voVor,
Tap)vs dvrTeXXovTa Opi$.
1192. 6 ydp avat c&ypcrs) &#39;For the king (Dionysus) is a very
captor,&#39; referring perhaps to Dionysus Zaypevs, cf. fragm. quoted
on 1. 74.
1195. It seems unnatural to assign to the chorus this reference to Pentheus; exultant as they are at the death of the king,
they are not so heartless as to feel no pity for the mother who
has unconsciously caused his death. They call her rXdLcov in
1184, and raXaLva in 1200.
1197. 7replro-dv. wEp&#39;ca&#39;)s) Cho. &#39;booty strange.&#39; Ag. &#39;in
strangest wise.&#39;
1204. 0iqpos depends on Ov (t.ypav).
1205. &#39;Not with the looped darts of Thessaly.&#39; eEo —aaXv
yap EvpprLa To aopv (Schol. on Hripp. 221, crcrakXov opTraKa). Ou.
1477, dyKiXas…iv XEpolv EXcov (where the thong of the javelin,
amenturz, is used for the javelin itself). Aesch. fragm. 14,
Kai 7raXra KadyKvXtra KaL XX8ov 3aX&#39;kv, poet. ap. Ath. 534 E,
fpows Kepavvov 7fyKvX?;Yvos. "The two ends of the strap were
tied round the shaft several times and arranged in a loop,
through which the fingers were put (8rLqyKvXC0evoi, Ovid, Melt.
12, 326, inserit amento digitos). At the moment of throwing
the spear the loop was pulled violently, by means of which the
strap, in being unwound, conveyed to the spear a rotating
movement, similar to that of the missiles of our rifled guns"
(Guhl and Koner, Life of the Gks. and Romanss, p. 242).
1206. XEVKoiriXfE-L XELPUv dlp.CK o-L) a somewhat redundantly
ornate phrase for &#39;the fingers of our fair hands.&#39; Phocen. I351,
XevKO7rTXEL KrV7rovS Xfpoiv, where the adj. logically belongs to the
genitive, as in Aesch C. Co., oIVXEcL Krvbros = KTVOS Odvs
XELPc;v (Kiihner, Gk. Gr. ~ 402, 3).
S. 1. 15

Page  226
2 -1 0

220 r~~~~18A OCLIAF4.

( 1207

1207. K &#39;TCL KOjiirdteL )(PEWV KC.LI %-X0yXOJTLWV O6P&#39;YOVO. KT&LfreaL 11CwqV)
Nauck, feeling the difficulty Of KcOfora(PIFV, transposes ~tiT-qv and
XPECWV (cf. I1ij.5A. 978, K0117wa~wD tzari~v), but an easier, and, I
venture to think, a more conclusive correction would he to
suppose that KANITAKOMTTZEIN is an error of the copyist for
~a raKOTL~LV~KMTAONTZEI. &#39;ust one then hurl- the dart,
and get one armourers&#39; weapons, all in vain? Why we&#39; (in
contrast to those who hunt with darts and lances with such
poor success) &#39;have, with the bare hand alone, captured our
quarry and torn. his limbs asunder.&#39;
1210. Xwplts intensifies the idea of separation in atecoopi~ocaipv
e~qpos howvever is open to suspicion, as, if expressed at all, we
should have expected it in the former clause (cf. however
78I-2). x&#39;opl O1t1pov T has been suggested with much
probability (by Pierson). Nevertheless, Xcopl has already been
used adverbially in 1137.
1212. lEvOEU&#39;s T 1 EJ.s iioX 1ro1J OTLv;) &#39; Cest le trait de notre
Thyeste, s&#39;e&#39;criant, l&#39;horrible coupe dans la main:… mais c~e;Ieydianitf;e voispioiut mioifits&#39; (Patin, Fur. II 261).
1213-5. Plhoei. 489, 7rpoo4~E&#39;pwv 7TV&#39;j)ytoLU 7rl)KTct)V KXLIaKC0V
7rpoOaa/L/3a(TEtg. Nonnus 44, 78, at` 6 o-t,4j3oXa 7ratLo&, &#39;Ay/av&#39;~
7I4/~OV a&#39;pLO.T7T70vWOL TEOU 7,T(rp&#39;OLA~tE ~~,A~OPov, 46, 230, 7rpa
7ro&#39;lXaLa Ul KaBpLov 7r 7$aTE roVTo kafnpqvor, CE/AL77 aivaO &#39;//ara vt&#39;Kq
&#39;The marble lion-head antefixa, which terminate the northern
angles of the western pediments of the Parthenon, and are
usual ornaments in other parts of such a building, indicate
that Euripides has not neglected one of the most pathetic
features of madness-its partial saneness and sense of propriety,&#39; Wordsworth&#39;s Athens and Attica, p. 100, where Vitr. 3,
in cyinis cafitla leonina, sunt scalpenda, is quoted.-For the
custom of setting up the spoils of the chase, or the heads of
slaughtered enemies, outside a building, cf. I5/i. P&#39; 73-5, E$
atpairwv -yo~vJ 6R&#39;jO EXEL OPLyI/KO)jara, Opt-yKO79 6&#39; &#39;Vir&#39; av&#39;roi&#39; 1KIX&#39;
opqav 77j(srr/4Eva; T6V KaTrOav(;vwTIy&#39; a&#39;KpOOliVa $ivwov, Aesch. Aqo
578, OEoL4 XU&#39;Oupa raih-a Troi&#39; KaO&#39; &#39;EXXa"8a &40o&#39;11 &~aqo-oaXEvo-av
dpy~aiuz&#39; -yaivoi. Eur. is probably thinking of the parts between

Page  227
— I 240)

XO TE S.

227

the triglyphs, the square spaces known as metopes, and usually
adorned with images in relief, representations of aa, which
led to this part of the entablature being called the (codopor.
It has however been suggested that, owing to the reference
to the nailing up of the head, wooden triglyphs are here meant,
and this is all the more probable as the triglyphs were originally nothing more than vertically fluted beam-ends, while the
metopes were the vacant spaces between. Iph. T. 1I3, Otc
TpLyXv/qwov o7rot KEVov, and Or. 1366, 7rne~evya…Ke8pcTa 7rao-rdarwv
V7trp rTpepva AcopLKas re TrpyXt&#39;vfovs (Muiller&#39;s Ancient Art,
~ 52, 3).
1216. a0XLov P3capos) Also used by Soph., in El. 1140, of
the remains of Orestes.
1218. In support of the perhaps unnecessary alteration
iodXdov, for ftoX6Owv, Wecklein quotes Iph. A..23o, Aesch. P. V.
90o, and Soph. Ai. 888, in all which passages the possessive
genitive rrovwz is used in a &#39;qualitative&#39; sense.
1221. v{Xi…..SucrvpezTo) &#39;the trackless wood,&#39; a more poetic
reading than Reiske&#39;s 8v(-euperov, or Hermann&#39;s 8veo-vperCo
(an adverb like aVO-(KXVrTWS in Aesch. P. V. 60).
1226. KaCLOavovTa being virtually the passive of KaraKTrivco
(which has no aor. pass. of its own in good Greek) is naturally&#39;
followed by Maia&#39;I&v v7r o.-1229. Spvrots) For the oak copses
of Mount Cithacron, cf. 685.
1231. Iphl. T. 520, e&#39;tr- yap oviro) ovS&#39; a <pavT&#39; rtKKOvare.1232. i oi+V OV evSaCova) in apposition to XEvo-T-o avrTiv, which
is Scaliger&#39;s excellent correction of the prosaic avrsi. —1236.
Cf. I8.
1240. as av&#39; KpEqLaor0) Hermann&#39;s proposal cos ayKpeatao-O, gives us the same constr. as in 1214, gs urao-o-aXevor77. Cf.
fragin. 270 Ereclhth. 7rrXrav rrpos &#39;AOrvas rrEptKlooatv ayKpeFLado-a
ta)faotsr. Hermann&#39;s objection to the ordinary text is that av is
out of place, ut in re mininze dubia. " Mihi nondum exploratum
est," replies Matthiae, " av in dubiis tantum rebus coniunctivo
addi. supra v. 483 verba ws al cO-KOTLOv eLo-opa KVEavs reddere
nolim cum Hermanno, ul, si libet, tenebras adspiciat. nam
qui in obscuro carcere inclusus est, tenebras adspicere debet.
15-2

Page  228
228

BA C C HA.

(1240

sive ei libeat, sive non libeat. et hoc loco negare tamen poterat
pater, quod filia petebat."
1251. SVrKoXov) &#39; crabbed&#39;; the line is quoted by Stobaeus.
1253-5. EiV9rpos E&#39;il…oT&#39;…9Olp(3v OpLyvT&#39;.r) &#39;Oh that my son
might be as lucky as his mother whene&#39;er amid (a troop of)
Theban youths he goes a hunting.&#39; "Quum dicit opLyvcro, non
optyivaraL, ipso verbi modo indicat, non esse Pentheum venationis studiosum. itaque non opus habuit adiicere, at ille non
it venatum" (Hermann). The optative is found, as here,
dependent on an optative expressing a wish, in Aesch. Ezrn.
297, EX&#39;otL… o7roo yevolro rsov s&#39; T oio Xvrrptos, Soph. Ajar, 522,
yCvoiyLav…o7rCos 7rpooreLTroyLfv, Track. 955, el&#39;te yEvotr&#39;…aupa, jrts
tL&#39; arOLKTIELev, and Eur. Hel. 433. Eur. sometimes violates this
rule, as in Ion, 672, Ei7r…()s /LOL yev7qrat, where subj. suit le
opt. of prayer, and in Hel. 176, 7re+cELEv i7a a&#39;Xd3y (R. Shilleto).
-At the end of the line &4La is redundant after ev; so in Ion,
716, a/ua oivv ftaKXals. 1255. For 0EoLacxeiv, cf. 325.
1257. (Eel. 435, ris av… Uolt, SoorLs &aayyeXELE…) Shilleto adr,.
1259. povjo-rao-aL (&#39;when ye come to your senses,&#39; Plat.
Phaedr,; 231 D, oLTcrTe rrT av ev (fpovjr&#39;avrTes ravraT KaXcOs EXeLv
rjyracraLvro) Shilleto adv.
1264-70. Cadmus begins by making trial of Agave&#39;s outward senses: he finds that her sense of sight is becoming true
again, as her clouded vision passes away, and the sky seems
brighter to her than before; he next leads her on, step by step,
till her inward sense returns, and she is at last conscious that
the head she is holding in her hand is that of her own son.
1267. KO.L SLLirEiToTEpOS, avTi ro7 8(LavyEcrrpos (Etym. Magn.
referring to this passage). In Homer 8tLL7rET7 is an epithet
applied to rivers alone (/1. 16, 174; 17, 263; 2I, 268 and 326;
Od. 4, 477), &#39;fed by, swollen with, rain from heaven.&#39; Ici
Euripides, while keeping the Homeric quantity of the second
syllable, departs from the Homeric meaning of the word. Il
might easily have written Ka&#39;TL taclaverarepoS instead. Word
is also found in an obscure fragm. of Eur. 8I2, LTtrrErT Kreivat,
and in R&#39;hes. 43, 86riTerT 8e vcEOv – rvpo&#39;tr oTa&/lL, while Erotianus,

Page  229
-1 288)

NO TES.

