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The researchers have developed a new test that identifies the individuals most likely to have adverse health effects if they eat a lot of salt. This new test and a second study showing that the ketogenic diet improves the symptoms of diabetes were presented today at the 71st The annual AACC scientific meeting and clinical laboratory show could also allow people to transform their health through dietary changes.
In recent years, many conflicting dietary recommendations have been published, leaving the public puzzled over what is truly healthy to eat. The American Heart Association recommends an ideal maximum salt intake of 1.5 g / day for adults to prevent high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. However, in 2013, the Institute of Medicine ruled against reducing sodium levels below 2.3 g / day. So which organization is correct? The answer depends on the genetically determined salt sensitivity of an individual. 14% of Americans are sensitive to salt, which means that too much salt increases their risk of cardiovascular disease. However, 11% of Americans are sensitive to salt and paradoxically have high blood pressure with insufficient salt intake.
Previously, the only way to determine salt sensitivity was to place a patient on a strict 2-week salt-restricted diet. A faster and more practical test was developed by a team of researchers led by Kwabena Sarpong, PhD, of the University of Virginia's School of Medicine in Charlottesville. This new test determines salt sensitivity by measuring the patient's dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) recruitment, which plays a key role in the dissemination of salt by the kidneys.
To validate this test, the Sarpong team used controlled changes in dietary salt to identify a group of salt-sensitive individuals and a second control group of salt-resistant individuals whose blood pressure did not fluctuate significantly in response to changes in sodium intake. From the urine of the participants, the researchers then isolated renal cells known as renal tubular cells of the kidney (RPTC). The Sarpong team exposed the RPTCs to salt and observed how many D1R cells mobilized in response. Salt-sensitive individuals had the least amount of D1Recruitment R, salt-resistant individuals had a moderate D1Recruitment of R and individuals sensitive to reverse salt had a high D1Recruitment R.
"If you know that you are sensitive to salt, you can control this disease through lifestyle modifications or therapeutic interventions," Sarpong said. "But if you do not know your salt sensitivity index, you could potentially reduce your lifespan by almost 20 years, so it will be extremely beneficial to understand salt sensitivity and develop robust tools to diagnose it."
The ketogenic diet (keto) is another health trend on which the views of experts differ. Developed almost 100 years ago to treat drug-resistant epilepsy, this extremely low carbohydrate diet has gained popularity because of its weight loss accelerator reputation. Experts point out that very little evidence indicates that the keto diet is effective in the long run for anything but the management of epilepsy but some research suggests that this diet could help with other conditions. medical conditions such as diabetes.
Researchers at CARE hospitals in Visakhapatnam, India, have shown that the keto diet reduces blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, which reinforces the latter theory. Under the direction of Kanchana Lakshmi Prasanna Angati, researchers recruited 115 Indians with type 2 diabetes to follow the keto diet for 3 months. At the beginning of the study, participants' average blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, which reflect blood glucose, were 169 mg / dL and 7.8%, respectively. By the end of the study, mean blood glucose and HbA1c levels had decreased for 110 participants, to 137 mg / dL and 6.43%, respectively.
The three-month ketogenic diet has resulted in a remarkable reduction in HbA1c levels and a dramatic improvement in the symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes. This finding is particularly important for diabetic patients in India because, along with the Indian diet , carbohydrates are consumed in the morning, afternoon and evening and we want to encourage them and advise them to change their eating habits. "
Kanchana Lakshmi Prasanna Angati, MD