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Sunless tanning, also known as UV tanning, spray tan, spray tanning (when it is applied locally), or fake tan, refers to the effect of a tan without the sun. The popularity of sunless tanning has increased since the 1960s after health officials confirmed the links between UV exposure (from the sun or tanning beds) and the incidence of skin cancer.
Since the sunscreen absorbs ultraviolet light and prevents it from reaching the skin, it will prevent tanning. It has been reported that a sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 8 based on the UVB spectrum can reduce the synthesis capacity of vitamin D by 95%, while a sunscreen with a SPF of 15 can reduce the synthesis capacity by 98%.(2)
A safe and effective method of sunless tanning is the consumption of some carotenoids(3)(4)(5) Antioxidants present in certain fruits and vegetables, such as carrots and tomatoes, may cause changes in the color of the skin when they are ingested chronically and / or in large quantities. Carotenoids are durable. In addition, carotenoids have been associated with a more attractive complexion (defined as a more golden skin color) than tanning.(6) Carotenes also perform the function of melanin by absorbing UV rays and protecting the skin.(seven) For example, they are concentrated in the macula of the eye to protect the retina from damage. They are used in plants both to protect the chlorophyll from damage caused by light and to harvest light directly.(8)
Carotenemia (xanthemia) is the presence in the blood of the yellow carotene pigment resulting from excessive ingestion of carrots or other vegetables containing the pigment, resulting in an increase in the number of serum carotenoids. This may result in subsequent yellow-orange discoloration (xanthoderma or carotenoderma) and subsequent deposition in the outermost skin layer. Carotenemia and carotenoderma are in themselves harmless and require no treatment. In primary carotenoderma, when the use of large amounts of carotene is interrupted, the skin color becomes normal again. However, it can take several months.(citation required)
Lycopene is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of beta-carotene and xanthophylls.
Lycopene is perhaps the most potent carotenoid extinguisher of singlet oxygen.(9)
Because of its bright color and nontoxicity, lycopene is a useful dietary dye (registered as E160d) and is approved for use in the United States,(ten) Australia and New Zealand (registered as 160d)(11) and the EU.(12)
Sunless tanning tablets often contain β-carotene. The American Cancer Society has stated that "Although the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved some of these additives to color foods, they are not approved for use in tanning agents" . In addition, "they can be harmful at high concentrations used in tanning tablets".(13)
High and chronic doses of synthetic β-carotene supplements have been associated with an increased rate of lung cancer in smokers.(14)
Canthaxanthin is most often used as a color additive in certain foods. Although the FDA has approved the use of canthaxanthin in foods, it does not approve of its use as a tanning agent. When it is used as a dye additive, very small amounts of canthaxanthin are needed. As a tanning agent, however, much larger amounts are used. After consumption of canthaxanthin, it is deposited throughout the body, including the layer of fat under the skin, which turns an orange-brown color. These types of tanning tablets have been associated with various side effects, including hepatitis and retinopathy to canthaxanthin, a condition characterized by the formation of yellow deposits in the retina of the eye. Other adverse effects, including lesions of the digestive system and the skin surface, have also been observed.(citation required) The FDA withdrew its authorization to use canthaxanthin as a tanning agent and issued warnings regarding its use.(15)
DHA (dihydroxyacetone, also called glycerone) is not a dye, dye or paint, but causes a chemical reaction with the amino acids of the dead layer on the surface of the skin. One of the pathways is a Maillard reaction induced by free radicals.(16)(17) The other way is the classic Maillard reaction, a process well known to food chemists that causes browning that occurs during the manufacture and storage of food. It is not about the pigmentation of the underlying skin nor exposure to ultraviolet light to initiate the color change. However, according to a 2007 study by Katinka Jung of the Berlin Gematria Test Lab, the skin is particularly sensitive to ultraviolet light for 24 hours following the application of the self-tanner.(18) Forty minutes after the researchers treated skin samples containing high concentrations of DHA, they found that over 180% more free radicals formed during sun exposure compared to untreated skin. Another self-tanning ingredient, erythrulose, caused a similar response at high concentrations. For a day after applying the self-tanner, avoid excessive sun exposure and wear sunscreen on the outside, they say; an antioxidant cream could also reduce the production of free radicals. Although some self-tanners contain sunscreen, its effect will not last long after application and a false tan will not protect the skin from UV rays.
