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mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), also known as purple mangosteen,(1) is a tropical evergreen tree with edible fruits native to the Southeast Asian island. Its exact origins are unknown because of its widespread culture since ancient times, but it is thought that it was somewhere between the Sunda Islands and the Maluku Islands.(2) It grows mainly in Southeast Asia, southwestern India and other tropical regions such as Colombia, Puerto Rico and Florida.(2)(3)(4) where the tree was introduced. The tree reaches a height of 6 to 25 m (19.7 to 82.0 ft).(2) The fruit of the mangosteen fruit is sweet and tart, juicy, a little fibrous, with vesicles filled with liquid (like citrus flesh), with a crust of dark purple red color (exocarp) inedible.(2)(3) In each fruit, the fragrant edible flesh that surrounds each seed is botanically an endocarp, that is, the inner layer of the ovary.(5)(6) The seeds are almond-shaped and small in size.
Mangosteen belongs to the same genus as other lesser-known fruits, such as the button mangosteen (G. prainiana) or charichuelo (G. madruno).
Mangosteen is a plant native to Southeast Asia. Highly appreciated for its juicy and delicate texture and slightly sweet and sour flavor, mangosteen is grown since ancient times in Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Southeast Asia and the Philippines. Yingya Shenglan, a fifteenth-century Chinese record, describes the mangosteen as mang-chi-shih (derived from the Malay language manggis), a plant native to Southeast Asia, with white flesh and delicious sweet and sour taste.(seven)
A description of the mangosteen was included in the Plantarum species Linnaeus in 1753. Mangosteen was introduced to English greenhouses in 1855.(8) Subsequently, its cultivation was introduced in the Western Hemisphere, where it was established in the West Indies, particularly in Jamaica. It was then established in the Americas, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama and Ecuador. The mangosteen tree does not grow well outside the tropics.
There is a legend about Queen Victoria offering a £ 100 reward to anyone who could offer fresh fruit.(3)(9) Although this legend may be attributed to a 1930 publication of the Fruit Explorer, David Fairchild,(1) it is not supported by any known historical document, but is probably responsible for the unusual designation of the mangosteen fruit as "queen of fruits".(9)
The journalist and gourmet RW Apple, Jr. once said about the fruit: "No other fruit, for me, is as thrilling, so delicious … I prefer to eat one that a hot sundae fudge which, for a big boy from Ohio, says a lot. "(ten) Since 2006, private orders for small volumes of fruit grown in Puerto Rico have been sold to American specialty stores and American gourmet restaurants, which serve the flesh segments as a refined dessert.(1)(3)
Propagation, culture and harvest(edit)
The mangosteen is usually propagated by seedlings.(2)(11) Vegetative propagation is difficult and seedlings are more robust and fructify earlier than vegetatively propagated plants.(2)(11)
Mangosteen produces a recalcitrant seed that is not a true seed in the strict sense but is described as an asexual nucellar embryo.(2)(9)(11) Because seed formation does not require sexual fertilization, the seedling is genetically identical to the parent plant.(2)(11) If allowed to dry, a seed dies quickly, but if soaked, germination takes between 14 and 21 days when the plant can be kept in a nursery for about 2 years and grow in a small pot.(11)
When the trees are about 25-30 cm (10-12 in.), They are transplanted to the field at a distance of 20-40 m (66-131 ft).(2)(11) After planting, the field is mulched to control weeds.(2)(12) Transplantation takes place during the rainy season because young trees may be damaged by drought.(2)(11) Because young trees need shade,(2)(12) intercropping with banana, plantain, rambutan, durian or coconut leaves is effective.(2)(11) Coconut palms are mainly used in areas where the dry season is long, as palms also provide shade for mature mangosteen trees.(2)(11) Another advantage of intercropping in mangosteen culture is weed control.(2)(12)
Tree growth is delayed if the temperature is below 20 ° C (68 ° F). The ideal temperature range for growing and producing fruit is 25-35 ° C (77-95 ° F).(13) with relative humidity above 80%.(12) The maximum temperature is 38-40 ° C (100-104 ° F), leaves and fruits can be burned or burned by the sun.(12)(13) while the minimum temperature is 3-5 ° C (37-41 ° F).(13) Young plants prefer a high shade level and mature trees are shade tolerant.(13)
Mangosteen have a weak root system and prefer deep, well-drained soils that are rich in moisture and often grow along riverbanks.(12) Mangosteen is not suitable for calcareous, sandy, alluvial or sandy soils with low organic matter content.(13)(14) The mangosteens need a well – distributed rainfall over the year (<40 mm / month) and a dry season of 3 to 5 weeks.(13)
Mangosans are sensitive to the availability of water and fertilizer, which increases with the age of trees, regardless of the region.(2)(12) The maturation of the mangosteen takes 5 to 6 months, the harvest taking place when the pericarp are purple.(2)(9)