229

gloss. Hizpocr., explains it 8tavy&#39; Kcal KaOapos. (On this and
other Homeric words apparently misused by Attic poets,
rrpoeXvpsvor, e&#39;rralos, Caflflyvov, see Shilleto in Journal of Cl.
and S. P/zilology, IV 315-8.) The following fragment of the
Bacchzae of Attius was supposed by Scaliger to be a careless
rendering of the present line, xvlI (I ),…sy5le;zdet saepe, ast
idem nimbis interdum nzigret.-1268. TiO T-rroT0v, cf. 214, coJ
e7rT o7aL.
1269-70. As the symmetry of the arrlXohvOla is broken by
Agave replying in two lines instead of one only, it has been
proposed to strike out the second and read YLyv la-KW Se rcOS in
the first; but it is worth while suggesting, that the exceptional
length of her reply, which was probably delivered very slowly,
is intended to express the gradual dawning of her slowly returning senses.
1274. On o-wrapTr, which is to be taken with os Xfeyovoi,
see note on 264.
1281. aOp&#39;lo-ov K.r.X.) Now scan it keenly and more clearly
mark it.&#39; adpelv is used of earnest gaze, and thus denotes an
advance in emphasis on the preceding synonyms, EKijatIL,
Eto-tE6iv, Xftoro-. G. Curtius Gk. Etymology, book I ~ 13, has
some interesting pages on several of the Greek words for
&#39;sight,&#39; as distinguished from one another by the aid of Comparative Philology.
1283. 7rpo-rLKevaL) for the manuscript reading 7rpooreotKevat,
is also found in Ar. Eccl. I I6I; among the other parts used in
Attic Greek are E&#39;oly/ev, EdluatV and eLKor (see Veitch, Gk.
Verbs).
1285. The IMS has ol4coyLEvov, which is best corrected into
o4coyAivov, i.e. &#39;bewailed by me ere thou couldst recognise it.&#39;
M usgrave (followed by Nauck) has,payi&#39;ov, which seems less
easy to understand.
1287. ev ov Kaip(=azcatpos, cf. o0 7raXrs vrro, 455; Thuc. 3,
95, Trv oV —repirTEXL(rv, 5, 50, 71jr OVK —;ovO-lav, 7, 34, rtv TrOv
KoptvOCov oKert e&#39;rravaycoyrv (Ktihner Gk. Gr. ~ 461, 6 d); also
without the article, as in Hipzp. I96 quoted on 1. 455.
1288. &#39;rd piAXov is acc. either &#39;of respect,&#39; or after the transi

Page  230
230

BA CCHAE.

(I288

tive sense implied in KcLpS&CEL T&#39;rniii &#39; 9EL. Cf. Aesch. Ag.- 788,
&#39;&#39;IXot (~Oopa&#39;..A.trc~ovv EOEvro=-E4`)r/~wavro, —Soph. Track. 997,
otav M&#39; ap&#39; fov Xci/3av,-O. C. 583, Ta El) /Lv(tk&#39;-) 77X7oTtLv LJIXELEV
7 toV&#39;8Ev0iv 7rotJ-Eur. H. F. 709, &#39; Xp" GE /LErpco a-7rov~J17V
&#39;EXECl), Or. io69, eV) /LEV 7TrpcTa&#39; Got pt/.L0kcJ1V cEXG),-I01t 572, ToV70
KaL XE oW00 (Kiihner GA. Gr. ~ 411I, 4). oteemyb
added Soph. El. 123-5, r~L)v a&#39;,E&#39; TaKiELE oL&#39;tco)yav…&#39;Ay1ajiivova;
Dem. p. 53, I I, p. 366, 26, TeOv&#39;KaOLt 6EEL TOUR, 4IILXL&#39;7T7rOV $E`VOUC.
1291. Cf 371295. EcLC&#39;VqTE….EgEfPCtKXE7S&#39;0T1, cf. 36, E$E/.L77vaI.
(Su5El.K01, aKXEVo-a/pEVa, Plato VIII Rf 561 A, EKl~aKX1Ev6b)
Shilleto adv.
1300. &#39;V "POPOLS cTU-YKEKXOFL&#39;VOV) Cf. Philostratus &#39;El&#39;KOVES I ~ iS
(BadKXaL), (after passage quoted on 1. 1139) raZ-r-a yev r&#39;i- E&#39;v 7TW
OPEL, Ta U lIE y &#39; Tavra, erflat 4l8q Kalt KialI(iv GT"E&#39;Y?7 Kai Opijvoq E&#39;7i-L
777 &#39;yp Kcal oGv~ap/LoTTovo-Lv O 7i-000G77KOvrES&#39; Tov) lEKpoV, EL 7-77
o"WoEL&#39;l7 -io 7-a(c4p. At this point a line is lost containing the reply
of Cadmus, as was first pointed out by Matthiae.-1303. o-vV~j+E)
sc. C EE.105 TVEKVOS O~pLTEvC.V 7r.8V Ple.324, ali-ErX0-XG
ckapicwv XCVK~Oy.-l306. &#39;rr68&#39; &#39;9PVOS KCLTOCLVO&#39;VO&#39;J constr. Ka-a&#39; o-SZ&#39;Eo-V,
Tr-oad. 740, COT (/)LXrar, Ci9 7i-EpL(Toa 7TL/.L7OE&#39;LV TEKJJOV.
1303. CIV~~E4&#39;E() Elmsley&#39;s correction for a&#39;ve3XEI-Ev, which
would give us an anapaest in the third place, as a short vowel
before 13X is always lengthened except in the case of /3Xa~rradvw
and its derivatives. Infr-agm. 1002, TO0 ZJA TEOV1/KE 17W/aW 7ToUTo
lI d&#39;va43XEW7E-L is altered by Cobet and Nauck into aii~ fXEI-EL,
which is better than a/4,3XEWEL. The short vowel apparently
remains short in Ar. lVesy5 570, 7-a lIE O-VYKV&#39;77-aOVO aa /3X7X~iiaL,
where however Shilleto would read a,.4iX&#39;7Xarat, or f3X77XaraL
alone. In the Tragic poets there are thirty-three instances (in
Eur. alone twenty-four) of the short vowvel being lengthened
in compounds before /3X; ten instances in which the vowel
of the augment or of reduplication is lengthened before j3X,
as agTainst three in which it is left short (S. Phil. 1311I, El. 440,
and fragnm. 49 1); twice is a short vowel lengthened before ~3X in
the middle of a word, once only left short (Aesch. SzqAf. 76i,

Page  231
— T329)

NO T~ES.

23I

3ti3Xou); lastly, the short vowel is eighteen times lengthened
before 3X in the following word, and only five times left short,
Aesch. Sutpp. 3r7, Soph. O. T. 717, O. C. 972,fragnm. 124, 491.
The accurate study of the lengthening of short vowels
before combinations of mutes and liquids in Greek Iambics
has been much advanced by the Rev. H. E. Savage&#39;s elaborate
tables of statistics printed in the lztemoranda of the Cambridge
Philological Society for May 9, I878, from which the numerical
statements above quoted are borrowed.
1308-9. os crvvEZXEs, 3 TEKVOV, TroV1OV IEXaCpov) cf. 392; Ip5h..T. 57, OrTvXot yap O&#39;IKWv fea-l 7ra3e, apoeves; Pliny Ep. 4, 21, 3,
unzus ex tribus liberis suZercst doZmuzque Pluribus adminiculis
paulo ante fundatarm desolalus fitlcit ac sustinet, Virg. Aen.
12, 59 -1312. Those who keep bi<rv E&#39;Xacpavev are compelled to
render it: &#39;he (sc. any one who insulted me) got his deserts.&#39;
This involves an interchange of &iKr7v Xa1aavitv, which is generally used of the person who punishes, with atKv &6lovat, which
is the corresponding term for the person punished. Another
instance of the exceptional use is found in Hdt. I, 115, El I
eXa3E rqv SiKlKv. But it would seem better on the whole to
print AXduLaveS. &#39;No one ever dared to insult me, while he
saw your presence, for you were certain to exact from him the
proper penalty&#39; (=LEXXEI XaPa/dvEtv). SLKv &8Lovat is frequently
used by Eur. in its-ordinary sense, and we have already had
it twice in this play (479, 847); again, in a recently discovered
fragment attributed to him, i8tKTv Xat3adveLv is used in the opposite meaning (papyrus edited by Weil and Blass 1. 7, C&#39;KfEoI EL
RlEv pLE~V fLO 8IKE&#39;K TL, OVK EHlE 7TpO(TO7)KL XaC/aveiv TrovroV 8rIqv).
It is therefore extremely improbable that the poet interchanged
the two senses in the present passage.
1315. Cf. note on 264.-1317. TrCv 4iLX&#39;Taccov dpipL0iLo&#39;eL For
the gen., cf. Hor. Ep. I 9, 13, scribe tui gregis zzlznc.-1327. (vid.
Elmsl., aliter Andromn. Io63) Shilleto adv.
1329. After this line there is a considerable lacuna in the
AIs, only one line of Agave&#39;s speech having been preserved, and

Page  232
232

BA CCHA E.

(I329

the earlier part of the speech of Dionysus being also lost. Ce
was first indicated by Tyrwhitt, who pointed out that the verse
cited from the Bacc/ae by the scholiast in Ar. Plut. 907, El /i
yhp &#39;i6iov &#39;Xa/ov ets XEipas /ztLros, must have been part of the
lost speech of Agave. We gather the purport of that speech
from two references to it in the rhetorician Apsines, Rhel. Gr.
I p. 399 ed. Spengel (=Ix p. 587 ed. Walz, where the treatise
according to Ruhnken&#39;s view is ascribed to Longinus), enr
KLV)iOOlE~V E&#39;Xeov avroL KaTr7yopoVvrTS EavrTcv. TOVTO EO crrTL P EVpEiv
Kai rrapa rots rpaytKots rotTOLraTL, aetLXEL rapa rd EpTLr;8n rI T7 ro
IevOEwsU t4qrqrp &#39;Ayavr a kraXayera(a r7js avtLaE Kal yvcoploacra TOV
7ra7ia rTOv avrTjs i8tLcTraoaFL&#39;eov KO aTryopL fIeEv au&#39;rvT, EXEov iE KLvEL.
Also p. 40I Sp (=59 WV), roirov rOv rOrrov KEKLvV7KV EEpVpLTTl
OLKTrov 7rrl T IIEvPeEi KitLrvat uov6XOMEevos. EKCaTov ya&#39;p aVrov Tr>v
tLEXvT 77 j&#39;rTrp ev Tas XEpaot a KpaToaTa KaO&#39; EKKatrov aoVTV olKTrieraT
(he also refers to Hecuba&#39;s speech over the dead body of
Astyanax, Tro. 807). The compiler of the Chris/us Patiens
appears to have had the speech in the Ms which he used, as
several lines are to be found in his ccntzo which cannot be
traced to any of the other plays from which he borrowed, but
which are particularly suitable to such a speech as that described by Apsines. Two of these were detected by Porson
(Kidd&#39;s Tracts, p. I69), Kal 7nr6s Vlv E 8rT-7rvos EvXa3ovjLevrj rrpos
oarpva Octci; riva (sic) Oprvtraco rporrov. George Burges, who
made preparations towards editing the play and allowed Elmsley to have access to his proposed recension of the text, wrote
two sets of Greek verses, of slight critical value, to fill up the
lacuzna (they may be seen in the Gezntleman&#39;s Mnagazine for
Sept. and Dec. I832). A partial endeavour to restore the loss
was afterwards made by Hartung, Euripides Restit/iuts II (I844)
p. 556; but it was reserved for Kirchhoff to found, on a careful
examination of the Christus Patiens, a more systematic restoration of the lost portion (Phiologus (I853) 8, 78-93). in the
34 more or less complete verses which he prints, there is much
that can hardly have been written by Euripides, and one of his
fragmentary lines from the C/ir. Pat. I473, arroava i yIfjaTafieovrv,
cannot have belonged to this portion of the play as it is obvi

Page  233
– -WV4W —

-I3331

NTO TIES.