The study by Jung et al. further confirms previous results demonstrating that dihydroxyacetone in combination with dimethylisosorbide enhances the tanning process (sun-based). This earlier study also found that dihydroxyacetone also had a deleterious effect on amino acids and nucleic acids, which was detrimental to the skin.(19)
Free radicals are due to the action of UV rays on AGEs (advanced glycation products) resulting from the reaction of DHA with skin and intermediate products, such as Amadori products (a type of drug). AGE), who train them. EFAs cause skin damage caused by hyperglycemia in diabetes, where glycation is similar.(20) AGE absorbs and protects a little of the harmful factors of UV (up to SPF 3),(21)(22) However, they do not have the extended electronic structure of melanin that dissipates energy, so part of it serves to trigger free radical chain reactions, to which other AGEs participate easily. The tanner improves the damage caused by free radicals.(18)
Although some self-tanners contain sunscreen, its effect will not last as long as tanning. The indicated FPS only applies a few hours after the application. Despite the darkening of the skin, a person is still sensitive to UV rays; therefore, global sun protection is still essential.(23) There may also be some inhibition of vitamin D production on DHA-treated skin.(24)
The color effect is temporary and gradually fades over 3 to 10 days. Some of these products also use erythrulose, which acts identically to DHA, but grows more slowly. DHA and erythrulose have been known to cause contact dermatitis.
Professional tanning spray applications are available in spas, salons and gyms, both by hand sprayers and in the form of sunless or UV-free spray booths. Aerosol tanning applications are also available via online distribution channels and are widely available for purchase for home use.(25) The closed cabin, which looks like a closed shower stall, vaporizes the tanning solution all over the body. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that, when using products containing DHA in total spray or fog in a commercial "tanning" booth, it may be difficult to avoid exposure for which DHA is not approved, including the area of the eyes, lips or mucous membranes, or even inside. DHA is not approved by the FDA for inhalation.(25)
An opinion(26) published by the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, concluding that DHA spray tanning was safe, has been strongly criticized by specialists.(27) Indeed, the European cosmetics industry chose the evidence to examine, according to the commission itself. Thus, almost all of the reports to which the Commission's opinion referred were from never published or peer-reviewed studies and, in the majority of cases, were conducted by companies or groups in the sector related to the manufacture of DHA. The industry has left out almost all peer-reviewed studies published in publicly available scientific journals that identified DHA as a potential mutagen. A study by scientists from the Department of Dermatology at Bispebjerg Hospital, published in Mutation Research, concluded that DHA "induces DNA damage, cell cycle blockage, and apoptosis" in cells. culture.(28)
A new class of compounds has been found to stimulate melanogenesis in an independent mechanism of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC) -melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) activation.1 receiver). This is accomplished via a small molecule inhibiting salt-inducible kinases (SIKs). The inhibition of SIK increases the transcription of MITF, known to increase melanin production. Work published in June 2017 demonstrated that compounds were effective when applied locally to human skin.(29) These compounds are, however, still in the preclinical stage of development. Future directions could include the incorporation of SIK inhibitor compounds with conventional UV blocking sunscreens to minimize UV-related DNA damage in the short term while providing long-term protection through the production of UV light. endogenous melanin.
Tanning Accelerators – Lotions or Pills(15) which usually contain the amino acid tyrosine – claim that they stimulate and increase the formation of melanin, thus accelerating the tanning process. These are used in conjunction with UV exposure. At the present time, there is no scientific data available to support these claims.