In the selection of perennial mangosteen, rootstock selection and grafting are important issues in overcoming production, harvesting or seasonality constraints.(2) Most genetic resources for reproduction are in collections of genetic material, while some wildlife species are grown in Malaysia and the Philippines.(2)(11) Conservation methods are chosen because seed storage under dry, low-temperature conditions has not been successful.(2)
Because of the long time required for trees to produce fruit and the resulting long reproductive cycles, selection of the mangosteen fruit has not proven to be attractive for transplantation or research.(2)(15) The objectives of improvement that can improve the production of mangosteen include:(15)
- Tolerance to drought, especially drought sensitivity in the first 5 years after germination
- Tree architecture to produce a tree with a regular and pyramid-shaped crown
- Fruit quality, in particular: i) elimination of bitter taste components caused by changes in the pulp, pericarp or aril and ii) cracking of the pericarp resulting from excessive absorption of fruit. water
- Rootstock for better adaptation to drought and robust development in the early years of growth
The mangosteens can reach their fruits between 5 and 6 years, but more generally between 8 and 10 years.(2)(9) The yield of the mangosteen is variable, depending on the climate and age of the tree.(2) If the young tree is for the first time, 200 to 300 fruits can be produced, while at maturity, 500 fruits per season are on average.(2) Between the ages of 30 and 45, at full maturity, each tree can produce up to 3,000 fruits, and 100-year-old trees still produce.(2)
Most of the production of mangosteen is concentrated in Southeast Asia, mainly Thailand, which has the largest planted area, estimated at 4000 ha in 1965.(2) and 11,000 ha in 2000, for a total yield of 46,000 tonnes.(11) Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines are other major Asian producers.(11) Mangosteen production in Puerto Rico succeeds,(1)(3)(9) but despite decades of attempts, no significant production is produced elsewhere in the Caribbean islands, South America, Florida, California, Hawaii or any other continent other than Asia.(2)
Diseases and pests(edit)
Common diseases and pests(edit)
Pathogens that attack mangosteen are common in other tropical trees. Diseases can be divided into diseases transmitted by leaves, fruits, stems and soil.(16)
Leaf blight caused by Pestalotiopsis (Pestalotiopsis flagisettula (identified only in Thailand)) is one of the diseases that particularly infect young leaves.(16) In addition, the pathogen causes fruit rot before and after harvest.(16) Stem canker and dieback are caused by the pathogen.(16) Some of the symptoms of stem canker are division of branches, gummosis and blistering.(16) Thailand, Malaysia and northern Queensland are the main countries where the disease has been observed.(16)
Another common disease is mildew or burning of white wire (Marasmiellus scandens) while the name comes from the mycelium that looks like thread.(16) Leaves, twigs and branches can also be damaged by the disease.(16) The spores spread with the help of wind, raindrops and insects, and thrive in wet, wet, and wet conditions.(16)
A significant post-harvest disease affecting mangosteen, especially in Thailand, is called Diplodia fruit rot (Diplodia theobromae) which, as a secondary pathogen, enters the host plant through wounds.(16)
Phellinus noxius life on the roots and bases of the trunk causes brown root disease, a name derived from the appearance of mycelium-binding soil particles.(16) The distribution of the fungus occurs by contact with infected wood or thick rhizomorphs on the stumps.(16)
Some pests feeding on the leaves and fruits of mangosteen, including the leaf eater (Stictoptères sp.), leaf miner (Phyllocnictis citrella) and fruit moths (Curculio sp.).(11) Especially in nurseries, the larval stage of the leaf eater can cause visible damage to young leaves, but can be managed by biological control agents.(11) The larval stage of the fruit moth (Curculio sp.) feeds on different parts of the fruit before ripening.(11)
Measures to control diseases and pests(edit)
Different management options can be applied to control mangosteen diseases.(11)(16)
Tree and fruit(edit)
A tropical tree, mangosteen must be grown under conditions of constant heat, as exposure to temperatures below 0 ° C (32 ° F) for extended periods usually kills a mature plant. It is known that they recover quite well from brief periods of cold, often with damage only in young shoots. Experienced horticulturists have grown this species outdoors and brought it to fruition in the extreme south of Florida.(3)
The juvenile mangosteen, which does not require fertilization (see agamospermia), first appears as pale green or almost white in the shade of the canopy. As the fruit grows in the next two to three months, the color of the exocarp turns to darker green. During this period, the fruit grows until its exocarp reaches an outer diameter of 6 to 8 centimeters (2.4 to 3.1 inches) and remains firm until the last stage of abrupt ripening.