233

ously borrowed from 1. I 35, 7riio-a a&#39; c/arwtLE&#39;lo). His restoration
has been judiciously revised (with considerable retrenchments)
by Wvecklein in his recent edition (1879). Wecklein&#39;s first line
(which is not accepted by Kirchhoff) is taken from a passage in
Lucian, PiSCa for ~ 2 (first pointed out by Musgrave), but it does
not necessarily refer to the Bjacc/hae, and is quite as applicable to
the fate of Orpheus as to that of Pentheus: Kal luyv apto-rOv 7?7V
KaOa7rEp L~a&#39; ILEPOia,~ &#39;Opxj)Ea XaKL0T-To&#39; P v 7ri-rpaL -tV El/pEG-OaL
jf, op o v.
1330. The mutilated remainder of Dionysus&#39; speech begins
with a prophecy of the transformation of Cadmus and Harmonia
into serpents. In another play, Eur. actually represented on the
stage the commencement of the change, as is shewn by the
following somewhat ludicrous lines, frag;;. 922, OL,40L, a3paKCin
/-101 ylv~rt To y tol0v TEKYV0V 7TepL7rXa&#39;K?70 TO) XOM(57ro rarpt&#39;.
Cf. Ovid Mlet. 4, 584, mtie lange m;tnunzque acci:Pe dunt manus
est, dum noit tottun occu.jat antguis; and Milton P. L. 9, 505,
never since Of serybent kind Lovelier, not those /that in Itly1ria
c/tanged, H-erinione (sic) and Cadmtus.
The close of Philostratus&#39; description of the picture of the
revels in Cithaeron (fEiK0&#39;VEE ~ i8, already quoted in part on
1139) shiews that he had in mind the above fragment, as well as
the lost line restored above from the Schol. on Ar., Et M ) yatp
13Lov CJXa/3ov EL4 XEL par,IIJG-O.V
i1 5&#39; &#39;Aya~vi lrepL/3~c XEL rLLvTP vt&#39;oVp LWJ&#39;/J1E, OLyEV 69 65KV&#39;El. 7rpoO(uL/LLtKTCU 6&#39;avT&#39;-q7 7T ToO) ratbo&#39;ga&#39; a/s TO&#39; juv xrtpag, 76 U &#39;s Trapetdb, T6 U
6& T&a~v/i&#39;C TcO/ /d~t~O. 2) &#39;Apgoviac KCti 6&#39; K{6,uos cloi tz&, catXX oi
ot&#39;rep 770-LaP, 3paiKOVTIE -Y&P 7772 eK IA/7PCOP -y1iYVoV-aL, Kai (poXt&#39; a/&#39;To//I 27737
tXEL, opoOU7ot r66ot, o/poOU/o -yXovrTO, KaU u7/e-dLa3o7) ToO EL&#39;6ouI c&#39;piret alvw.
&#39;L 61 K7LX77&#39;TT0PTC/L Ka It WEPt~L/XXOL/OLV MAXX7X, GiOV ~UVEX/WTES T& Xotur&#39;
TrO au) OcaTos, W&#39;S ~kdvaL yo/Jp 0UTo1~ /A&#39; cp6,yo.
1333. 0"Xov Si p.6o-Xwv) First explained by Musgrave, who
quoted the following passage of the Etyrn. Magn., Bov~o&#39;q-,t-iAL
&#39;1XXVPo109 1EIcp77TaL orL Khi6Mov E&#39;7rL fOoJP) ~cE1/Yovv EK eijo3ov TraXEIGE.
(sc. O06ir) ELK V-IXXVptKOvK. 71apa-yEVo/iEvog E-KrtLTE 7ro&#39;Xtv. The legendary city founded by Cadmus is still called Budtta (in Dalmatia
near Montenegro).

Page  234
234

PA C CIIJ E.

I I 13 1-1) 4

1334. PaP~cdpcv, sc. the tribe of Euc/ic/cis. On the legend of
Cadmus, so far as referred to in the latter part of this play, cf.
Apollodorus III 5, 4, 5~K~a~uos, /ifTa&#39;~pIia rIa EK i-WV
Il- &#39;E caq&#39;O lrapaytiErat. T7-~ I L~vivw~iv
1LjVOL9, O&#39;0 E0UL EXP07d(TEV IXXvptiv Kf~aTThTEtv, ELY ljyE~iova K68,aov
(cL Appiovt&#39;av `Xi)o 01 8 7TELoOEYTE vooLOvrat KaTO &#39;IX L(Vpto
n7YE(Iovav Tovrovg KaL Kpmo(TOVO cal (3ao-tXEV&#39;Et Kciaov LIXXvptcov,…
Movb IE&#39; ALET&#39; "Apjioviav EL&#39;c L-aO~aEa/aXcaY EL &#39;HXi(TLOV ii-EL&OV
V7TO LO&#39;, E$,E7TE~t9?7qaav.-1336. The plundering of the shrine of
Delphi, which was fated to bring destruction on the plunderers,
is referred to in Herod. 9, 4!, EO —TL XoyiOV xp EL-TTL ipoa
adWLKO/LEVOV9 Ev Tiv&#39; EXXLaa Ltapw ao-aL To6 I&#39;po T E&#39;V zAcXo/iowt, /IETa
IE&#39; TiJY i8iap~rayrjv d7IoXEOrOaL 7l~rag.ac..o.TOVV LI &#39;Ey/O&#39;YE TOYX~-~OV
7-oy MapLI&#39;vtov ETME Ecg 11~poa- E&#39;XEt, E.V LXXVPL0v&#39;. TEE Kal7 TO&#39; &#39;EyXcX ico v o —p aTOJ/v olLa 7TE77-0L?7/1EVOV, aXX&#39; OVK Eg IH4p-av.
1341-3. et r4povetV 9YVW0&#39;…E8cLR0LV0ZT1 &IV) As the protasis
contains E1 with the aor. indic., the indicative aor. or impf. with
av would have been the normal construction; accordingly it has
been proposed to read EVL8aqL/oYELir a&#39;v. This alteration however
cannot be regarded as certain; the optative refers to the
future, and means, &#39; Still for all that, if you have the son of Zeus
for your ally, you may yet be happy.&#39; In other words, instead
of using the impf. indic., which would have rudely told Agave
that under certain circumstances she vizglit have been happy,
but is niot, the god shews himself not a &OEOE LIEvYraT-og alone,
but also q&#39;MpTriOSrro (86i), by referring to a future possibility of
her being restored to happiness.
(exemplis ab Hermanno laudatis adde sis Soph. Elec/r.
797-8, i-oXXcOv av T/K 0L.9, co $E, c4 XEEL ri7I e~ravc-av
T? l v-ovy&#39;XWoo-oov f3ojc. Plat. P/haedr. 25I A, Kca&#39; El pL7 ILIE
7Tbv 7-iv o4SLO&#39;pa,Iavlav LI6~av, G5ot a&#39;v c4- a&#39;ya&#39;XtIa7T ical OE6 Toil
7wataLKuoi,. ubi nollem. editores -nuperi monstrum. illud, sane in
libris paucis inventum, recepissent (LIE8LIEL plusperfectumn est
indicativi, &UEtIE&#39;iq ad notissimum. librariorum. errorem, refertur,
i7 post EL temere irrepente). ceterum. miror Hermannum, qui
rectissime de reliquis, disputavit, non hoc loco item optativum.

Page  235
-I- 58)
1)

NO TT S.

1)
2&#39; 5

retinuisse. vult enim Blacchus id ostendere, posse etiam nunc
Thebanos felicitate frui. quid sibi voluerit Mlatthiae parum
intelligo. de Latinis cf. Plaut. l31ll. Glor. IV 8, 46, &#39;etsi ita
sententia esset, tibi servire inavelimz,&#39; cuius loci vim perspexit
Lindemann) Shilleto adv.-13417. Cf. 1298.
1345. "jSETFe) This is one of the three passages in the Greek
drama, where editors follow Elmsley in admitting forms of the
pluperfect with a short penultimate in the first or second person
plural. The others are Ar. Lys. 1098, bUl/a&#39; Ka WEre7o0VOF/IEv, and
Soph. 0. T. 1232, f3eE/Lv, where there is no difficulty in retaining
the reading of the MSS, &#39;&EtpEV In the present instance, &#39;7bETE
is an emendation, hut it makes better sense than the manuscript
reading ElbceI-. See G. Curtius, Onz the Greek Verb, P. 432 Of
translation by Wilkins and England.
138. EL &#39;r…ox 6j-oLXo0Oa kyerbaton for ov&#39; 7rspEl7rf, otherwise td might have been expected. (vid. Thucyd. vi i6i)
Shilleto ada&#39;.
1350. S8O&#39;8KTCLL…&#39;rX&#39;jjLoves 4~vyaC) An Attic instance of what
is called the schema Pindaricum (Pind. 0/. x 6, aip~a&#39;I Xo&#39;y(,tw
rE&#39;XXE~at, Pyth. X ult. KeirtO KVf31Epiado-tE9, andfragmn. 45, f3cMIXXat
at.Xactmt Oukaq4at..xpo. In Attic Greek, the use of
the singular verb with the plural or dual subject is generally
confined to the verbs dtvac and -}dyvco-Oat (e.g. Soph. Track. 520,
T1V…KXLIaKEE, Eur. Jo1i, 1146, 4i~i…i&#39;qat, Plato Sym15i. i i8B nY
7VEFrtL, Ret. 363 A, ytiyvraL. I.,-also in Gorg. 500 D and Ar. Vesti.
58, c&#39;o-r followed by dual). So far as I am aware, the only
instance of any other verb being thus used in Attic Greek,
besides the present passage, is in PI. Tkeaei. 173 D, o-rrovbal b&#39;
fraLpELFUJ…Kal O-V&#39;ObOL Kal &E~rrva Kal 0o)Vv aV&#39;X77rpt&#39;0L KWi4L0L ouae ovap
IrpaTT~E-LV 7rpoon-taTara av&#39;roisg. In almost all the above examples,
as here, the verb stands first. In the present instance the
singular is probably used because of the awkwardness of the
circumlocution M~oy/IE&#39;VaL dOhiv, especially as TXr&#39;jUoV-E (Pvyalis1
virtually equivalent to a singular in sense.

1358. loll 992, 7Toi0&#39;vr Tpop(fr-T O-XwI&#39; "&#39;xovaav lypt&#39;ag.

Page  236
236

BA CCHAE.

(I36i

1361. rov KCaTTapaLTv &#39;AXepovra) &#39;The nether Acheron,&#39; the
river descending to the under-world, explained in L. and S.
&#39;that to which one descends.&#39; But in the Odyss. 13, IIo we
have the gates by which men descend from the land into the
sea called Ovpat…KarTatu3arat dvOp5oroi-t.-The river Acheron in
Thesprotia, after rushing through a deep, dark, chasm, passed
into the sea through the Achertsia palus, which has now almost
vanished; the stream did not disappear underground like some
of the rivers of Greece, yet it was supposed to be in communication with the under-world; thus, Pluto under the name of
Aidoneus was said to have once reigned in that region (Pausan.
Att. I7), and on its banks there was an oracle which was
consulted by evoking the dead, veKvoflavrelov (Hdt. 5, 92). the
gloomy gorge of the river, and the malaria said to be still
prevailing in the neighbouring plain of Phandri (Cramer&#39;s
Greece I 112), would naturally account for the ancient superstition which thus connected the stream of Acheron with the realm
of the dead.
1365. The MS has oppVIs o7rro) Krlcrjva roXIo&#39;XPos KVKVOS, which
is retained by Nauck and by Hermann, who places a comma
before and after Kr/fjva; Musgrave however alters 7roXxpcop s
into 7roXi)opowv, which is adopted by Dindorf, as 7roXtoXpos seems
more applicable to the aged Cadmus than to Agave; we thus
get, instead of three nominatives to one acc., two of each in
pairs, OpvtS KVKVOS and KrrjOva 7roXtOdXpov. For Krtoriva cf. Tro.
I9I, ypas Kr)rO)J7; for 7roX5oxpcos, Herc. F. I o, 7roXos &#39;pvt^r, 692,
KVKVOS CoS yYepiWV aOLis 7roXav E&#39;K yeWcov. Similarly in El. I53,
Electra lamenting her father compares herself to a swan, which
7rarepa flXrTaTov KaX6e 6Xo Levov 8oloLs /3p6ocov EpKcEctv.
Swans, as well as storks, were regarded by the ancients as
notable for their affection toward their parents, Cic. defin. II 33
(indicia pietatis). In the present passage, the daughter flinging
her arms round the neck of her aged father, is compared to a
swan folding its wings about the feeble form of its parent.
Cygnets, especially at the time when they are losing their dark
plumage, may be often observed flapping their young wings

Page  237
— I392)

NVO TES.

