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Researchers from the University of Poznan in western Poland reported on these effects in a study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports NutritionA flawless stay. The study was published online last week.
A ketogenic diet is a diet in which the majority of calories come from fat, with a lower protein fraction and very little carbohydrate.
Keto diets associated with metabolic and cognitive effects
The researchers noted that the ketogenic diet had been studied for the first time in the 1930s as a potential treatment for epilepsy and more recently associated with positive effects on weight loss; insulin, diabetes and hypertension.
In addition, one of the major components of many diets and ketogenic products, coconut oil, has been associated with neuroprotective effects through its ketone content. Dr. Mary Newport, MD, has extensively documented the effects of coconut oil supplementation on the progression of Alzheimer's disease of her deceased husband. Her cognitive findings have increased significantly with the intervention, which she attributed to the ketones of coconut oil provided to the brain as an alternative fuel to glucose, based on research showing reduced glucose utilization in the brains of the brain. people with Alzheimer's.
The theory underlying the diet is that, despite the high consumption of exogenous fats, because of the scarcity of glucose circulating in the blood, the body is forced to convert mainly to hot fat, which leads to a lower accumulation of fat. endogenous fat. It has also been postulated that the diet would have performance enhancing effects, due to the way it modifies the molecular mechanisms of cell signaling.
"Activation of these signaling pathways may result in a significant increase in physical capacity and exercise capacity, for example by stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis, capillarization, regeneration processes and, in particular, effective use of the lipid energy substrate,"Poznan researchers wrote.
To test this hypothesis, researchers recruited 30 adult CrossFit participants who were actively training in two clubs in Poznan. The criteria were 18 to 40 years old and trained at least four times a week. CrossFit is an increasingly popular workout program that features fast, short, high-powered activity, as well as weight training and plyometrics.
Use of energy tested in the oxygen consumption range
After basic measurements, participants adopted the ketogenic eating style for four weeks. The ketogenic diets provided about the same calorie intake as those consumed by the subjects. The diets included 15% protein in the form of meat, fish and dairy products and 75% fat in the form of coconut, rapeseed and olive oils, butter and nuts. The remaining 5% consisted of carbohydrates.
In the initial test, subjects performed an incremental cycle test, in which resistance was increased at intervals until exhaustion in order to measure changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max). Blood was also collected and urine samples were taken to determine if and how subjects changed their energy use. The subjects did another cycling test while they were following a ketogenic diet.
The researchers found that about 20% of participants did not fit well in diet and had dropped out of school for reasons of sleepiness and irritability, rather than because of disorders. gastrointestinal. Four men and two women gave up for these reasons, and one man and one woman gave up because of injury.
The researchers found that among the remaining 22 participants, they all used a certain amount of energy to burn more fat. But only men showed statistically significant changes in this direction in all VO2 max ranges, whereas for women, this change was significant at only about 65% VO2 max, which is equivalent to moderate effort. hard, but durable.
Querying keto support for short-term sports
Some coaches have postulated that an increased use of fat could be beneficial for athletes practicing endurance sports, such as long distance cycling or running, in which muscle glycogen stores could be completely exhausted. This is the source of the somewhat outdated notion of "hitting the wall", according to which the body moves towards burning fat stores to refuel.
The idea that the use of fat could increase performance in short-burst sports, such as sprinting, American football or CrossFit, is less well accepted, which the authors noted in their conclusion.
"The data presented on metabolic adaptation to KD (ketogenic diet) suggests that CrossFit athletes can effectively adapt to training in a wide range of training intensities, but depending on gender. However, these observations should be made with caution, because in practice, metabolic adaptation may not support physical performance, particularly in high intensity disciplines such as CrossFit.They noted.
Source:A flawless stay Journal of the International Society of Sports NutritionA flawless stay
Effect of a four-week ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism in athletes trained by CrossFitA flawless stay
April 5, 2019; 16 (1): 16. doi: 10.1186 / s12970-019-0284-9
Authors: Durkalec-Michalski K, PM Nowaczyk, Siedzik K