The underground chemistry of mangosteen exocarp includes a set of polyphenols, including xanthones and tannins, that provide astringency that discourages infestation by insects, fungi, plant viruses, bacteria, and animals. the fruit is immature. The color changes and softening of the exocarp are natural processes of ripening that indicate that the fruit can be eaten and that the seeds have finished growing.(17)
Once the developing mangosteen has stopped spreading, the chlorophyll synthesis slows down at the beginning of the next color phase. First streaked with red, the pigmentation of the exocarp goes from green to red to dark purple, indicating a final stage of ripening. The whole process takes place over a period of ten days when the edible quality of the fruit reaches its peak.
During the days following tree removal, the exocarp hardens to some extent depending on postharvest handling and storage conditions, including relative humidity. If the ambient humidity is high, hardening of the exocarp may take a week or more when the quality of the flesh is maximum and be excellent for consumption. However, after several days of additional storage, especially if they are not refrigerated, the flesh inside the fruit could spoil without obvious external indications. The use of the hardness of the rind as an indicator of freshness during the first two weeks following the harvest is therefore unreliable because the rind does not accurately reveal the inner state of the flesh. If the exocarp is tender and brings back as it is when it is ripe and fresh out of the tree, the fruit is usually good.(9)
The edible endocarp of mangosteen has the same shape and size as a mandarin of 4-6 centimeters in diameter, but is white.(9) The number of fruit segments corresponds exactly to the number of stigma lobes on the outer vertex;(2)(9) as a result, a higher number of fleshy segments also corresponds to at least seeds.(2) The circle of wedge-shaped segments contains 4-8, rarely 9 segments,(9) the larger ones harboring apomictic seeds that are unpleasant unless they are roasted.(2) As a non-climacteric fruit, a picked mangosteen does not ripen any longer and must be consumed shortly after harvest.(1)(9)
Often described as a subtle delicacy,(1) the flesh has an exceptionally mild aroma, containing quantitatively about 1 / 400th of the chemical constituents of the fragrant fruits, explaining its relative softness.(18) The main volatile components with hints of caramel, herb and butter in the mangosteen fragrance are hexyl acetate, hexenol and a-copaene.
The endocarp is the white part of the fruit containing a sweet flavor that makes it popular to be eaten.(3)(9) However, when analyzed specifically for its essential nutrient content, the mangosteen's nutrition is modest, as all the nutrients analyzed represent a small percentage of the baseline nutrient intake (see Canned fruit in syrup table). , USDA Nutrient Database, note that the nutritional values of fresh fruits are probably different, but have not been published by a reputable source).(9)(19)
Due to import restrictions, the mangosteen is not readily available in some countries. Although they are available in Australia and New Zealand, for example, they are still rare in the fruit and vegetable aisles of grocery stores in North America.(1) After being exported from its natural growing regions in Southeast Asia, fresh fruit may be available seasonally in some local markets, such as Chinatowns.(3)
Mangosans are available canned and frozen in Western countries. Without fumigation or irradiation (in order to kill the Asian fruit fly), it was illegal to import fresh mangosteens to the United States until 2007.(20) One can also find mangosteen flesh freeze-dried and dehydrated.
Upon arrival in the United States in 2007, fresh mangosteens sold for up to $ 60 a pound in New York specialty stores, but higher availability and slightly lower prices became common in the United States. and in Canada.(4) Despite the efforts described above to grow mangosteen in the Western Hemisphere, almost all of the supply is imported from Thailand.(21)
Before ripening, the mangosteen shell is fibrous and firm, but becomes soft and easy to open when the fruit matures. To open a mangosteen, the shell can be sawed with a knife, gently held along the saw with the thumbs until it cracks and then spread to reveal the fruit.(9) Alternatively, the mangosteen can be opened without a knife by squeezing the shell from below until it breaks, allowing the shell to be removed and eating the fruit intact with the stem.(22) Sometimes when peeling ripe fruit, purple exocarp juice may stain skin or tissue. In Vietnam, ripe fruit is also used as an ingredient in salad.(23)
Various parts of the plant have already been used in traditional medicine, mainly in Southeast Asia; it may have been used to treat skin infections, wounds, dysentery, urinary tract infections and gastrointestinal disorders,(2)(24) although there is no high quality clinical evidence of these effects.
The dried fruits are shipped to Singapore for medical treatment, which may include dysentery, skin disorders and various other minor diseases in several Asian countries.(2) There is no reliable evidence that mangosteen juice, puree, bark or extracts are effective in the treatment of human diseases.(25)(26)
Mangosteen bark extract is traditionally used in Indonesia as a source of natural dye for textile dyeing; acquire brown, dark brown, purple to red hues, especially in traditional tenun ikat and batik textiles.(27)
Mangosteen twigs were used as chewing sticks in Ghana, and the wood was used for making spears and cupboards in Thailand. The skin of the mangosteen has also been used to tan leather in China.