237

vigorously in the presence of the parent birds; and some such
action as this appears to have suggested the simile in the text.
The combination O&#39;pvlS…KUKvoS may be defended by Hel. I9,
KVKVOV /AoplCOLutaT&#39;;pvtOos, and Ipik. T. Io89, o&#39;pvLt…aXKVOv. Mais
OpvLs seems too far removed from KVKVOS, and the absence of a
word corresponding to XepaLv in the previous line, leads one to
suggest that o6pvlr, which is not wanted, may have taken the
place of a lost word such as Trrepoig.
1371. rTv &#39;ApLor-Taov) Unless, as is very probable, some
lines have been lost after this, we must understand oLKOv,
a doubtful ellipse. In the passage formerly quoted to confirm it,
Ar. Ach. 1222, Ovpan fin&#39; eEve7Kar es rOv IITTraXoV, where
Elmsley proposed ra, the editors now prefer rov.
As the Greek law required one who was guilty of homicide
to go into exile, Agave is naturally represented as leaving
Thebes; her going to the house of Aristaeus, the husband of
her sister Autonoe, is not inconsistent with this, as the legend
describes him as wandering from place to place, in Thessaly,
Thrace, &c.
1374. The solemn movement of the successive long syllables
is apparently intended to serve as an echo to the sense.
1380. ELs Tro)&#39; sc. xa&#39;peLv, implied in the preceding xaipe.
&#39;Fare thee well, father.&#39; &#39;Fare thee well, my sorrowing
daughter; and yet &#39;twere hard for thee to fare well.&#39; Hec. 426,
(Polyxr.) XapE…((Hec.) XalpovcTLv cIXXo f/rirTpL 8&#39; OVK e&#39;ErTv roBE,
Aesch. A4g 538, (Cho.) Xalpe… (He-/ald) xalpw&#39; reOvavat a&#39; OVKET
avrepCo.
1384. The personification of Cithaeron reminds one of Soph.
O. T. 1391, b a KLWaLpv, rl 7i&#39; e&#39;e ov.
1387. BdKXaLS 8&#39; XXaCo-r IJ.XkoLev) " sed neque quid aliis
Bacchis cordi esse velit, apparet (nam Cithaeron et thyrsus
mire coniunguntur), neque quas alias significet Bacchas, quae
omnes perosa sit. Aliis, non sibi Bacchas earumque res cordi
esse iubet: BKucat 8&#39; AXXairo- /lE"Aoiv," Madvig, Adv. I p. 54.
1388-1392. These last five lines occur at the end of four
other plays (Androm.. HeL Aied. Alc.), with the exception that
in Jled. the first line runs 7roXXdv rajiaS Zevs&#39; v &#39;OXv$uTrcT.

Page  238
2 38

T A CC11,4 E.

I – 92
1 j

Hermrann suggests a curious reason for this repetition which is
worth quoting:..&#39;Scilice, ul ft int t/eatris, libi actru par/es ad fne;;z
(leductae essent, taictus erat surgent/urn aique abeuntdiumn strep1/us, ut qzuae c/horns in er/tie fabulae recl/are solebat, vix
exaud/ri tossent. Eo fac/zuu, u/ /i/s c/con z&#39;ersibus piarunc
curae inmpend,5re/ur.&#39;
It will however be remarked that this conventional conclusion is not entirely appropriate either to the present play, or
to the Medea. Possibly (as suggested in Wecklein&#39;s ed. of the
latter play) their transfer from one play to another was due to
the actors, and not to the poet himself. The Ijp/. Taur., Or-es/es
and P/coenissae, all close with the following sentence: co&#39;pilya
Nc~&#39; V NIKJ, V E/Ol&#39; OTOV KaTE&#39;L Ka PLXjy~ T~aO~(

ANTIQUE TERRACOTTA LAMP FRO&#39;M CYPRUS.

Page  239
CONSPECTUS OF CHORAL METRES.

For information on Greek choral metres, the student
may refer either to Linwood&#39;s Greek Tragzc Jfetres, or to
Dr J. H. H. Schmidt&#39;s Introduction to the RJiythmzic and
MIletric of the Classical Languages (I869), translated by
Dr J. WV. White, I879 (some references to the metres of
this play may be found on pp. 7I, 75, I30-132). A
elementary outline for beginners is given in the preface to
Badham&#39;s English ed. of the Ion, and in Anthon and
Major&#39;s System of Greek Prosody,, I845. Among books of
special research on this subject may be mentioned Rossbach
and Westphal, Metrik der griechischen Dramantiker vi. Lyriker
nebst den begleitenden inusischen Kiinsten, esp. part iii, 1856;
J. H. H. Schmidt, Die Kunstformen der griechischen Poesie
(the third vol., 1871, includes the text and schemeata of all
the lyric parts of Euripides, pp. xlvi-lxxxi); and W. Christ,
Metrik der Griechen u. Rioer, 1874; also H. Buchholtz,
Tanzkunst des Eur., I871, and R. Arnoldt, Die cheorische
Technik des Eur., 1878.
In the following schemes, I have not considered it
worth while to give the precise technical name of each line
after the manner of writers on Greek metre of the school of
Hermann; this has been carefully done in the editions of
Sch6ne and Tyrrell. I have thought it enough (with
Wecklein) to give a symmetrical conspectus of the metres,

Page  240
240

PBA CCIA E.

indicating, however, in the case of each chorus, the general
character of the rhythm used, and adding a few notes where
necessary. The symbol – (often in the penultimate place
in the series) denotes a long syllable that is specially lengthened, being usually equivalent to a long followed by a short
syllable; in other words, to three short syllables.
iraposos 64-169.
(Other arrangements may be found in Westphal, u. s. iiI
p. 320, and Schmidt, t. s. iii p. xlvi-li.)
orpofrj a&#39; 64-67 =68 —7.
Ionic a minore verses, with the last syllable of the Ionic
foot sometimes omitted. The following scheme involves
ending 1. 7I with some such word as KEXa&3. Some, however (as Schmidt), decline to regard the verses as antistrophic and retain the manuscript reading Vv^rta-o.
64 v, – v – – 68
6 5.- – – –
66 vv — — — 70
67 v- – -,- -,v – 7r
a-rpocj p &#39; 72-87 = 88- 03.
Choriambic followed by Ionic a minore rhythms (as in
Soph. O.. 483 if.). The Ionic measure is also used in the
invocation of Iacchos by the chorus of Icv&#39;Crat in Ar. Ranae
324-353. It is specially suited for the expression of strong
excitement. A still more vehement degree of emotion is
expressed by the choriambic rhythm.

72 j – U – –

88

Page  241
CON,.SPECTUS OF CHORAL MVETRES. 24I

%J %-JI – -,.-/ 1-1 %J k-J, –
8 o I P".-I – -.", 1-11 – -,-"a – –
%,, %_1 – –
1-1 I-, – –
85 %alj – –
I.-, – –

%…, – –
I – –
"-I 1-1
%Jw – –
1-11&#39;…, – –
– –
– –
% —l .w – –
%Jj – – %-, %-" –

96

I
I
I
I.1I
4

101

4

87 -~ie103
T-,poqn) y&#39;q 105-I19= 120-134.
Choriambic rhythms.
105 120 –

%… — j
./ -a.I119 – –
S. B.

– %J-.J — –
– – J w ~ –

130
&#39;34

Page  242
242 BA4C CILJAF.
E&#39;rwc So&#39;s 1.36-169.
Various measures of a lively and animated character
including paeonic (e. g. I 35,i6o), dactylic (13 9, 15 9, 16 5 iff)
choriambic (136) and dochmiac rhythms (145).
I 50 – – " —
15 5 – —
i Go
165 —

Page  243
CONSPECTUS OF CHORAL METRES. 243
aTCLTOjl.OV rrpWTOV.
(Westphal, u. s. and Schmidt, p. liii.)
Trrpoc a 370 —385 =386-401.
Ionic a minore alternating with chorianmbic rhythms
37 – – v0 386
vv – vv vy vvv – – vV –
vv – – vv –
375 3V – – V " – 39I
– v – vv – VV –
VV – VV- V – &#39;,
380 vv – – vv- 396
vv – – vv – – j
3 – – – vv –
385 – v, – – 40v – v – 1
arTporj l 402-415 =416-433.
Glyconean verses (consisting as usual of a choriambus
and, under certain limitations, two dissyllabic feet). Combined with these are instances of the pherecratean (e.g. 402,
403, 405), a variety of the same type (being a glyconean
with the choriambus in the middle, and with the last syllable
omitted from the following dissyllabic foot). A graceful
measure.
16-2

Page  244
244 4BACCHAE.
42)2 416
405 ~~ -420
410 C 425
mm10LFLV BEWTEPOV.
EWestphal, p. 32 2, Schmidt, p. lvi.)
-TpoO 119 5T9-536 =538 —555.
Ionic rhythm (with one or two resolved syllables).

-I ;z 2 D I I-/ I-J.j
I-/ 1-1
11-/ I-/
1-1 -/
1-1 1-1
5 2 5
%-/ 1-11
11.0 1-1
.j -/

– – -I ./ –
– – I —, _1 – –
– – / .a – –
– – -I &#39;/ – –
&#39;-, "-, 1-1 I.-/
– 1 – -I – –
– %./ – Ij – –
– – -./ I-/ – –
– – 1-1 I.-/ – –

5 3 9
544

Page  245
CONSPECTUS OF CHORAL MiETRES. 245
vv – v – v- –
v530 5- – – 549
vv – ~ vv –
vv – -, – –
535 v – – vv – – 554
vv – vv – v _.. -.
CTryS6s 556-575.
Ionic rhythms (556-570), followed by choriambic (57I,
572), and closing with a glyconean (574) and pherecratean
(575). The metre of 573 is uncertain (perhaps two dactyls
with the first syllable resolved – vv – vv). On metrical
grounds, Westphal, approved by Schmidt, regards the first
word of 1. 572 (I3poroZS) as an interpolation.
556 v, — – –
vv – – vv –
vv – – v – –
vv – – vv –
56 vv — vv – –
VV – – VV – –
VV – – VV – –
vv – — v — —
vv – – –
v5 ~ V — _ – –
570 ^-&#39;^ — – ^^ — _

Page  246
BA CCHAE.

– I,./ – – – wl/ –
%-J – I – –
I 11 31
/ WI-., -I 1-11%../ ./ 7raTEpa TOY -EK VOV
– – – – – –
– – – W" -. –

5 75

KOPJLJ.s between the Chorus and Dionysus, r576-603.
(Westphal, p. 378, Schmidt, p. lxi.) Irregular rhythms,
miainly dochkmiac and dactylic, well adapted for a scene of
tumultuous excitement.

5 So 6 s. J
58 J. %a ~~/.
585 -a a %
590 –
5 95 – – – —

Page  247
CONSPECTUS OF CHORAL METRES. 247

V V VV V VV V
v
VV V V VV V VV –
600 vv v vv v vv v vv v
VV – V
VV V – V V V I V
V
VV V VV V V

rTaCLC-LLOV TPCTOV 862-911.

(Schmidt, p. lxii, who describes the two strophes as &#39;an
&#39;uncommonly beautiful piece of composition,&#39; divides each of
them into 3 periods corresponding to 11. 862-872; 873-7;
878-882.)
caTpOqb1 862-88I = 882-90I.
Glyconean rhythms.

– -,vv
865 –
870 —
I

-%,./ –
-I-J
-VW
-VW

885
890

Page  248
248 BA CCHAE.
875.&#39;-. — &#39; 895
88o goo —- 0
Ebrcj8s 902-911.
Mainly glyconean, combined with frocizaic rhythms.
a-mTOLFov &#39;rETCLp&#39;Trov 977-1016.
(Schmidt, p. lxvi, proposes to add 8 after Matva&WV in
931i, and omit OavacLTf/iov in 1022.) Mainly docluniacs, in
992 we have a senarius; 993, a bacchius; 1017, an iambelegus.
o-rPOOvj 977-996 = 997-IoT 6.