Melanotan peptide hormones(edit)
The role of the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in the diffusion of melanin has been known since the 1960s.(30) In the 1980s, scientists from the University of Arizona began trying to develop α-MSH and its analogues as potential tanning agents without sun, and then synthesized and tested several analogues , including afamelanotide, then called melanotan-I.(31)
Melanotan-I was licensed by Competitive Technologies, a technology transfer company operating on behalf of the University of Arizona, to an Australian startup called Epitan,(32)(31) who changed his name to Clinuvel in 2006.(33)
A number of products are sold online, in gyms and beauty salons under the name "melanotan" or "melanotan-1", which deal with afamelanotide in its marketing.(34)(35)(36)
The products are not legal in any jurisdiction and are dangerous.(37)(38)(39)(40)
Starting in 2007, health agencies in different counties began issuing warnings against their use.(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)
Other stimulants of melanogenesis(edit)
Eicosanoids, retinoids, estrogens, melanocyte-stimulating hormones, endothelins, psoralens, hydantoin, forskolin, cholera toxin, isobutylmethylxanthine, diacylglycerol analogues and UV irradiation trigger melanogenesis and in turn, pigmentation.
Tanners are a temporary tanning or tanning option without sun. These come in powders, sprays, mousses, gels, lotions and moisturizers. Once applied, they create a tan that can easily be removed with soap and water. Like makeup, these products tint or dye a person's skin until it is washed.
They are often used for tanning "one day" or to complete a sunless tan based on DHA. Many formulations are available and some have limited resistance to sweat or water. If applied under clothing, or where the edges of fabric and skin meet, most will create a slight, but visible, erasure. The dark clothes prevent the rubbing from getting noticed. Although these products are much safer than tanning beds, the color produced can sometimes appear orange and stained if applied incorrectly.
A recent trend is that of lotions or moisturizers containing a progressive tanning agent. A slight increase in color is generally observable after the first use, but the color continues to darken as the product is used.
The tanning airbrush is a spray on the tan made by a professional. An airbrush tan can last from five to ten days and fades when the skin is washed. It is used for special occasions or to get a quick dark tan. Airbrush tanning kits and aerosol mists are also available.
Tanners usually contain sunscreen. However, when avobenzone is irradiated by UVA rays, it generates a triplet excited state in the keto form that can cause degradation of avobenzone or transfer energy to biological targets and cause deleterious effects.(47)
Light has been shown to degrade significantly, resulting in less protection over time.(48)(49)(50) The UV-A rays in a sunny day in a temperate climate are enough to decompose most of the compound. It is important to continue to wear the SPF in self-tanning, as the self-tanner is usually a dummy and temporary tan, and your skin is still sensitive to the sun.(citation required)
According to a study conducted in 2007 by Katinka Jung, if a sunscreen containing avobenzone is applied to the tanner, the photosensitizing effect amplifies the damage of free radicals favored by DHA because it can render the skin particularly sensitive to the damage of the free radicals of the sun. of the Gematria test laboratory in Berlin.(18) Forty minutes after treating skin samples with 20% DHA, the researchers found that over 180% of additional free radicals formed during sun exposure compared to untreated skin.
A toxicologist and lung specialist from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (Dr. Rey Panettieri) said, "The reason I am worried is that the deposition of tanning agents in the lungs could actually facilitate or facilitate systemic absorption – only getting into the bloodstream.These compounds in certain cells could actually promote the development of cancers or malignancies, and if that is the case, we need to be wary of it. "(51) A study by scientists from the Department of Dermatology at Bispebjerg Hospital, published in Mutation Research, concluded that DHA "induces DNA damage, cell cycle blockage, and apoptosis" in cells. culture.(28)
Many self-tanners use chemical scents that can cause skin allergies or trigger asthma. In addition, some of them contain parabens. Parabens are preservatives that can affect the endocrine system.(52)
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