The mangosteen bark contains xanthonoids, such as mangostin, and other phytochemicals.(24)
Polysaccharide and xanthone compounds are found in the fruits, leaves and heartwood of the mangosteen fruit.(24) Ripe fruits contain xanthones, garthanin, 8-deoxyga- tanine and normangostine.(2)
Fresh mangosteen is marketed only for a short period of six to ten weeks because of its seasonal nature.(4)(11) It is mainly grown by small farmers and sold on fruit stalls along the roads. Its irregular and reduced supply causes large price fluctuations throughout the season and years.(3)(28) In addition, there is no standard system for assessing product quality or grading, which makes international fruit trade difficult.(11) Mangosteen is still rare in Western markets, although its popularity is increasing and it is often sold at a high price.(4)(29)
- Stone D (May 26, 2016). "Meet the mangosteen". The plaque. National Geographic. recovered June 2 2016.
- Morton JF (1987). "Mangosteen". Fruits of warm climates. Purdue University. pp. 301-304. recovered December 4th 2012.
- Karp D (August 9, 2006). "Forbidden, not the mangosteen". The New York Times. recovered May 22 2010.
- Karp D (August 8, 2007). "The mangosteens are coming, but be ready to pay". The New York Times. recovered May 22 2010.
- Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The Plant Book: A Portable Dictionary of Vascular Plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- "Garcinia mangostana (Clusiaceae) "Montoso Gardens. recovered December 4th 2012.
- Ma H, Feng C, Mills JV. Ying-yai Sheng-lan: "The whole survey of the coast of the ocean" (1433). p. 92. recovered May 2 2015.
- "Mangosteen". Encyclopædia Britannica. recovered May 2 2015.
- Crown I (2014). "Science: Information on the mangosteen". Mangoustan.com. The mangosteen website.
- Apple RW (Sept. 24, 2003). "Fruit forbidden: Something about a mangosteen". New York Times. recovered June 13 2012.
- bin Osman, Mohamad (2006). Mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L. Southampton, United Kingdom: University of Southampton. ISBN 0854328173.
- Yaacob O, Tindall HD (1995). Mangosteen culture. Rome: United Nations Organization for Food and Agriculture. ISBN 92-5-103459-1.
- Diczbalis Y (2011). "Agricultural and forestry production and marketing for mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)". Elevitch C.R.
- Paull RE, Duarte O (2012). mangosteen. Science of crop production in horticulture.
- Te-chato S, Lim M (2005). "7.1 Garcinia mangostana Mangosteen". In Litz RE (ed.). Biotechnology of fruit and nut crops. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.
- Lim TK, Sangchote S (2003). "16 diseases on the mangosteen". In Ploetz RC (ed.). Diseases of tropical fruit crops. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.
- Simon PW (May 26, 1996). "Vegetable pigments for color and nutrition". US Department of Agriculture, republished from HortScience 32 (1): 12-13, 1997.
- AJ MacLeod, NM Pieris. Volatile flavoring components of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana" phytochemistry 21: 117-9, 1982
- "Mangosteen, box of canned syrup, per 100 g". NutritionData.com. Conde Nast. 2012. recovered May 31st 2013.
- Karp D (June 27, 2007). "Welcome to the border: Thai fruits, once banned". The New York Times. recovered May 22 2010.
- "Market potential for mangosteen and salaaca" (PDF). United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. recovered December 4th 2014.
- "How to open a mangosteen". Thailand Breeze. 2014. recovered March 11, 2017.
- "Mangosteen salad". Binh Duong Government. January 1, 2017. recovered April 9 2019.
- Obolskiy D, Pischel I, Siriwatanametanon N, Heinrich M (August 2009). "Garcinia mangostana L.: a phytochemical and pharmacological review". Herbal research. 23 (8): 1047-105. doi: 10.1002 / ptr.2730. PMID 19172667.
- "The mangosteen uses". WebMD. 2016. recovered September 18 2016.
- Gross P, Crown I (May 21, 2009). "The controversy over the mangosteens". New Hope Network. recovered January 4th 2010.
- Kusumawati, Nita; Santoso, Agus Budi; Sianita, Maria Monica; Muslim, Supari (2017). "Extraction, characterization and application of natural dyes from fresh mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) peel". International Journal of Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technologies. seven (3): 878. doi: 10.18517 / ijaseit.7.3.1014. recovered 2019-02-28.
- "Price of mangosteen too low: farmers". The nation. July 31, 2007. Archived from the original September 21, 2012. recovered December 4th 2012.
- Temple-West P (March 5, 2008). "Tropical sweetness: exploit the elusive mangosteen". Medill Reports. Archived from the original on January 10, 2010. recovered December 4th 2012.