Page  249
CONSPECTUS OF

CHORAL METRES. 249

9300

1&#39;8 op0L8 O/IV
xo0Tp Ka8/jEitwv
w – — &#39;S

1000
I005
1015

– W
%a %..W lj

%-I – %&#39; –
– I-; –

Ivr)o~s 1017-1023.
1020 — J- &#39;

KOILILS of Chorus, interrupted by trimeters spoken by the
Messenger, 1030-1042.
(Schmidt, p. lxii.) Doc/inicics.
1031 – &#39;V%&#39;Ss_1- – &#39;
&t9-&#39;; (O-V)

Page  250
BA C CHA,4E.

1034 – – -%1037 k —&#39; %.&#39;-I, – – %1%_
104I _ – -1- %

~(?)- – –

InII 037 Schmidt suggests that the second AtL&vo-og may
have its penultimate short; but it would be better to alter it
(as has been suggested) into AtoLs 7iaZ,3, rather than allow
such a license.
XOPLK6V (Monostrophic ode) 11-53-1164.
(Schmidt, p. lxxiv, makes I1I5 5 an Iambic trimeter (like
r159 and i i6I), TaYV TOO&#39; Spa&#39;KOVTOS CEKyEVETcL (TOD) l1EVOE&#39;W3.
This involves having an anapaest in the fourth place.)

1155 – -. –
ii6o~

– " k —1
– ".1 –
I &#39;I&#39;, – – –
%a –
% —1
%j – %a – %-11

KOILjJ.~s between the Chorus and Agave, 1168-1199.
crrpo4o i168-ii83 == ii84-II99.
Mainly dockmiacs: in II73-4, we have iambi followed
by anapaests; in I117 5, trochees; in I117 7, a pherecratean;

Page  251
CONSPECTUS OF CHORAL MIETRES. 251
1179-8o, iambeegai; and i i~i, baccihius. Schmidt, p. lxxix,
makesi169-i 70oa double bacc/zius repeated, as in ii8o-i,
and 1177: he also gets a senarius in II174 by prefixing
oOVV 0Evovq, and proposing in the antistrophic line ii90,
OOc/sO a&#39;vEW&#39;7qX&#39; EW7-L 0/paI -ro&#39;V8E Matva&#39;8av.
I1175 – –
ii ~. – –
1368-end.
Concluding March in Anapaests.

Page  252
GREEK 1NDEX,

MAINLY TO THE TEXT.
The numerals refer to the lines of the play.-Figures preceded by p.
refer to the pages of the book.-Abbreviations such as 8n refer
more particularly to the English notes.
Words not used elsewhere by Euripides, are denoted by *. Words not
yet found elsewhere in any author, by ** (Vater&#39;s Rhesus p. cix).

da/cKXEvToS 472
d&#39;ficros 10
a/3poTrs 968
dy/eXa~d (300-K &#39;Aa7-c 67 7
daypcL-os 1378
*a-YtYTE6 EL 74
*SKOS d*ciK4jpflg/PP 105 1
et yKpeiuao6O~ (Herm.) 1240
d-yKVXWr6S 1205
*a.Y45os 1094
d-yvc~o1_iotV&#39;P 885
ay-p&#39;E&S1 19&#39;2
C~-ypC66lV I237, &ypCVjsc. I1291
**d-ypwrTas 564
aiyX6vn &#39;246 (p. 134)
dayjVaco-Tos 491
ya&#39;Yv 975
d-y6oves (in double sense) 964
a&apos P. 9o (8 n.)
*34u/6v~q 127
dc"&dS 873
eLd~uaTos 9, 523
dOp-71o1&#39; 1281
d60~os 67,2
"Atclax 7rLOTrbz 1157
EL&#39;s A t6ou 857

aTlsct= 0pvos, 1 39
aitLca Ot0oecS 837
eLKOS 327
aC~11VTa 435, I231
&#39;AKraL&#39;COV&#39; 230, 337 1227, 1&#39;291
d&#39;XaXcd~erat 593
6AXacQca 53
aixxd4EL 1331
1~XXa1~Ev 438
aY 6"tWS 1027
ciino f 10 (e 0r 1004
d/u3dTIr, 1107
d~~1Ebas 4
dpd~aactcc 65
agiud6rcev 696
di~uOXiL 194
djsuq~tdaXesc Xepallv 1364
a1, 1343
dacz 554
db&#39;aIaKXe6ovcra 864
dvac1Iodarwluev 1154
dv~a/odcras 525
cLvE/6?710eV 731, 1079
ava-yKca, C&#39;V cqpsXatatv, 552
dz&#39;aiso,uat, 25i, 533

Page  253
INDEX.

253

cbavadXXWv 149, 1190
dvaureovpi.~v 742
tu&#39;cir-rewz 176, 624
*vacelew 240, 930
*avac7,rapdo-o-ewii 127
avaoc7rp~bw &LKW&#39; 793
dv&…ridoocwv 8o
dverlvct< 623
cJavaqia&#39;w 528,-eL, 538
W&#39;11#pEIv 29
dvaXavrif~eiv 1072
UdiaxopE6EI 482
caval~ope~-wp.ey 1153
dvescav 66,2
lve~rlvacl4 623
dV?1KaJ 448
dvpe62 4
a&vOEUo/6pog 703
*avowOrp?7OaLTE 979
*av6po~/oo 38
dV7&,Xa~ov,uXog 1057
deLVT-LXavowr7TLo 29i
civTl7raXoz&#39; 660: 544
17r Tdl&#39;Ti7rcaXov 278
*avrtrup~yos 1097
aJ&#39;W KaLTcW 349, 6o,2
aWW TE Klc KdtTW 741, 753
dvwX6v~a &#39;24
&#39;A~t6s 569
cLrd-yetV 439
*d2aX6OpL~ i i86
diavra;I6v 782
d~rE&#39;/3 139,2, argfl-jav 909
dcL-0u6vEL 884
LX7romvc 5i6
*a7roX~?ccc~,4
*d0o1wTLi~e`" 763 (intr. in S. fr. 636).7r-o7ra&TtV~kcu/pl/LJas 381
*arO7Lvd~ets -253
cip/3677 638, 1 134
"Ap-ql 30,2, 133,2, 1338, 1357
&#39;Apfcoratos 1227, 1371
t1 V dtpKU~T 23I, 451I, b7r~ppdipl) wi 8 70
apprnrc 47,2
c&#39;pTalcl,&#39;77jY1 526
*&oid~eumo 390

6fe7rTor 890
&#39;Aol(a 17, 64
&#39;AatdcLes ii68
*am7L3pov xetp6s 736
daTu3?hpo1 /JLOXXOZS 1104
*a,7Trpa7rl1&#39;qJopos (passive) 3
aOZTTv 17&#39;2
&#39;Aawo~r6 749, 1044
ai&#39;yd~vc 596
a,&#39;X&#39;,2 28, 380
al~eo-Oac g~ya 183
ca6TalEl a/)f36ais 1134
au&#39;rai-t1 BdKXaLII 946
a6Ta?ctv AXc acs (V. 1.) 946
ca6r6 crfl/LIVE 976
cavTobs (=cit a6roibs) 723
ac6-r6,uarca 447
doopgacd 267
d~a~pcwv aoroudcrwv 386
&#39;AXEXpo l43 (petv 6,25
AXcX &#39;o O6yccTEP 519
&#39;A~epwv 136,2
P3 and g confounded 25 n, 678 n.
*j3aO6,o 1138
BdK~cx x69, Bai&#39;c~ts 915, B6KXV,
942, BdKXai 83, 152, 578, ii6o,
ii~68; BaKX~ov 674, 735, 759,
779, 799, 1029, 1131, 12&#39;24;
BaLKXaL 1,29, 1020; BdKXaLs 6i,,
4115, 69o, 137, 946, I387;
BdcKXato-L 259; BdK#catOerw 785;
BdK~Ia1 51, 443, 664, 79i, 842,
847 -fPaKXclatos, lr~aoUraoLtL, 2.t8
IjcaKXCFOP KoxdSJ 30o8
AA~OS 1057
PacKXeIy 7. ro&l 1230
~aKcX66CIV &#39;2521, 313, 343, 807&#39;,&#39;3KCi~xv,uca 317, 567, 6o8, 7&#39;20, 724
6&#39; BaKXEbs 145
*7.6 PcaKXf60oL,.UOV 298
*IPdKXEUOCE 357
*&KXarcop 931
BdLKXLOS (=Dionysus) 632, 6 B6KX1os 2189; Bauc~lov 6o5, 1089,
1124; ToO BaKXEOV &#39;225; J3KXLi(,
195; T4 BaKX~1IY 366; BdKc~cov
67, 1145, 1153;(1BcXE58

Page  254
254

BA CCHA4E.

sac&#39;1 IBcLKXt(E) 6&#39;p-ytc (7Ta BabKXI(ca)
6p-yalc ms) 998:-BdKXtaL 126
6 BcLKXOS 491, 6,23
W BaKX6 1020
fjcdXXow&#39;rc 308
J3X, short vowel lengthened before,
1 308 n.
&M 662
/36os 848
I 36ug I EX tIO 1, 6 r 7
136 -Pl&#39;!XOS &#39;235, 493
*/o3rpvj,61l1 12, 534
/3o6Xo/lm.. OS~w 208, 209
f&ayj)s a"&2&#39; 397
f9P6EreI 107
/36pon77 Kru7rovg 513
*fOvpoOvO&#39;OPO K1KXW~Iac 124
fgvo-TIvovT 7rirXovs 8,21
-ydXa 142, 700
IyavOT 261, 383z
yap oib&#39; 922
-yavptcap 1144 fl.
-yavpov/kdP1q 1144,-Os 1&#39;241
-Y cXCO 7104/LEPOP io8 r
iroX&#39;Pi&#39; YAXCP&#39; 250
-y~ (L -?7.7-mp) &#39;2 76
-ylyyevr&#39; 996, ioi6, 10&#39;25
-y?7yEv&#39;1 OrdXUP 264
-YLYas 544
7y77 &#39;234
F&#39;op-yOPwv Af~vo-ocav 990,yII.voUVTro 1 134
-yVaLlK6/1LUOS 980
*jvtatK6 /Lpq4os 85
flWOKTrt 1350
86ew65 492, 642, 760, 856, 86i, 971,
(ter-), 12-60, 135,2
AeCX(Pt(LV?r47-pats 306
5UJLaI 730, 744
&pav Ai~r-roveca 864
*8eo.ME6EIv 6i6
310~t~OS &#39;259,.355, 792
&OLLlovs Xepas 22-6
SEUPO 341, 804
A&#39;7w~r1) V275
3&#39;7O0Ua11 351

* 3ia-yeX (6k&#39;x) 272, 32,2
&&#39; a00i 441
3ta11urd?1 XCIa(LWI 994, 1014
&a~CI(IWatI 709
51&#39; a&#39;ptOA/LP &#39;209
*6tclOrapaKT0&#39;T 1&#39;220
&car-pO&#39;qPOV5 KO&#39;pas 112,2
leV &aco-7pOOots OO&#39;Co-ot 1 166
&aTctrvavros 6o6
8ta-t1v6~Erat 588
*&crwT61J-f 304
*&caEaipt~e 11i36
&Eq5,6povP 739
31EOOPOOVT0 746
3(1-qK~C 206
AcO6pcaM/3os 5,26
*&IIWETcEOTIFpOS (compar.) 1267
5LK7JV 60IJvat 489, 1.312 n.
&K1p&#39;, &bue1, 847
SLK-7V AIET EIII 346
3LKr&#39;pLwov 7WXaLKa 307
*&#39;Atlycpf&#39;rWp 122
Atwl YO&#39;VO9 725, T342
6A" T466, 859
AL&#39;ov 3pop-rrd 599, Alov &#39;rvpo&#39;s 8,AiPKfl 5, 5&#39;20, 530
&caa&#39;s OA~3aT 919
6tXa, 9X(ovl~al, 738
*&?o ~gg3actv 740
aoKg 887
*50K4CELJ 984
*30pKa&1 699
3pcdKwv 101, 539, 768, ioi8, 1155,
1r330, 1358
Bpa1KOVTOT.. O"(PEo 102 6
*aplo-6711 70.5
attq$&#39; 5pVUfoZS 12&#39;29
*3pII5FVOS 1103
Bp~s rio, 685, 703
5uJcTEvp9-rqp 1221
*81NTKOl&#39; TO&#39; -Yl~pa 1&#39;25 1
TI7 3vuOO3ELIaI 263
EL II 0 70-O/1c1 942
EIP?)zo7 4&#39;20
*ELpK&#39;t~ 497, 549

Page  255
IND ElX.25

2 5 5

610-13?70OE 466
EKULOTO/10O1O 406
Ey&#39;wS 1341
*c6 Lp3c 13.31
9KCOT~r7Top o/pecvw 85o, cf. 359
eK707r01 69
fKTpE&#39;rctv 799
Ad-rlq 38n., 110, 684, 742, 8i6,
954, io6i, 1064, 1095, 1110
*EarT1VO 1070,09
EXLK06po/IUOS 1067
fX~1170
f&#39;XKcEL 3pO&#39;Av 06 7 0.
W&#39;EXX-qvas 779
EXX6&#39;ELPrL 507 n.
AXXi~O/LtCP~ 722
cm, verbs compounded with, 507 fl.
cv, peculiar use, ~I 66
51&#39;cavXot 122
fvsvorTvXjo-al 5o8
E1STS 38,-r&&#39; III
lv~Ta rclapK&#39;Sl 746
*cvcppd5,/q 286
cvr7Xvoia Io n.
EYJ&#39;ov3 1270
*6gv:pao-c,;I5cL 1055
E4a1U1TcaVT0 131
E&#39;c~cacKXCVuOl 1&#39;295
e&#39;Ec301nkcv &#39;O&#39;s 1044
kecpy-yao-vwv 1243, I1245
67r 1~ctp-yao-AdPots 1039
&#39;4EcKavXwv3O&#39; 31
ELc/12JI&#39;C 36
&#39;6&#39;4EIuo)o-waev 825
4c~rpdca7c ii6r
O~cTJ pcvwv, 3,59, cf. 85o
*4c~batapvwov 7-68!c-qyoi3 i85
4107KO&#39;PTcuay 66.5
E41KV0OULct c. gen. io6o
EILXVEUW0 352, 817
*c&#39;oo-Lol51Tcw 70
*c476xws 1235
*c4vrer~c71cp 1266
onc E&#39;Xa~V&#39;wP roi3 epovc~v 85,3
*4ycogeLcvaL 814
&lrEZXe 11I31r

f~cwcfMqTcr 782
~7rcJevo-e 1349
cirl TOV&#39;TrY 397,
frlracuTO-/11 woXco-,ldL 919
f7r~p~olg 234
CPc60&#39;Ntv 148
&#39;EpuOPa&#39; 751I
CoU -ycl -Kog 710
g02-r&#39; d~ia 246
fo-T1JP1E 1083, cf. 972
e1T-r71oET ro1073
&1 306, 534
cie posiition Of, 49 n.
eva1ye11 662, c&#39;a-yo0lPra 1009
evaci&#39;ccw 68, I035
eV aPov~r Iv 343
&#39;c&a&#39; wp 6, 722, 902, 904, 911f,
123&#39;2, 1258
eVOAos wropes 737
*Cu&#39;O-qpoS 1253
*60dpOoos 11I58
eCios 157, 566, 579, 1167,rcXc-ra, c6~ovs 238
evtov PatcXELa-ros 6o8
EV&#39;Iwv &#39;PCOV 791
ekir~rop Xdpatv.74
*E6Kc4a-ros 66
*E6KeXa5oT I6o
vc6Koogicd&#39; 693
E*cIAcLoT Pc&#39;rv 1084
c6iucipctc 11i28
*ccop &#39;a 641
*cowdpOcPOT 520
*cUWXIKT0S 870
*66PUXOpOT 87
el&#39;,rper~s 844, 7V.?. in 440
c6rpo~ov ~y&#39;Nwooadv 268
ceq5xbrrcrcu (V. 1.) 778
9XovIo- 88, gxovocat 1091
N5r17la, ob PA 3ov, I1139
ij-XcLXaoP 1133
&#39;llVK-rPas 71lXas 780
*j~W6/X-lq-ro 14
77)gqbteo-~tdos (not in Tragedy) 6 i9 n.

I
II
II, j
I
I

Page  256
256

-BACCHAE.

2JAE BcIKXas 847
2lVa&#39;yKaITEv 469
hrw&#39;$TaTrog 86i
VoOe 631I
&#39;7OU-XaCELP 790
7)o-vXict 389
OVuXos 622, 636, 647, i1362
77vpe 1391
6aXa4Aats, oxot&#39;01, 9;
OaXq/LaL1 &#39;OXi&#39;/-rou 561
&#39;OaXd&#39;gevp~ca 120
OcaXEjJvV 7r1&#39;ol 692
6caXlawO-v 417
*06XV95PpOPES 404
Ocgw….(ov;ofgaC1 208, 209
64 v&#39;o l 49
&#39;Oe/JTkurcu1 79
OcoIuaXcdl 4,325, 1255
Olpan-va 1043
6ew~pla 1047
OeacaXc~I&#39; 0TOXdaa-lcacrtl 1205
O&#39;~8ait 105, 919
O7/3cacal xOo1&#39;6 66o, 961, 1043,
1,202; Oyj/icwv Xd6&#39;la i
*Oqx14lOPqO1 35;3
OIJXvI -ToXVv 8,28, 836, 852
OP~Ov O~Xuvk 796, S~xXos io~,8
O 3 2Xv oir &#39;p/Ja 35
07)P 436, 92,2
*607,pa-ypeu7r BaKX&v 10&#39;20
Oi~pct (O&#39;pua& v.i.) 869, 1171
O-Opcll&#39; KaLKm&#39; KaKOLI 839
OnOP67po(POS 102
O-qpoTpo&#39;pos 55
OtaGITE6ECLV 379
6tdcros 56 n, 115, 136, &#39;221, 532,
568, 584, 68o, 978, I i8o
*dcac-ff6l,r 548
Oo6~w 65, 2i9
Op C-rKEL 7rESLoY 874
6jUa~ Katrl j ca ocaC~ 1&#39;246
* U a001 224
06pace.331i
O&#39;po-os 25 n1, 8o, 188, &#39;240, &#39;254,
495, 554, 704, 711, 724, 76,2,

799, 941, 1054, 1141, 1386
Oupo-ous a1var7TeLV 176
Ovpcrovs 15)7115y 1099
O9vpo-m1 L~Xto-/Ae1aL 733
*OvP(O&#39;OOPcL1 5.57
OWfLEOaI, X&#39;Pt", 721
OWi"C-wiv 8 71
&#39;laKXOS 725
*i5Ua 471
Lep6&#39;s (always trisyllabic in Tragedy)
494 n.
i&#39;)TcL 421I
IO/J.171q;O 1 5
frrc 365
MC~I, in apposition, 919
(=6i-e) 1076, io8i
KcIXXXIVKOS 1147, ii6i
*KaXX11fl~p-yco-ro1 19
KcIXXI1-TTEUO/J.va 409
*KUXXI)tO11111v01 377
O TL stX6V&#39; OAOV ai 88 I, 901I
K64111T01 1E6K11/i.ITov 66
KupriLE1 408
*K1TaUKXoU2Oe-0 109
*K 1Ta I/3e ll 1 361;
K11Ta110X6VVEI 265, 3,28
KurK11A110T0 I I86
Ka1T11)7K0710 956, 98i;-i~ 8~38 -Ka.TaL)TLKTOV)1 6opltl 697
*KaTa/4)pOVEL 1 503, c. (ren. 199
*KaTa~/eUSOU KalX(~ 3,34
KalT61/Pryf1 509o, 6i.8
*KUTe.(cravs-o 698
*KaT?7vayKaO/dl&#39;PoT, 3cc-,uoLI, 643
Ka7TOaP6VTIa Matvac5wv V&#39;7r 12,26
7rp6T KdVTpa 1aKTL&#39;~E11P 795
CLS K64111 61/Ovu.e1&#39;Ot 743
K~p16VL&#39;Os 6, 93, &#39;244, 288, 594
*Kepav)1O/30o1o 598
KlEPKIS, T18, 2236
*K6pop/6pos 691
K27qbi71&#39; i365

Page  257
I

INDEX.

2 17

KLIc1/37X515115 475
K~atpdwv 6,2, 661, 751, 797, 945,
1142, 1177, 1219, 1292, 1384,
1385
KtIutcI~pEov Xlgrar 1045
KLOTLI&#39; 9AL/oAa 591
KLLO71P0U /3cLKrpov 363
K10LO-0L&#39;V1 #3Xcao-r?,aot 177
KLOILTI&#39;OVS 0crrE4bi&#39;POvS 702
KIOVwV 0GOipcv 71 1
K&~oo0-6 8r, io6, &#39;253, 323P 342,
1055
*KL~OupO &#39;205
K11T-r-q56pots bv OaXlas 384
KpaTa KLITITJJIaa 205
KXOV&#39; 5pCLOl/ io68
KO/laT171 10559
Ko/z7-ra&#39;eW 1207, 1233
K09O/T7O 461
K6pat, 1087, alio sensu 1089
Kopvfpavres 125
KoV&#39;pjTE1 120
K~uolrpOpcfov 0IE6I 4&#39;20
4KOve/a 8a~r-dva 893
*Kpa~rai~oXoY 1097
K/paT7Jp 2,22, 385
KpEI~aac0?rO 1&#39;240
Kphrq 1,21
*KpoTrwv i88
KpVVITTEVO-L) 888
KpuI//E1 *KpV&#39;/VIL 955
KvPA-q~ 79
KVKXo6-To io66
KUKJ&#39;OS 1365
KUvES 731, 977
Kv&#39;rpos 40,o2
KVP1d57-EpoS 505
KV~1P7-69 io66
KWpVKUIaL KoplIaLI.5.59
ad&#39;ucT0e 503
XaKrTL~etv 7rpbf KeP-rpc 79.5
X~caivc1 -yivos 990
Xft&#39;AcXKOS )SovcL~l 867
VeK~pw WI&#39; 9 PKECOTLI 958
XLEX~IMvP 11 0&#39;2
*Xeov7o~v7.jv 11i96
S. B.

XCUK7&#39;V XPoL&P 457
XE-VK6P KvXov&#39; 665
XCVK6V&#39;71-651 863
*XEUVK60p1t7 I 1,2
&#39;IeVKO-7T7Xeo&#39;L XcipWPY d&#39;K(uato-t 1206
XeVOIpUov 51K77S 356
NewY, 7rvptOAiywvu, 1019?dlcapog 144?X7ralPELP 575&#39;
*XtXA6v 698
*Xo-yX01ovotb v2o8
*Xo-yXwr6v PAiOS 761?VIXLOS 89, 94
*6XJ-Lfl 730, 957
Av&~iv 13, Ai&#39;3a 140, Av~la 464
AvUasi (se. Aom&as) 571
Xv/jxad1&#39;eITOaZL 354
)ukrovav 85 i
AV&#39;0o-97 KVJ&#39;VC 977
XU(-0$070s 981
XCOT6S i6o, 687
/L and /3 confounded 25 fl, 678 n.
/Aatl&#39;caOos 915
MaLwci&6 103, 6oi (here only applied to the chorus), 1052, 1107
Mavdksc &#39;224, 570, 1075
MatLva&wv 9,56, 981, io6o, 1062,
T14 3, 1 22 6
MaLV60at 5,2, Mawdco-tv 984
A~aKcap (fern.) 72
6c~aKdpWl&#39; 378, 13319,LAaXXoLsI 113
fLc1Vtc 305, A~avata1 331
*fro FL11iWo~r 299
/lcvrs 298
puclvrels attacked, p. 136
$1aVTLKi~ 299, 368
/caor~qp 986
/ke-ya VPEL 320
YLg6OfO6 45 1;iiXL 71 1,ieX40oo-a PgKrapL 143
*IuEra aWV 302
*/,I&#39;7p77frbs 1244
/h77p6s 96, &#39;243, 523
Atos JwqpqJ 287, iV FoIp4 At6s &#39;295
uay&s i8, 1356
&#39;7

j
4
I
I
I

Page  258
258

BA C CHA E.

*gu7a 1o8, 703
/lLTpa 833, 9W29 &#39; &#39;5
Modpat 99,u6vos…,L6JoS, 964
AJoo0XoQI 1185
IJ.9O-XOLT 7.36
tko0XWov 678, 1333
fUood-etos (E"pa) 410
va&#39;PO,7 113, 147, 2.51, 7o6, lris
P6/3P~ 24 n (add Hel. 1.360, KIO-0O0J
o-reqOdua1 XXo&&#39; VcApOl-lca cis
LIEPO&#39;s) iii, 137, &#39;249, 696
vqcp6I 866, VE/3OIJ 0TLKTO&#39;V UpaT
835
Vejc3pc &P&#39;S &#39;176
*VLK774yop6Z 11 47
vil/arzvo 767
v6Gwp, MVatvaL6wv, Io6o
1/OJEL 311r
lVvKTwP 469, 485, 486
Nvu~cv i&#39;6pv&#39;/.1a~ 951I
LNTdaY7) 556
o157~ pos 99&#39;2, 1012
~WyKv&#39;vayos 1146
vvd4&#39;at P3Xlapa 747
*pjvw1l0) 198
~vvcOP&#39;g 324
otd &4 291
olvw(r&#39;Tv &#39;YgVVP 43 8 (Phoen. i I6o).
oIVw~ro&#39; 236
olo-rp?7OcsI 119
oto-rpo~rM7 1,229
OIWV00OKo7re? 347
*6Xp3o66Tav 574
*6xIoa6Teypa 419
0/4L77poS 293
cb/.17p6O &#39;297
6O/LogOaJG1 1348
Trol7&#39;l5vjuov 671
6p&#39;YcL6SI 340, 445
BP-Yta 34, 78, 262, 470, 4&#39;71. 476,
48&#39;2, 998, 1o8o
*6p-yta&~ELP 415

6pOoZ; v. 7. ui 68
6pO66 (bis) 1073
*6pt-yvw70 1255
6pt6,p6puwz v. 1. 986
ctI opos (bis) i65, Is O&#39;Pos (bis) 987
&#39;Opq/J6s 56,2
&#39;Oo-L&#39;a 370
000011S 236, rr67, 1385 (io6oJ
00 &#39;YP dXXi 785
eV Ovb KaLtpC~ 1287
ob gOj, c. indic. fut., 343, 79
00 A.1 77 0E zo1 85 2
0061&#39;-iytlI 26,2
ovpavt&#39;os 1064
6&#39;SbEos io026, 1331
0pEo-t 698
*ral-y/Larat i6i
7ractlacyw-yl70W- 193
ob 7ra-c1&#39; 455
7ravI677/Jto0L r~-yats &#39;227
7rav87&#39;lIov 0-Tey7Iq 444
Hcaw6s 93pal 952
7rclpli X6,yov 940
7rclpc 0-ol 334
7rap&#39; 9,uO-YIE 401
2711paSoX~ 201
2rapcLKolrc Xq77/La~ 1000.7a&#39;K~O O/P~vWvv 33
*7TapalT raT&#39;gLOT 8 74
ctI 7rapaO-KEVJ77v 457
21apE1/.L C. aCC. 5
va~pet/Jl&#39;1a1 ucbga.1cLv 683
T-7apeitcl 635
* 7apoXereU&#39;Etv 479
W I -0 X EU T7 1 &#39;2 1 4
7ravoalXv7rov 6/surcov 772
7rE&1wp &#39;rordCTdOLS 749
7r1ov 10, 142, io65
711501 XOov6s 585
*2.1E560.1 137, 6oo
i7rp6s i7r4&S 6o5, 685
cis&#39; 711501 705
eis&#39; udXav 7rg~ov 755
7rg51k eV ralbTqJ 12,20
786
71111a 1090

Page  259
INDEX.

259

VLEV6ebs… 7dVOos 367
wr7rXos 935, 938
7r!7rXot Wo0&#39;pets 833
7rept… 3axxe 6i9
1JrCptOO6s 429, 1197, p. 172
7reptoopcL 1067
-7rlrtE 33 2
71E6K-1 146, 1052
76elKa1to- 307
7r l -og&#39; 9XIEL Kap3ica (c. acc.) 12,88
II16Pica 410, 565
7rtKp6&#39;S 357, 634
7rxa1Ka 307, 7r caKag 14
71xa,Kas, o-Te/s oipcwv, 718
7rXao-TacLO1 j~aKXCL actl 2 i8
7r6 7X-~6og 430
7rX0K1aj.40S 455, 494
&#39;o-v~op 7r6a 647
XPOPOU 7065a, 889
lrool~pOV A 0WOI1048
7roLKL&#39;Xa ~V-yt io56
7rotKtIX&.) 888
lroO&#39;Ev;465, 648
flOOS 414
7rcoLov 7wX~w,&#39; 456
-7rXt 1pos36.5
7r6Xt3 (land) 58
7T0XI.. 110TUv I7
*7roXU13o1Tpv 6 —
7rXv~oopc-o-tp 40
*oX6kpapog 1017
woX~s, 9XO5,,.300
7roXv&#39;XPvtog1 13
767Tpa 370, 7T6T1&#39;L0.720
7r o r t cx&#39;&cg 664.
*wpaos 436
7r11a& 428, Tralio 999
r~7rptrs 917
*wp013KXJ1E 413
7rp071-y?7T?7P 1159
EIS 7rp01 &#39; ~l.639, *7rpop &#39;Los 645
2Trp0oo-K~Va1 1283
wpl7ofe 511 676
7rpolarTv&#39;4E 1320
7rpoTret&#39;vw&#39; 2 38
wp6oacwtv, 1224
W077T77512 2 1,-l 551
TO TITq0b751 1268
c7rT761T7-a 21 4

7r-TvXaT (from 7rrvx-q), 6,2, 945
WTVXaL1 797, 1219
7rOp 758
7rvptX~ywv ioi8
7rv~po-wfl1q 146
jPaz~bPaa 295~ emn. (p. 144)
&#39;Pe&#39;a 59, 1&#39;28
raOpOS 487
laip&wzv co-,rv 463
IclTvpol 130
2~~X13, 376, 581, 597
0777K01 II
0otYlqIoe 1084
*%.Ktap &#39;KO/I1 876
O-KIpTaP 446, 0-Kt&#39;pT-qUCC 169
*0.KOXOII (?) 983
OKQOTLOI 610-op~t KVE&#39;1Pas 510
O-KVOPW7ro1s 1252
OUKVIAVOVJ X6K(Vws 699
0O0Lt/1ElgcOa 200
c0-00&#39;s 17-9, 428, 480, 65,5-6, r5 I
TOC006 c/0s203, 395, 1005
o-rapa-yf.uactv 739
arapawyjuO5 735
*owrap~yw&#39; 71o
o-raKrTO 1274
Ocrgv5ErtK (in double sense), &#39;284
o-7ov501 &#39;ro&#39;Taa0OaIo-Tr 91I3
a-raOEiLs 499
ULracltI 925
o-rEvog/a41 1372
crrepeucac 1363
o —iptvs o~c&#39;cpa, 972
To7oXIOIIT 936
4ITo/la ES~pr/ov 69
ao-T6Xao-jka 1 205
o-ro~ov 66o-nisov 1100
o-rpcuT-7XacIT& (c. dat.) 5,2
GT-V/AXos 1137
l-VyKFKX-?,7jl&#39;Pov 1300
*O-vTKCpauVOv0.a1 I 103
O-1)yKupa-yog 1146
0UVYKWO1tCS 1172
Or7&#39;XX-qV/tg p. 184 (687 n)
o-v/urewXc&#39;y/~cEa 8oo
*G-v/jq5uyd&#39;6C 1382

I
1
I

Page  260
2-60o

-BA CCHAE.

o-vvab~bw 5&#39;2
* oUvefaciXevU pos 7j26
OUvv~Xflv 392, 1308; O1JRoxos i6i
* olvvTrEOpl&#39;v&jTIaI 633
o-wretrg 3p6Auvpaa 872
ovv-T6v&#39;o11 &poa11/ ac o-L 1091..2udpias XL,3c&vov I44
Jopy/L1a 95,2
1-VaK-M1~o 1052
ow"oel r653&#39; 793
CO-cPOv"v 314, 3i6, 329, 1150,
&#39;34&#39;
0TwqOPOv&#39;WV 504
dawopovwg 686
Uw&#39;OPwv 504, 641, 1002
OrvoKPS 6&#39; 100
raos6i8, 743, 920, i017, 1159
~v 7-AXet 86o
7-deocap 100, T-e~xE el&#39;s 822
-reXerati 22, 73, 238, 260, 465
71-ap& Te1&#39;ol&#39;a 938
&#39;TIKTELt 2, 42
7W~vO-OOWP 553
TA~Xos.55, 65, 154, 462,
7-rpvos io67
*Tpa7/YOKTOPOS 139
Trpac/J7vaI 295
* pLacdvo 348
-rpif~wv Xo&#39;ywy 717 –rplyqK/oot 1,214
*TpLE7r-qpi~sE 133*
rptKOpuOCS 1 23
* Tpvc/epbsJ 150, rpvOaM 969
-rvyXa~vw 215
rut.47ravo&#39;o 59fl, i56
TrVralvl 59
T1v45O&#39;Aeva1 (c. acc.) 8
iV 8pets 14 p ELV &#39;247
6V3pu 6SpGoOelg 1297
O~P16LO?7V 1347
143p10T?71 113
WJyll&#39; ovl&#39;UV 26,2
MU5W-w? 71I n.
*rCe Kpt~op 678
VWrEpKII/UVL1S (in double sense) 963
v7r6, of a musical accompaniment,

*07rorwoEts, 7re1wy, 749
v carrrTat 778
*6,a6Xeva (Ad-rimv) io6i
O&#39;p/LaKOV &#39;28.3, 326
OaO-a 630
acrvat 510, 6i8
pOOovi 820, 1005
/boj~ep~g 868
*O1op13a1 i66
-OP&#39;EvdG-eTs 792!
OvXaK7-j 869
Ov6Xa~ 959
ep60-et 7COl11KOr 896
*xca/ji~~e 633
xaclIatareT&#39;s1 1111I
XdPIP 6OTOat 721
Xca ptTes 414
XaSpLTrL &#39;Aq~po6(T?7s 236
Xet/F4a 1903
Xec/~cP-pc vadinp7 1093
Xepgu4as *Kpar-atPO&#39;oxol 1096
XOl&#39;vtos 538, 541
**X-O7P?71 107
XP?117 p1ov Ao~~ov 13 3
3ap6v Xpo&#39;Pov iro&#39;k 889
*XPvGo0PP601 &#39;154
*XpvoGC7ja 06pa-ov 553
XWPIS 241, 1137, 1-210
4/aXXecLv 784.
1,t6ytl 712
1,1/1y01 es &#39;EXX77pas 7 79
*&Kv~pS/y0s 873
*wKvpoas 568
WKUTIJI l090
WZX6Xu~v 689
LSW14ooLToL 338
W/Io)ac-YOV Xa&#39;ptp &#39;39
qgUCOy)1&#39;V0v I1285
cjawILl4& a5 687
cwpav, iv~ Tre2-ayIAdvrn, 724
Ws io68
Ws 67&#39;7 224
c0-rp?70-a 3 2
*(LXP&#39;s 438

Page  261
h~&#39;~~- ~: I~`~V FBrP:l

SUPPLEMENTARY ENGLISH INDEX,
MAINLY TO THE INTRODUCTION AND NOTES.
Roman numerals, and all arabic numerals preceded by p., refer to the
PAGES of the book. All other figures refer to the lines of the play,
with the notes upon them.

ABSTRACT qualities personified,
370, 414
Accusative: cognate, 8, p. I34; in
apposition, 9, 29, 129, I39, 250,
IIor, II39, I232; of closer
definition, 226; of motion to,
847; of transition over, 308,
873; after transitive phrase,
1288
Acheron, I361
Acts of the Apostles, pp. 98, 163,
I93 (l. 794)
adjective for objective genitive,
139
adjectives compounded with -Ko0OS,
875
Aegae, xxxviii, p. 176
Aelian, 711
Aeschylus, xxiv ff.; Edoni xxiv;
460 n, 833 n; Aesch. and Euripides, xxv; 726n, 977 n.
Agave in ancient art, 1140; lost
speech of, I329 n.
Alexander the Great, quotes Bacchae, 266
amentum, 1205
anachronism, I7
apposition, 981, 996; to implied
sense, 1132; acc. in, 9, 29,
129, 139, 250, IIO1, 1139, 1232
Apsines, 1329 n
Archelaus, xxxiv ff., pp. I60, I75
(565 n)
Aristophanes, lxviii, Ixxv; sure
Euripides, xxxiii, lxiii, p. 128,
638 n, 889 (p. 199), 987

Aristotle, Ix, lxiii, p. 138, 1ooa n;
quotes Bacchae, 813
Arnobius, p. 188
article omitted, 916
asides, 960
Athenaeus quotes I 127 in pp. 186
D, and 344 A
Attius quoted, 35,273, 307 (p 148),
439, 453, 579, 667, 695, 699,
982, 1185, I268
augment omitted, 767, 1084, 1134
(see also Curtius, Greek Verb I
p. I39)
Axius, xxxvii, 569
Bacchae, cast of, xliv, 1153;
choral odes of, lxvi; fame of,
lxxxii; lacuna in, lxv, 1. I329;
the messengers&#39; speeches, lxvii;
purpose of, lxxiii
Badham, 235, 270, 86i
Browning, R., p. I58, p. I6I
bryony, p. I
Budua, 1333
Burges, G., 451, I329 &c.
bull, Dionysiac, ioo, 920, 1017
Calderon, lxviii
Callimachus quotes Bacchae, 494
Callistratus, 234, 739
Catullus quoted, 33, 59, 102, 472,
5o6, 739
Christus Patiens, lxxxv, xci, p. 80;
notes on I6, 22, 46, 55, 143,
I50, I78, 7I6, 776, 778, I048,
io65, io68, 1083-5, o190,

Page  262
262

BA CCHAE.

I096, ri5I, 1213, 1237, 1329,
I344
Cithaeron, 38,66I-2; personified,
1384; scenery of, 1048, I051
Clemens Alexandrinus, lxxxiv,
102, 470, 918
Cleophon, p. I39
Colvin, Prof., lxxiv, xciv
compound verb followed by simple, o065
conclusion common to several
plays, 1388
conditional sentence, 612, 1343
conjunctive, 341
convolvulus, p. I i
Corybantes in ancient art, I25 n.
Crassus, lxxxiii, 1169
Curetes and Corybantes confounded, 2zo
Cyprus, 406
dative of hostile direction, 200; of
place, 123
Delphi, xiv; 306 (pp. 147-8), p.
172,1. I336
Dionysius II, Ixxxii
Dionysus, his transformations,
xiv, 100, 920, 0 oi7; in ancient
art, c-civ, 100, 920, II07;
in literature, xix-xxxiii; legend of, ix-xviii; in love with
peace, 419; martial god,p. 46;
oracular god, p. 145; Zagreus,
p. II9
double sense, 963, 964, 971, 972,
I380
dual and singular combined, 843 n.
Eleusinian mysteries, 72, 902
emendations suggested, 126 (p.
II6), 135 (P. II7), 147 (p. 122),
209 (p. I30), 25I (p. 135), 278
(p. 140), 327 (p. I51), 550 (p.
172), 1002 (p. 207), I00oo8 (p.
208), I157 (p. 223), I207 (p. 226),
1365 (p. 237)
emphatic position, 272-3; repetition, 963, 987
inallage, 866

Encheleis, 1334
epithet repeated, 1073
euphemism, 227
Euripides, his relations to ancient
art, xcv; Dante&#39;s mention of,
lxxxv; his death, xl; his etymologising, p. 141-2; Hiipol.
lxxi, Ixxx, p. I28, p. I50; Iph.
in Aul. 560 (p. 174), 955; in
Macedonia xxxiii if., lxxxii; his
philosophy, lxxiv; Medea, xxxiii,
835 (p. 49); attitude envers
Greek mythology, p. 127; sure
peace, p. I6I; reiteration of
words, 987; allusions to sculpture, p. 172, xcvi; to painting,
xcvii
fawnskin, 24, III, 695
fennel, ferula, I 13
flute, 160, 687, xx
future middle in passive sense,
588
Gellius, I93
genitive of exclamation, 263; of
object aimed at, o096, 1 o10
giants and Titans, p. 172
goat sacrificed to Dionysus, I38
(P. 119)
Goethe, lxviii, lxxxvi
Gray, p. I60
hair, consecrated, 493; long, 455 n
Homeric hymn, vii, xx
Homeric words in Attic poets,
I267
Horace, Too,, 2, 141, 42, 59I,
1017 (p. 209), 1140; refers to
Bacchae, 492
human sacrifice, p. II9
Humboldt&#39;s Cosmos, 1043, lxix
hyperbaton, 1348
Iliad VI 129 ff., translated, xix
imperfect and aorist, contrasted,
p. 192
interrogatives, direct and indirect,
intermingled, 358 n.

Page  263
SUPPLEMENVTARY INDEX.

263

irony, 263, 326, 968, lxii
ivy, 8
Jebb, R. C., quoted, lxxxvi, p. 141,
p. 222
King, C. W., cxv, cxxv, cxxxix,
cxliii, &c.
law of homicide, I371
Leake, quoted, p. 211, p. 213
Lessing, xcix, cxxxii
Lewis, S. S., cxxv, cxliv
Liddell and Scott, corrections suggested, I07 (p. III), I09, 131,
297, 888, 986 (p. 59)
limiting epithets, 25, 1104
linen and cotton, 821 n.
Lobeck&#39;s Aglaoiphamus, 72, 120,
lxxvi
local colouring, 38, 684, 1064,
1229
Longinus, 726
Lovelace, 625
Lucian quotes Bacchae, 386, 918,? 29?, Ixxxiv
Lydias, xxxviii, 571
Macaulay, lxxxvii
Macedonia, horses of, 574; rivers
of, xxxvii, 569-575
Madvig, 754 n (p. 190), 1056, 1131,
I387
maenads in ancient art, cii ff.
Mahaffy, Prof., lxxvi, p. 163
Milman, Dean, xxix, lxxxvii, 925
Michaelis, A., cxxii, cxxiv
Milton, lxxxv; Comus, I88 (p.
126), 234, 314 (p. I49); emendations by, i88, 282 (p. 140),
59I; quoted, 5o0, 1019, 1113,
1330
Mure&#39;s Tour, quoted, 519, 1048
mythology, p. 127, xi
Naevius, p. 162, 476 (p. i66),
594, 679, 695, 736, 794
neuter pl. adj. for adv., 157

Nile, p. I59, 1. 57r n.
Nonnus, 25, 251 (p. 135), 506,
695, 699, 706-710, 754, 761 -4, 822, 833, 985, 1017 (p. 209),
1125, 1136, 1213
Nysa, x, 556 n.
oaks (of Cithaeron), IIo, 685,
703, 1229
Olympias, xl, civ, 102 n
Olympus, 409
optative, 1255
Orpheus, p. I74
Ovid, I 29
Pactolus, 15r n.
Paley, F. A., 60, p. I i, &c.
Pan and nymphs, 951, p. I74
panther in art, 1017, cxxiii.
Parnassus, p. 148, p. 173-4, xiv
pauses in acting, 929, I269
Pella, p. xxxviii, p. 175
Pentheus in works of art, cviicxiii, 1. 982
Philostratus quoted, 3, 1136, 1185,
1300, I330
picturesque (the) in Greek tragedy,
lxx
Pieria, xxxvii, p. I60, p. 175
(565 n)
Pindar, xxii, 75
schema Pindaricum 1350
Plato and Aristippus, p. 149
Plato&#39;s Phaedrus, p. 127; references to Bacchae, 142, 836;
Gorgias, p. xxxiv
plays on words, p. 155
Plutarch&#39;s quotations of Euripides,
8, 203, 299; Crassus, quoted,
1169
Polyaenus, II69
Praxiteles, p. 132, c
present of vivid description, 2,
242
proleptic epithet, 69, 126, I83;
word, 1055
prologue, I
Propertiusd,quoted, 35,68o
purpose of the play, lxxiii

Page  264
264

BA CCHAE.

rationalising, p. I27
redundancy ofexpression, 53, 1206,
1254
Reid, J. S., emendations, 135,
663, 790, 816, 965, 1157
refrain, 877, 897
repose in tragedy, Ixviii f.
rhetorical effect, II 13
Savage, H. E., 1308
Schlegel on the Bacchae, lxxxvi
Scopas, p. 119, I88 n, ci
Semele, in ancient art, p. 88; her
monument, 6
sense-construction, 1288
serpents, Dionysiac, in ancient
art, 102
Servius, correction suggested, p.
179 adfin.
Sextus Empiricus, 918
Shakespeare, 33, 66, 625, 888
(p. 199), lxix
Shelley, lxx
Shilleto&#39;s Adversaria, &c., 59, 8i,
97, 270-I, 337, 485, 494, 671,
779, 786, 990, 1020, 1026, I140,
1214, 1254, 1257, 1259, 1295,
i3&#39;7, I343
Shuckburgh, E. S., 314
smilax aspera, 107
similes suggested by handicraft,
Io67 n
singular and plural combined, 669,
819, IIo6
Socrates, xxxiii-v, p. 127
soma, xiii
Sophocles, p. xxix ff.; Ant. i I5
-52, translated, xxxi
soothsayers in small repute, p.
I36
stichomythia, 929, i269
Stobaeus, extracts from Bacchae,
270 (p. 139), 314, 386 (p. 157)

Strabo, quotes lines 55, 73 —8,
I20 —I34
subject changed, 1124
swans, I365
synizesis, 373, 998
tautology, 53
Tennyson, p. 57
tertiary predicate, 650, 775
theatre of Dionysus, xxiii, ci, cxvi
Thebes personified, o05
Theocritus, 229, 472, 990, 998,
1009, 1125
Theognis, 288, 88i
Thompson, Dr W. H. 135, 286,
406 (p. I59), 981, 982, Iooi,
1002, 1007
thyrsus, 25; as a missile, p. 148
tmesis, 6r9
torch attached to narthex, p. 12 I
Tozer, quoted, xxxviii, p. 174
tribrach in a single word, 18, 731
Tyrrell, R. Y., 25, 71, 1o6o, Io66,
p. I42, &c.
vase-paintings, cv ff.
Virgil, quoted, 13I, 176, 743, 748,
757, 918
Vodhena, xxxviii, p. 175
Warburton, 72
Wecklein, N., xii, xxvii, xliv, xlvi,
p. 207, &c.
wool, use of in sacred rites, 112
Wordsworth, W., quoted, p. 130
Wordsworth, Chr., Athens and
Attica, 38, 1213
Wyse, Sir Thomas, quoted, 780,
1093
yew, p. rII
Zeuxis, p. xxxvi

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